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利用Ka波段云雷达对青藏高原三类重要天气系统云宏观参数日变化特征的研究

武静雅 孙强 毕永恒 田玉芳 王一楠 吕达仁

武静雅, 孙强, 毕永恒, 等. 2022. 利用Ka波段云雷达对青藏高原三类重要天气系统云宏观参数日变化特征的研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 1030−1040 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21061
引用本文: 武静雅, 孙强, 毕永恒, 等. 2022. 利用Ka波段云雷达对青藏高原三类重要天气系统云宏观参数日变化特征的研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 1030−1040 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21061
WU Jingya, SUN Qiang, BI Yongheng, et al. 2022. Study of Diurnal Variation of Cloud Macro Parameters in Three Important Weather Systems over the Tibetan Plateau Using Ka-Band Cloud Radar [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 1030−1040 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21061
Citation: WU Jingya, SUN Qiang, BI Yongheng, et al. 2022. Study of Diurnal Variation of Cloud Macro Parameters in Three Important Weather Systems over the Tibetan Plateau Using Ka-Band Cloud Radar [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 1030−1040 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21061

利用Ka波段云雷达对青藏高原三类重要天气系统云宏观参数日变化特征的研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21061
基金项目: 青藏高原大气多要素垂直结构的高分辨率综合探测及对大气上下层相互作用的重要机制研究项目QYZDY-SSW-DQC027,第二次青藏高原科考国家专项2019QZKK0604,中国科学院先导专项XDA17010103
详细信息
    作者简介:

    武静雅,女,1989年出生,博士研究生,从事雷达气象学相关研究。E-mail: wujingya@mail.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    毕永恒,E-mail: byh@mail.iap.ac.cn; 吕达仁,E-mail: ludr@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P401

Study of Diurnal Variation of Cloud Macro Parameters in Three Important Weather Systems over the Tibetan Plateau Using Ka-Band Cloud Radar

Funds: High-Resolution Comprehensive Detection of the Vertical Structure of Atmospheric Multi-elements on the Tibetan Plateau and Research on the Important Mechanism of the Interaction between the Upper and Lower Layers of the Atmosphere (Grant QYZDY-SSW-DQC027), Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program (Grant 2019QZKK0604), Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant XDA17010103)
  • 摘要: 青藏高原上空云宏观参数的日变化受大尺度环流、当地太阳辐射和地表过程的联合作用,对辐射收支、辐射传输及感热、潜热的分布等有重要影响。由于缺乏持续定量的观测,对各类天气系统云宏观参数日变化特征的了解还十分不足。多波段多大气成分主被动综合探测系统APSOS(Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System)的Ka波段云雷达是首部在青藏高原实现长期观测云的雷达。本文基于2019年全年APSOS的Ka波段云雷达资料,采用统计和快速傅里叶变换方法研究了西风槽、切变线和低涡三类重要天气系统影响下的有云频率、单层非降水云或者降水云非降水时段的云顶高度、云底高度和云厚日变化的时域和频域特征,得到了统计回归方程。主要结论有:(1)西风槽系统日均有云频率为56.9%,切变线系统为50.8%,低涡系统达73%。(2)尽管西风槽和切变线系统的成因不同,但两类系统云宏观参数的日变化趋势和主要谐波周期相似:日变化趋势基本为单峰单谷型,日出前最低,日落前最高。有云频率表现为日变化和半日变化,单层云云顶高度、云底高度和云厚主要表现为日变化。(3)低涡系统云宏观参数的日变化特征与前两类系统明显不同:日变化趋势表现为多峰多谷型,虽然有云频率和单层云云顶高度、云底高度主要谐波中均以日变化振幅最大,但频谱分布分散,云厚主要变化中振幅最大的是周期为4.8 h的波动。(4)得到了各系统有云频率、单层云云顶高度、云底高度和云厚日变化的统计回归方程。
  • 图  1  2019年(a)西风槽、(b)切变线、(c)低涡系统有云频率日变化时域特征、直流分量及回归方程曲线

    Figure  1.  Diurnal variation characteristics, main harmonics, and regression equation of the cloud frequency of (a) westerly trough, (b) shear line, and (c) vortex system in 2019

    图  2  2019年西风槽系统(左)、切边线系统(中)、低涡系统(右)单层云(a、d、g)平均云顶高度、(b、e、h)平均云底高度、(c、f、i)平均云厚及标准差的日变化

    Figure  2.  Diurnal variations of the (a, d, g) mean cloud top height, (b, e, h) mean cloud base height, and (c, f, i) mean cloud thickness and their standard deviation averaged in the westerly trough system (left), shear line system (middle), and vortex system (right) in 2019

    图  3  2019年(a)西风槽、(b)切变线、(c)低涡系统单层云云顶高度、云底高度、云厚日变化及回归方程曲线

    Figure  3.  Diurnal variations and regression equation curves in the cloud top height, cloud base height, and cloud thickness of (a) westerly trough, (b) shear line, and (c) vortex system in 2019

