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面向资料同化的风廓线雷达风场特征分析及其质控方法

王叶红 张伟 赵玉春

王叶红, 张伟, 赵玉春. 2021. 面向资料同化的风廓线雷达风场特征分析及其质控方法[J]. 大气科学, 45(1): 123−147 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19216
引用本文: 王叶红, 张伟, 赵玉春. 2021. 面向资料同化的风廓线雷达风场特征分析及其质控方法[J]. 大气科学, 45(1): 123−147 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19216
WANG Yehong, ZHANG Wei, ZHAO Yuchun. 2021. Analysis of Wind Characteristics of Wind-Profiler Radars and Their Quality Control Methods for Data Assimilation [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(1): 123−147 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19216
Citation: WANG Yehong, ZHANG Wei, ZHAO Yuchun. 2021. Analysis of Wind Characteristics of Wind-Profiler Radars and Their Quality Control Methods for Data Assimilation [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(1): 123−147 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19216

面向资料同化的风廓线雷达风场特征分析及其质控方法

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19216
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41405106、41675047,厦门市科技惠民计划项目3502Z20174052,福建省气象局开放式课题研究基金项目2020K08,高原与盆地暴雨旱涝灾害四川省重点实验室开放研究基金项目SZKT201803,大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室开放课题
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王叶红,女,1974年出生,研究员,主要从事资料同化和中尺度数值模拟研究。E-mail: 278403168@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P413

Analysis of Wind Characteristics of Wind-Profiler Radars and Their Quality Control Methods for Data Assimilation

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41405106, 41675047), People-Benefited Scientific and Technological Program of Xiamen City (Grant 3502Z20174052), Open Research Programme of Fujian Meteorological Bureau (Grant 2020K08), Open Research Programme of Heavy Rain and Drought-Flood Disasters in Plateau and Basin Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province (Grant SZKT201803), Open Research Programme of State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
  • 摘要: 以美国国家环境预报中心全球预报系统(National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Global Forecast System,NCEP/GFS)0.5°×0.5°分析场作为数值预报背景场,结合地面降水资料,面向资料同化分析了2017年1~12月逐日00时、06时、12时、18时(协调世界时)福建12部L波段风廓线雷达(其中CFL-03系列3部、CFL-06系列9部)水平风产品质量特征,并初步探讨了不同质量控制方案的影响差异。结果表明:(1)CFL-06系列雷达在水平风的最大探测高度、有效数据获取率和低层水平风质量等方面明显优于CFL-03系列;(2)相同系列的不同风廓线雷达探测水平风的数据获取率、有效探测高度、标准差、相关系数及偏差的垂直分布特征等存在极大差异,该差异与风廓线雷达所处的地理位置(沿海或内陆)、海拔高度等并无直接关系;(3)各雷达站探测u风速相对背景场存在明显系统性负偏差,小于背景场,不满足资料同化对背景场的无偏需求,资料同化时需进行偏差订正;v风则相对较好;(4)降水对风廓线雷达探测影响较大,有降水时数据获取率在中低层有所减小,但在中高层则大幅提高;uv风标准差在中低层有所增加,而在中高层v风标准差有所增加,u风标准差则大幅降低;(5)针对不同风廓线雷达,提出了不同高可信度区间和不同有效探测高度两种质量控制方案,并与固定有效探测高度方案进行了对比,结果表明,这两种质量控制方案皆具有明显优势。不同高可信度区间方案的质量控制效果更为显著,不同雷达站水平测风数据得到更加充分和有效识别,既减少了雷达资料不必要损失,又可将质量差的数据进一步剔除;该方案在有降水情形下也有较好效果。
  • 图  1  福建省风廓线雷达站点分布(WYS、YA、FQ、JO、LY、WP、JN、LC、DH、PT、PH、XA分别代表武夷山、永安、福清、建瓯、罗源、武平、建宁、连城、德化、平潭、平和、翔安,数字为各风廓线雷达站海拔高度)

    Figure  1.  Locations of wind-profiler radars in Fujian Province (WYS, YA, FQ, JO, LY, WP, JN, LC, DH, PT, PH, and XA indicate wind-profiler radars in Wuyishan, Yongan, Fuqing, Jianou, Luoyuan, Wuping, Jianning, Liancheng, Dehua, Pingtan, Pinghe, and Xiang’an, respectively. The values in meters indicate the altitudes)

