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The concurrent record-breaking rainfall over Northwest India and North China in September 2021

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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant NO. 42105064), the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) program (Grant NO. 2019QZKK0102) and China Meteorological Administration program (Grant NO. CXFZ2021J030).


doi:  10.1007/s00376-022-2187-y

  • Extremely heavy rainfall occurred over both Northwest India and North China in September 2021. The precipitation anomalies were 4.1 and 6.2 times interannual standard deviation and broke the record since the observational data were available, i.e., 1901 and 1951, respectively. In this month, the Asian upper-tropospheric westerly jet extremely displaced poleward over West Asia, and correspondingly, an anomalous cyclone appeared over India. The anomalous cyclone transported abundant water vapor into Northwest India, leading to the heavy rainfall over there. In addition, the Silk Road pattern, a teleconnection pattern over the Eurasian continent and fueled by the heavy rainfall in Northwest India, contributed to the heavy rainfall in North China. Our study emphasizes the roles of atmospheric teleconnection patterns in concurrent rainfall extremes in the remote regions, and the occurrence of rainfall extremes during the post- or pre-monsoon in the northern margins of monsoon regions.
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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 04 July 2022
Manuscript revised: 19 September 2022
Manuscript accepted: 27 September 2022
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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The concurrent record-breaking rainfall over Northwest India and North China in September 2021

Abstract: Extremely heavy rainfall occurred over both Northwest India and North China in September 2021. The precipitation anomalies were 4.1 and 6.2 times interannual standard deviation and broke the record since the observational data were available, i.e., 1901 and 1951, respectively. In this month, the Asian upper-tropospheric westerly jet extremely displaced poleward over West Asia, and correspondingly, an anomalous cyclone appeared over India. The anomalous cyclone transported abundant water vapor into Northwest India, leading to the heavy rainfall over there. In addition, the Silk Road pattern, a teleconnection pattern over the Eurasian continent and fueled by the heavy rainfall in Northwest India, contributed to the heavy rainfall in North China. Our study emphasizes the roles of atmospheric teleconnection patterns in concurrent rainfall extremes in the remote regions, and the occurrence of rainfall extremes during the post- or pre-monsoon in the northern margins of monsoon regions.

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