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亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换过程的关键特征

布和朝鲁 林大伟 齐道日娜 诸葛安然

布和朝鲁, 林大伟, 齐道日娜, 等. 2022. 亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换过程的关键特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(1): 151−167 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.21028
引用本文: 布和朝鲁, 林大伟, 齐道日娜, 等. 2022. 亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换过程的关键特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(1): 151−167 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.21028
BUEH Cholaw, LIN Dawei, CHYI Dorina, et al. 2022. Key Circulation Characteristics of Spring-to-summer Seasonal Transition Process over Mid- and High-Latitude Asia [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(1): 151−167 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.21028
Citation: BUEH Cholaw, LIN Dawei, CHYI Dorina, et al. 2022. Key Circulation Characteristics of Spring-to-summer Seasonal Transition Process over Mid- and High-Latitude Asia [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(1): 151−167 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.21028

亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换过程的关键特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.21028
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金重点项目41630424
详细信息
    作者简介:

    布和朝鲁,男,1968年出生,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事中高纬大气动力学和短期气候预测研究。E-mail: bueh@lasg.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P433

Key Circulation Characteristics of Spring-to-summer Seasonal Transition Process over Mid- and High-Latitude Asia

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41630424)
  • 摘要: 亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换是亚洲大陆上发生的不同区域春夏季节转换中的一个重要组成部分,它为江淮流域梅雨形势的建立提供必要的中高纬环流条件。但是关于其独特性和关键特征,迄今为止尚没有系统性的总结。本文利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料I的逐日数据,分析和总结了这一春夏季节转换过程的关键特征。亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换以500 hPa东北亚脊和“双阻型”环流形势的依次建立为重要标志。东北亚脊及其相关的海陆温度差异的形成主要归因于东北亚积雪融化和局地强烈增温过程。东北亚低压(850 hPa)的建立是亚洲中高纬环流春夏季节转换的另一个重要标志。当季节转换发生时,青藏高原上空的200 hPa急流轴从35°N向北跳到37°N,与此同时亚洲温带急流彻底消失。伴随着季节转换,亚洲中高纬地区近地面温度经向梯度减弱,高频瞬变斜压扰动随之减弱;与之形成鲜明对比,低频天气系统,包括亚洲阻塞高压和东北冷涡系统,则成为该地区主导天气系统。本文也从春夏季节转换早晚的角度,探讨了亚洲中高纬环流和天气系统的演变特征,由此进一步补充了春夏季节转换的关键信息。
  • 图  1  (a)P28、(b)P30、(c)P32和(d)P34气候平均500 hPa位势高度(Z500)场(等值线,间隔:50 gpm)及其纬偏场(填色,gpm)。粗实线为5450 gpm等值线,每图最低点为(20°N,90°E)

    Figure  1.  Climatological 500-hPa geopotential height (contours; drawn every 50 gpm) and its zonal difference (color shaded; units: gpm) for (a) P28, (b) P30, (c) P32, and (d) P34 in the Northern Hemisphere. The heavy black line represents 5450 gpm and the lowest point of the map is (20°N, 90°E)

    图  2  50°N~70°N纬带内平均的Z500纬偏值(填色,gpm)时间—经度分布

    Figure  2.  Average zonal difference from 50°N to 70°N of the climatological 500-hPa geopotential height (color shaded; units: gpm)

    图  3  (a、d)P30、(b、e)P32和(c、f)P34时气候平均的850 hPa位势高度场(等值线,间隔为15 gpm)、水汽通量场(矢量,单位:g s−1 cm−1 hPa−1)、温度场(填色,单位:°C)分布(左列)以及水汽通量增量场(矢量,单位:g s−1 cm−1 hPa−1)分布(右列)。红色粗实线为0°C线,框区为东北亚低压关键区(45°~60°N,110°~140°E),灰色表示高于1500 m地形

    Figure  3.  Climatological 850-hPa geopotential height (contours; drawn for every 15 gpm), water vapor flux (vectors; units: g s−1 cm−1 hPa−1) and temperature (color shaded; units: K) for (a) P30, (b) P32, and (c) P34. (d–f) as in (a–c), but for water vapor flux increment (vectors; units: g s−1 cm−1 hPa−1). Red heavy lines represent 0°C. The gray shading indicates the topography higher than 1500 m and the box area denotes the key area of northeastern Asian low (45°–60°N, 110°–140°E)

