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Convective Asymmetries Associated with Tropical Cyclone Landfall: beta-Plane Simulations


doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9086-3

  • The physical processes associated with changes in the convective structure of an idealized tropical cyclone (TC) during landfall on a beta-plane were studied using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University--National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model, version 3 (MM5). The simulation results suggested that the suppression of moisture supply and increased friction acted to enhance the convection from the left and front quadrants of the TC to the front and right of the TC during different periods of landfall. When surface moisture flux was turned off, convection in other parts of the quadrant was clearly suppressed and the total rainfall was reduced. When surface friction was increased, precipitation showed a marked increase after the TC made landfall. Wetter air at low and intermediate levels, and drier air at high levels around the onshore side of the coastline led to a high value of convective available potential energy (CAPE). Consequently, convection was enhanced immediately downstream of this area when the surface moisture flux was cut off. When surface friction was increased, the physical process was similar prior to landfall. After landfall, increased convergence at the onshore side of the land resulted in enhanced convection in front of the TC. Consistent with previous findings, our results suggest that during landfall the TC structure changes from one of thermodynamic symmetry to asymmetry due to differential moisture flux between the land and sea surface. The asymmetry of the thermodynamic structure, which can be explained by the distribution of CAPE, causes an asymmetric rainfall structure.
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    [2] K. C. SZETO, Johnny C. L. CHAN, 2010: Structural Changes of a Tropical Cyclone during Landfall: β-plane Simulations, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 1143-1150.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9136-x
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    [6] QIN Xiaohao, MU Mu, 2014: Can Adaptive Observations Improve Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts?, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 31, 252-262.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-3008-0
    [7] HUANG Hong, JIANG Yongqiang, CHEN Zhongyi, LUO Jian, WANG Xuezhong, 2014: Effect of Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Instability on the Evolution of Spiral Bands, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 31, 1090-1100.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-3108-5
    [8] YUE Caijun, GAO Shouting, LIU Lu, LI Xiaofan, 2015: A Diagnostic Study of the Asymmetric Distribution of Rainfall during the Landfall of Typhoon Haitang (2005), ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 1419-1430.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-4246-0
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    [13] Yue JIANG, Liguang WU, Haikun ZHAO, Xingyang ZHOU, Qingyuan LIU, 2020: Azimuthal Variations of the Convective-scale Structure in a Simulated Tropical Cyclone Principal Rainband, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 37, 1239-1255.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-020-9248-x
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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 July 2010
Manuscript revised: 10 July 2010
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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Convective Asymmetries Associated with Tropical Cyclone Landfall: beta-Plane Simulations

  • 1. Shanghai Typhoon Institute, China Meteorological Administration, 166 Puxi Road, Shanghai 200030 and Shanghai Typhoon Institute, China Meteorological Administration, 166 Puxi Road, Shanghai 200030

Abstract: The physical processes associated with changes in the convective structure of an idealized tropical cyclone (TC) during landfall on a beta-plane were studied using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University--National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model, version 3 (MM5). The simulation results suggested that the suppression of moisture supply and increased friction acted to enhance the convection from the left and front quadrants of the TC to the front and right of the TC during different periods of landfall. When surface moisture flux was turned off, convection in other parts of the quadrant was clearly suppressed and the total rainfall was reduced. When surface friction was increased, precipitation showed a marked increase after the TC made landfall. Wetter air at low and intermediate levels, and drier air at high levels around the onshore side of the coastline led to a high value of convective available potential energy (CAPE). Consequently, convection was enhanced immediately downstream of this area when the surface moisture flux was cut off. When surface friction was increased, the physical process was similar prior to landfall. After landfall, increased convergence at the onshore side of the land resulted in enhanced convection in front of the TC. Consistent with previous findings, our results suggest that during landfall the TC structure changes from one of thermodynamic symmetry to asymmetry due to differential moisture flux between the land and sea surface. The asymmetry of the thermodynamic structure, which can be explained by the distribution of CAPE, causes an asymmetric rainfall structure.

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