    图  2  福建风廓线雷达水平风数据获取率

    Figure  2.  Availability of horizontal winds detected by wind-profiler radars in Fujian Province

    图  3  风廓线雷达u风速(uo)与GFS背景场(ub)散点分布

    Figure  3.  Scatterplots of u-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars (uo) against GFS background (ub)

    图  4  风廓线雷达v风速(vo)与GFS背景场(vb)散点分布

    Figure  4.  Scatterplots of v-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars (vo) against GFS background (vb)

    图  5  风廓线雷达u风速(uo)与GFS背景场(ub)偏差垂直分布

    Figure  5.  Vertical distributions of u-wind speed bias of wind-profiler radar products (uo) against GFS background (ub)

    图  6  风廓线雷达v风速(vo)与GFS背景场(vb)偏差垂直分布

    Figure  6.  Vertical distributions of v-wind speed bias of wind-profiler radar products (vo) against GFS background (vb)

    图  7  风廓线雷达u风速(uo)与GFS背景场(ub)差值的概率密度分布

    Figure  7.  Probability density distributions (PDF) of differences between u-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars (uo) and GFS background (ub)

    图  8  风廓线雷达v风速(vo)与GFS背景场(vb)差值的概率密度分布

    Figure  8.  Probability density distributions of differences between v-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars (vo) and GFS background (vb)

    图  9  风廓线雷达u风速与GFS背景场相关系数(实线)与标准差(虚线,单位: 10 m s−1)的垂直分布

    Figure  9.  Vertical distributions of standard deviations (dashed line, units: 10 m s−1) and correlations (solid line) between u-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars and GFS background

    图  10  风廓线雷达v风速与GFS背景场相关系数(实线)与标准差(虚线,单位: 10 m s−1)的垂直分布

    Figure  10.  Vertical distributions of standard deviations (dashed line, units: 10 m s−1) and correlations (solid line) between v-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars and GFS background

    图  11  风廓线雷达有降水(实线)、无降水(虚线)情形下水平风数据获取率

    Figure  11.  Availability of horizontal winds detected by wind-profiler radars under the condition with (solid line) and without (dashed line) precipitation

    图  12  风廓线雷达u风速与GFS背景场标准差的垂直分布(蓝线:有降水;黑线:无降水;红线:所有样本)

    Figure  12.  Vertical distributions of u-wind speed standard deviations of wind-profiler radar products relative to GFS background (blue line denotes samples with precipitation, black line indicates samples without precipitation, and red line shows all samples)

    图  13  有降水减无降水情形下风廓线雷达(a,b)u风速、(c,d)v风速相对GFS背景场的标准差差值的垂直分布

    Figure  13.  Vertical distributions of differences in standard deviations of (a, b) u-wind speed and (c, d) v-wind speed detected by wind-profiler radars against GFS background with and without precipitation

    图  14  (a)方案1、(b)方案2及(c)方案3质量控制前后福建12部风廓线雷达水平风与GFS背景场的标准差(STD)、平均误差(ERR)及数据剔除率(PDR)(0代表无质量控制,1、2、3分别代表方案1、方案2和方案3)

    Figure  14.  Standard deviations (STDs) and mean errors (ERR) of horizontal winds detected by 12 wind-profiler radars in Fujian Province against GFS background and their percentages of data rejection (PDR) before and after QC with schemes 1 (a), 2 (b), and 3 (c), respectively (0 indicates no QC. 1, 2, and 3 denote QC with schemes 1, 2, and 3, respectively)

    图  15  三种不同质量控制方案下风廓线雷达水平风与GFS背景场的标准差及数据剔除率(STD代表标准差;PDR代表数据剔除率;数字代表相应的质量控制方案)

    Figure  15.  Standard deviations of horizontal winds detected by wind-profiler radars against GFS background and their percentages of data rejection with three different QC schemes (STD denotes standard deviation. PDR indicates percentages of data rejection. Numbers indicate the corresponding QC scheme)