    图  4  (a)P28、(b)P30、(c)P32和(d)P34期间气候平均表面温度(SAT;等值线,间隔:5 K)及其增量场(填色,单位:K)。浅蓝、深蓝以及紫色等值线分别代表275 K、280 K以及285 K等温线,灰色表示高于1500 m的地形,每图最低点为(20°N,90°E)

    Figure  4.  Climatological surface air temperature (contours; drawn every 5 K) and its increment (color shaded; units: K) for (a) P28, (b) P30, (c) P32, and (d) P34. Light blue, dark blue, and purple lines represent 275 K, 280 K, and 285 K, respectively. The altitude of the gray area is higher than 1500 m. The lowest point of the map is (20°N, 90°E)

    图  5  (a)P28、(b)P30、(c)P32和(d)P34期间气候平均积雪覆盖率(等值线,间隔:20%)及其减量场(填色)

    Figure  5.  Climatological snow cover extent (contours; drawn every 20%) and its decrement (color shaded) for (a) P28, (b) P30, (c) P32 and (d) P34

    图  6  (a)P25至P36期间亚洲副热带急流轴线的位置以及(b)P28、(c)P30、(d)P32和(e)P34期间气候平均200 hPa纬向风速U(等值线间隔为10 m s−1;斜线区为U>20 m s−1的区域)。灰色阴影表示高于1500 m的地形

    Figure  6.  (a) Position of the climatological axis of the jet stream over Asia from P25 to P36. The climatological 200-hPa zonal wind (contours drawn every 10 m s−1, slash area larger than 20 m s−1) for (b) P28, (c) P30, (d) P32, and (e) P34. The altitude of the gray area is higher than 1500 m

    图  7  (a、e)P28、(b、f)P32、(c、g)P34和(d、h)P38期间气候平均mAPV阻塞高压频率(左列;等值线,间隔:5%)以及300 hPa瞬变涡动动能(EKE300;右列;等值线,间隔为10 m2 s−2

    Figure  7.  Climatological mAPV block frequency (contours; drawn every 5%) for (a) P28, (b) P32, (c) P34, and (d) P38. (e–h) are the same as (a–d), but for the 300-hPa EKE (contours; drawn every 10 m2 s−2)

    图  8  东北亚关键区(50°~75°N,70°~160°E)平均mAPV阻塞频率(红线)、东北冷涡关键区(35°~55°N,115°~140°E)平均EKE300(黑线,单位:m2 s−2)和东北冷涡天数(蓝线,单位:d)的季节性演变曲线。横坐标为时间(P25至P39)

    Figure  8.  The average mAPV block frequency (50°–75°N,70°–160°E; red line), average 300-hPa EKE (35°–55°N,115°–140°E; black line; units: m2s−2) and average number of northeastern cold vortex days (blue line; units: d). The x-coordinate is the pentad from P25 to P39

    图  9  (a、d)P30、(b、e)P32和(c、f)P34季节转换偏早年(左列)和偏晚年(右列)的Z500场(等值线,间隔为40 gpm)及其距平场(填色,单位: gpm)。粗实线为5450 gpm等值线,打点区为显著性水平超过0.1的地方,每图最低点为(20°N,90°E)

    Figure  9.  Composite 500-hPa geopotential height (contours; drawn every 50 gpm) and its anomaly (color shaded; units: gpm) for (a, d) P30, (b, e) P32, and (c, f) P34 in years of early summer onset (left column) and late summer onset (right column). Areas above the 90% confidence level are dotted; heavy lines represent 5450 gpm. The lowest point of the map is (20°N, 90°E)

    图  10  (a、d)P30、(b、e)P32和(c、f)P34季节转换偏早年(左列)和偏晚年(右列)的mAPV阻塞频率(等值线,间隔为10%)及其距平(填色)。打点区为显著性水平超过0.1的地方。每图最低点为(35°N,90°E)

    Figure  10.  Composite mAPV block frequency (contours; drawn every 10 %) and its anomaly (color shaded) for (a) P30, (b) P32, and (c) P34 in years of early summer onset (left column) and late summer onset (right column). Areas above the 90% confidence level are dotted. The lowest point of the map is (35°N, 90°E)

    图  11  同图10,但为EKE300场(等值线,间隔:20 m2 s−2)及其距平场(填色,单位:m2 s−2

    Figure  11.  Same as Fig.10, but for 300-hPa EKE (contours; drawn every 20 m2 s−2) and its anomaly (color shaded; units: m2 s−2)

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-06
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-03
  • 刊出日期:  2022-01-18

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