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一次基于风廓线雷达观测的北京夏季降水的垂直观测研究

黄钰 郭学良 罗秀明 陈羿辰 张邢 杜远谋 刘海龙

黄钰, 郭学良, 罗秀明, 等. 2022. 一次基于风廓线雷达观测的北京夏季降水的垂直观测研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(2): 393−405 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.20245
引用本文: 黄钰, 郭学良, 罗秀明, 等. 2022. 一次基于风廓线雷达观测的北京夏季降水的垂直观测研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(2): 393−405 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.20245
HUANG Yu, GUO Xueliang, LUO Xiuming, et al. 2022. Vertical Observation Study of Summer Rainfall in Beijing Based on Wind Profiler Radar [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(2): 393−405 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.20245
Citation: HUANG Yu, GUO Xueliang, LUO Xiuming, et al. 2022. Vertical Observation Study of Summer Rainfall in Beijing Based on Wind Profiler Radar [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(2): 393−405 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.20245

一次基于风廓线雷达观测的北京夏季降水的垂直观测研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.20245
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2017YFC1501405,国家自然科学基金项目41805112
详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄钰,女,1985年出生,博士、高工,主要从事雷达和人工影响天气研究。E-mail: yhuang1128@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P458.3

Vertical Observation Study of Summer Rainfall in Beijing Based on Wind Profiler Radar

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2017YFC1501405), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41805112)
  • 摘要: 本文利用风廓线雷达数据反演了降水云体的大气垂直速度、雨滴下落末速度等云动力特征和云水混合比、雨水混合比等云微物理参数,并结合天气雷达、探空、自动站、雨滴谱仪和微波辐射计等数据对2020年5月7~8日发生在北京市海淀区的一次夏季降水过程进行垂直综合观测。结果表明:垂直探测仪器观测及其反演的数据可以获得降水云体的详细动力参数和微物理特征。站点位于主体降水回波边缘,降水为层状云类型,整体回波较弱(主要在0~20 dBZ),4 km高度的水平风垂直切变贯穿整个降水过程,降水分为两个阶段:前期7日20时(北京时,下同)至8日02时低层存在浅对流结构,云顶较高(平均高度8207 m),低层水平风切变促进了对流发展,10~20 dBZ的回波比重较大,粒子谱较窄,直径<1 mm,雨强较弱,但粒子数浓度值大,最大值26305 m−3,2~3 km处存在暖平流,水汽和液水值大,雨水混合比0.02~0.15 g/kg,云水混合比0.5~2 g/kg,且强值区域大,雨滴下落末速度3.2~4.2 m/s,大气垂直速度在±0.6 m/s之间,上升气流和下沉气流变换明显;后期8日02~10时转为典型层状云降水,云顶较低(平均高度7831 m),<10 dBZ的回波比重较大,3100 m处形成亮带的强值中心,粒子谱展宽,最大直径接近1.5 mm,粒子数浓度值减小,最大值<3000 m−3,雨水和云水值比对流期小了一个量级,且强值范围变窄,雨滴下落末速度减小为2.8~3.6 m/s,大气垂直速度也比对流时期小了一个量级,并且在亮带高度以下(2.5~2.8 km)范围内出现明显横向带状的上升和下沉气流区。
  • 图  1  2020年5月7日20时(北京时,下同)至8日14时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)(a)SA雷达、(b)风廓线雷达(WPR)观测的反射率因子时间序列

    Figure  1.  Time series of reflectivity factor observed by (a) Doppler Radar in SA band, (b) WPR (wind profile radar) at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT (Beijing time) 7 May 2020 to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  2  2020年5月7日20时至8日13时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)SA雷达观测的降水组合反射率因子PPI(plan position indicator)的时间演变,箭头所指位置为风廓线雷达位置

    Figure  2.  Time evolution of PPI (plan position indicator) of reflectivity factor for precipitation observed by SA radar at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1300 BJT 8 May 2020. The position indicated by the arrow is the location of WPR