    图  16  有降水情形下不同高可信度区间方案质量控制前后风廓线雷达水平风与GFS背景场的标准差(0代表有降水样本;3代表有降水样本中剔除了uv风标准差≥4.5 m s−1所在高度层的数据)

    Figure  16.  Standard deviations of horizontal winds detected by wind-profiler radars against GFS background before and after quality control with schemes of different high-confidence ranges under precipitation conditions (0 denotes all samples with precipitation, and 3 denotes samples whose data at heights with standard deviations of u and v greater than 4.5 m s−1 are rejected under precipitation conditions)

    表  1  基于水平风数据获取率阈值(0.8)的福建风廓线雷达有效探测高度

    Table  1.   Effective detection altitude of Fujian wind-profiler radars based on the threshold (0.8) of horizontal wind availability

    雷达站(系列)有效探测高度/m 雷达站(系列)有效探测高度/m 雷达站(系列)有效探测高度/m
    武夷山(CFL-03)2400永安(CFL-03)3720福清(CFL-03)2760
    建瓯(CFL-06)5550罗源(CFL-06)6270武平(CFL-06)5310
    建宁(CFL-06)5550连城(CFL-06)6030德化(CFL-06)5070
    平潭(CFL-06)6510平和(CFL-06)6030翔安(CFL-06)5790
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  福建风廓线雷达探测最低层水平风与GFS背景场的相关系数

    Table  2.   Correlations of horizontal winds in the lowest level detected by Fujian wind-profiler radars with GFS background

    雷达站雷达系列海拔高度
    /m
    探测高度
    /m
    u风相
    关系数
    v风相
    关系数
    武夷山CFL-03224.260/180−0.002/−0.0050.077/0.116
    永安 CFL-03253.060/1800.066/ 0.1440.463/0.571
    福清 CFL-0351.960/180−0.022/−0.0230.401/0.648
    建瓯 CFL-06154.91500.1460.408
    罗源 CFL-0687.01500.5960.494
    武平 CFL-06307.01500.1780.289
    建宁 CFL-06342.31500.3900.583
    连城 CFL-06404.01500.3550.801
    德化 CFL-06640.21500.2750.424
    平潭 CFL-0618.31500.6150.418
    平和 CFL-06108.51500.2640.352
    翔安 CFL-0617.01500.7350.847
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  福建风廓线雷达水平风标准差小于4.5 m s−1的高度

    Table  3.   Heights with the standard deviation of horizontal winds detected by Fujian wind-profiler radars less than 4.5 m s−1

    高度/m高度/m高度/m
    雷达站ustd<4.5 m s−1vstd<4.5 m s−1ustdvstd 均小于4.5 m s−1
    武夷山60~6600120~6720120~6600
    永安 60~672060~708060~6720
    福清 180~72060~1680180~720
    建瓯 150~6030150~9870150~6030
    罗源 150~3990150~9870150~3990
    武平 150~9870150~9870150~9870
    建宁 150~7710150~9870150~7710
    连城 150~3750150~2550150~2550
    德化 150~4830150~9630150~4830
    平潭 270~4110270~6990270~4110
    平和 150~5070150~9870150~5070
    翔安 150~9870150~9870150~9870
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  有雨情形下福建风廓线雷达水平风标准差小于4.5 m s−1的高度

    Table  4.   Heights with the standard deviation of horizontal winds detected by Fujian wind-profiler radars less than 4.5 m s−1 under precipitation condition

    高度/m高度/m高度/m
    雷达站ustd<4.5 m s−1vstd<4.5 m s−1ustdvstd 均小于4.5 m s−1
    武夷山300~6720300~5400300~5400
    永安 60~684060~708060~6840
    福清 480~60060~720480~600
    建瓯 150~6990150~9870150~6990
    罗源 150~6750150~9870150~6750
    武平 150~8910270~9870150~8910
    建宁 870~6750870~9870870~6750
    连城 150~4110150~1590150~1590
    德化 150~6270150~7470150~6270
    平潭 1590~4590270~62701590~4590
    平和 150~5310150~9870150~5310
    翔安 150~9870150~9870150~9870
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-09-19
  • 录用日期:  2020-04-23
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