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登陆热带气旋在鄱阳湖区的活动特征及原因分析

麦子 李英 魏娜

麦子, 李英, 魏娜. 登陆热带气旋在鄱阳湖区的活动特征及原因分析[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(2): 385-394. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1605.16129
引用本文: 麦子, 李英, 魏娜. 登陆热带气旋在鄱阳湖区的活动特征及原因分析[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(2): 385-394. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1605.16129
Zi Mai, Ying LI, Na Wei. Characteristics of Landfalling Tropical Cyclone Activities over the Poyang Lake Basin and Mechanisms Analysis[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(2): 385-394. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1605.16129
Citation: Zi Mai, Ying LI, Na Wei. Characteristics of Landfalling Tropical Cyclone Activities over the Poyang Lake Basin and Mechanisms Analysis[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(2): 385-394. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1605.16129

登陆热带气旋在鄱阳湖区的活动特征及原因分析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1605.16129
基金项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目 2015CB452804

国家自然科学基金项目 41175063

国家自然科学基金项目 41475055

国家自然科学基金项目 41275066

详细信息
    作者简介:

    麦子, 女, 1991年出生, 硕士研究生, 主要从事热带气旋研究。E-mail:maizi0421@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李英, E-mail:liying@camscma.cn

  • 中图分类号: P458

Characteristics of Landfalling Tropical Cyclone Activities over the Poyang Lake Basin and Mechanisms Analysis

Funds: 

National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) 2015CB452804

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41175063

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41475055

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41275066

  • 摘要: 鄱阳湖流域是受登陆热带气旋(简称TC)影响最为频繁的内陆地区之一。利用中国气象局热带气旋年鉴资料、地面观测资料、中国气象局一日两次的常规探空资料以及NCEP/NCAR一日四次的2.5°×2.5°再分析资料,研究了过鄱阳湖TC的活动特征及其影响。首先统计1949~2012年进入鄱阳湖区域61个TC的活动特征发现,平均而言进入鄱阳湖地区的TC具有移速减慢,强度衰减变缓及降水增幅特征。大尺度环流场分析表明,登陆进入鄱阳湖区的TC处于太平洋副热带高压和东亚大陆高压之间的鞍形场中,引导气流减弱,水平风垂直切变减小,有利于其移速减慢、衰减减缓以及降水累计。几个典型TC个例的观测分析发现,TC降水降低了鄱阳湖区浅层土壤温度和低层大气温度及其日较差,但增加了土壤和空气湿度。鄱阳湖区域下垫面较高的地面热量有利于TC维持。而湖区对流有效位能在TC进入后明显降低,说明TC触发了该区域对流有效位能释放,有利于其降水增幅。
  • 图  1  1949~2012年61个经过鄱阳湖区域 (红色方框) 的热带气旋 (简称TC) 路径图,绿色阴影显示地形高度 (单位:m),蓝色阴影显示水体分布,红色方框内实心圆点显示此区域15个地面观测站点,其中红色圆点为探空站点

    Figure  1.  The tracks of 61 TCs (Tropical Cyclones) passing though Poyang Lake area (red box) during the period of 1949-2012. Green shading shows the distribution of topography (units: m) and blue shading shows water bodies. Solid dots indicate surface-based observational stations, and red dots indicate stations for sounding observation

    图  2  经过鄱阳湖地区TC的 (a) 平均中心最低气压 (实线;单位:hPa) 和最大风速 (虚线;单位:m s−1)、(b) 移速 (单位:km h−1) 随时间的演变以及 (c) 平均移速和 (d) 过程累计降水 (单位:mm) 的空间分布。(a、b) 中横坐标0为进入湖区的第一时刻,负值进入前,正值为进入后

    Figure  2.  Time series of (a) averaged TC central sea level pressure (solid line, units: hPa) and surface maximum wind (dashed line, units: m s−1), and (b) TC moving speed (units: km h−1) when TC passed though the Poyang Lake (0 h indicates the time TC entered the area shown by red box in Fig. 1); and the distribution of (c) averaged TC moving speed and (d) accumulated rainfall (units: mm)

    图  3  61个台风在鄱阳湖区域 (黑色虚线方框) 时期平均500 hPa (a) 环流 (实线为高度场,单位:dagpm;箭头为风矢量,单位:m s−1) 和 (b) 引导气流 (单位:km h−1) 以及 (c)200~850 hPa纬向风垂直切变 (单位:m s−1)

    Figure  3.  The distribution of averaged (a) 500-hPa geopotential height (contours, units: dagpm) and winds (vectors, units: m s−1), (b) 500 hPa steering flow (km/h), and (c) 200-850 hPa vertical wind shear (units: m s−1) when the 61 TC passed though the Poyang Lake area

    图  4  (a) 云娜 (Rananim)、(b) 海棠 (Haitang)、(c) 桑美 (Saomai) 和 (d) 凤凰 (Fungwong) 的陆上路径 (红色实线) 和累计降水 (阴影,单位:mm)

    Figure  4.  Tracks (red lines) and accumulated rainfall (shaded, mm) of (a) TC Rananim, (b) TC Haitang, (c) TC Saomai, and (d) TC Fungwong over land

    图  5  各TC活动期间鄱阳湖区域15个站点平均的各下垫面物理量随时间的变化:(a) 地面气温 (黑线) 和露点温度 (红线),单位:℃;(b)0~10 cm和10~200 cm土壤水容量;(c) 各层土壤温度 (单位:℃);(d) 降水量 (单位:mm)。图中竖虚线之间为TC中心在鄱阳湖区的时段

    Figure  5.  Time series of (a) surface air temperature (black line, units: ℃) and dew point temperature (red line, units: ℃), (b) 0-10 cm and 10-200 cm soil water content, (c) soil temperature (units: ℃), and (d) rainfall (units: mm) averaged over the 15 observational stations under the influence of TCs. The periods between blue dashed lines indicate those when TC centers were located at the Poyang Lake area

    图  6  四个TC进入鄱阳湖区域 (红色方框) 前 (左列)、后 (中间列)24 h平均 (a、b、c) 地面感热、(d、e、f) 潜热和 (g、h、i) 总热量分布以及进入后、前热量差异 (右列)。单位:J g−1

    Figure  6.  Distributions of 24-h averaged (a, b, c) surface sensible heat fluxes, (d, e, f) latent heat fluxes, and (g, h, i) the total heat fluxes before (left column) and after (middle column) the four TCs entered the Poyang Lake area (shown by red box), and their differences (right column, middle minus left). Units: J g−1

    图  7  (a) Rananim、(b) Haitang、(c) Saomai和 (d) Fungwong影响下南昌 (Nanchang)、邵武 (Shaowu)、安庆 (Anqing) 以及武汉 (Wuhan) 探空站 (图 1红色点位置) 对流有效位能 (单位:J kg−1) 的时间变化 (图中竖虚线之间为TC中心在鄱阳湖区的时段)

    Figure  7.  Time series of CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy; units: J kg−1) observed at Nanchang, Shaowu, Anqing, and Wuhan sounding stations (red dots in Fig. 1) under the influences of (a) Rananim, (b) Haitang, (c) Saomai, (d) Fungwong. The periods between blue dashed lines indicate those when the TC center was located at the Poyang Lake area

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-02-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2016-05-16
  • 刊出日期:  2017-03-15

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