    图  3  2020年5月7日20时至8日14时北京市海淀区自动站(39.98°N,116.28°E)小时降水量(单位:mm)、温度(单位:°C)的时间演变

    Figure  3.  Time evolution of hourly precipitation (units: mm) and temperature (units: °C) observed by automatic weather station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  4  2020年5月7日20时至8日14时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)风廓线雷达观测的水平风矢量

    Figure  4.  Horizontal wind vectors observed by WPR at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  5  2020年5月7日20时至8日14时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)风廓线雷达观测的反射率因子时间序列

    Figure  5.  Time series of reflectivity factor by WPR at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  6  2020年5月7日20时至8日12时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)风廓线雷达观测的(a)云顶高度、(b)反射率因子分档比例、(c)反射率因子平均值

    Figure  6.  (a) Height of cloud top, (b) reflectivity factor ratio at each stage, (c) average reflectivity factor at each stage by WPR at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1200 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  7  2020年5月7日20时至8日14时北京市海淀区雨滴谱仪(39.98°N,116.28°E)观测的(a)总的粒子数浓度(Nt)、(b)雨强(R)、(c)滴谱时间序列。图c中的ND分别表示粒子数浓度和直径

    Figure  7.  Time series of (a) particle number total concentration (Nt), (b) rain rate, (c) size spectrum observed by disdrometer (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020. In Fig. 7c, N and D represent number concentration and diameter of particle, respectively

    图  8  2020年5月7日20时至8日14时微波辐射计(39.98°N,116.28°E)观测的(a)液态水含量(单位:g m−3)、(b)水汽密度(单位:g m−3)、(c)温度(单位:°C)、(d)相对湿度的时间序列

    Figure  8.  Time series of (a) liquid water content (units: g m−3), (b) vapor density (units: g m−3), (c) temperature (units: °C), (d) relative humidity observed by microwave radiometer (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  9  2020年5月7日20时至8日14时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)风廓线雷达反演的(a)雨水混合比(单位:g/kg)、(b)云水混合比(单位:g/kg)、(c)雨滴下落末速度(单位:m/s)、(d)垂直速度(单位:m/s)时间序列

    Figure  9.  Time series of (a) rain water mixing ratio (units: g/kg), (b) cloud water mixing ratio (units: g/kg), (c) droplet terminal velocity (units: m/s), (d) vertical velocity (units: m/s) from WPR at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1400 BJT 8 May 2020

    图  10  2020年5月7日20时至8日10时北京市海淀区雷达站(39.98°N,116.28°E)风廓线雷达反演的降水前期(橙色线)、后期(蓝色线)(a)云水混合比、(b)雨水混合比、(c)雨滴下落末速度、(d)空气垂直速度的平均值

    Figure  10.  Average of (a) cloud water mixing ratio, (b) rain water mixing ratio, (c) droplet terminal velocity, (d) air vertical velocity at earlier stage (orange lines) and later stage (blue lines) for precipitation observed by WPR at radar station (39.98°N, 116.28°E) in Haidian District of Beijing from 2000 BJT 7 May to 1000 BJT 8 May 2020

    表  1  风廓线雷达参数表

    Table  1.   Parameters of wind profile radar

    雷达参数具体参数值
    采样频率/MHz60
    发射波长/mm220
    发射峰值功率/kW10
    采样周期/min4.5
    脉冲宽度/µs12.8(高模)/6.4(中模)/0.8(低模)
    相干积累次数32(高模)/48(中模)/96(低模)
    非相干积累次数4(高模)/4(中模)/4(低模)
    谱变换数512(高模)/512(中模)/512(低模)
    谱平均数4(高模)/4(中模)/4(低模)
    距离库长/m240(高模)/120(中模)/120(低模)
    采样起始高度/m3150(高模)/1110(中模)/150(低模)
    采样终止高度/m10110(高模)/4590(中模)/3630(低模)
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-11
  • 录用日期:  2021-09-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-18
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-16

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