    表  1  西风槽、低涡和切变线系统影响APSOS站起止时间的判断标准和2019年影响次数及总时长

    Table  1.   Criteria for judging the start and end times and duration of APSOS (Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System) station influenced by the westerly trough, vortex, and shear line in 2019

    判断标准开始条件结束条件影响总次数总时长/h去除降水后时长/h
    位势高度场水平风场
    西风槽APSOS站位于槽前APSOS站位于槽前风场内2个标准同时满足至少1个标准不再满足29次13281170
    切变线/ APSOS站位于风场切变区内满足标准不满足标准15次295247
    低涡闭合低压形成APSOS站位于低涡流场区内2个标准同时满足至少1个标准不再满足17次321227
    注:/表示判断标准中不包含此条件。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  APSOS的Ka波段云雷达参数表

    Table  2.   Parameters of the APSOS Ka-band cloud radar

    参数名称数值
    雷达工作波长0.86 cm
    时间分辨率0.125 s
    径向距离分辨率30 m
    发射机输出峰值功率0.04 kW
    发射脉冲宽度120 μs
    水平波束宽度0.38°
    垂直波束宽度0.38°
    天线增益50.9 dB
    馈线总损耗2.2 dB
    10 km最小可测回波强度−32.9 dBZ
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2019年西风槽、切变线及低涡系统有云频率傅里叶分析直流分量振幅和主要谐波参数

    Table  3.   Amplitude of the DC (direct-current) component and main frequency parameters of Fourier decomposition in cloud frequency in the westerly trough, shear line, and vortex system in 2019

    直流分量
    振幅
    一次谐波二次谐波三次谐波五次谐波七次谐波
    振幅周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    西风槽56.9%12.5%241.605.50%12−1.50/////////
    切变线50.8%17.6%241.895.40%12−1.54/////////
    低涡73.0%9.50%242.30///4.00%80.835.50%4.80.0743.80%3.42.75
    注:/表示不包含此阶谐波。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2019年西风槽、切变线及低涡系统单层云云顶高度、云底高度、云厚日变化傅里叶分析直流分量振幅和主要谐波参数Table 4 Amplitude of the DC components, main frequency parameters of the Fourier decomposition of diurnal variations of cloud top, cloud base, and thickness of single-layer cloud of the westerly trough, shear line, and vortex system in 2019

    直流分量
    振幅/km
    一次谐波二次谐波三次谐波四次谐波五次谐波六次谐波
    振幅
    /km
    周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅
    /km
    周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅
    /km
    周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅
    /km
    周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅
    /km
    周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    振幅
    /km
    周期
    /h
    初相位
    /rad
    西风槽云顶高度3.8410.751241.8250.188122.4450.10680.3030.1746−0.890//////
    云底高度2.2340.697242.1900.120122.693////////////
    云厚1.5540.376241.020///0.1118−0.3720.1576−0.585//////
    切变线云顶高度4.0740.679241.5220.08812−2.810.12980.5780.1076−0.552//////
    云底高度2.6700.488241.553///0.10281.6040.0996−0.553//////
    云厚1.3480.305241.8120.09212−2.0550.0548−0.7080.06760.870///0.0864−1.387
    低涡云顶高度4.0800.849241.1370.39612−1.2240.45380.625///0.3384.8 0.135///
    云底高度2.5230.773241.1390.44912−0.5520.41080.255/////////
    云厚1.5650.22224−2.9800.24312−2.5440.19182.3000.27660.0780.3884.8−0.156///
    下载: 导出CSV
    八次谐波十一次谐波十二次谐波十五次谐波十七次谐波二十一次谐波
    振幅/km周期/h初相位/rad振幅/km周期/h初相位/rad振幅/km周期/h初相位/rad振幅/km周期/h初相位/rad振幅/km周期/h初相位/rad振幅/km周期/h初相位/rad
    西风槽云顶高度//////////////////
    云底高度//////////////////
    云厚//////////////////
    切变线云顶高度//////////////////
    云底高度//////////////////
    云厚///0.0562.18−1.743////////////
    低涡云顶高度0.32131.744///0.3812−1.6740.2771.6−0.217//////
    云底高度//////////////////
    云厚//////0.2182−1.6710.2181.7 2.0130.1961.4−2.290.2241.140.573
    注:/表示不包含此阶谐波。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  2019年西风槽、切变线和低涡系统有云频率、单层云云顶高度、云底高度及云厚日变化回归方程和拟合优度(R2)Table 5 Regression equations and goodness (R2) of fit of the daily variation in cloud frequency, single-layer cloud top height, cloud base height, and cloud thickness in the westerly trough, shear line, and vortex system in 2019

    回归方程和拟合优度
    有云频率云顶高度云底高度云厚
    西风槽$\begin{gathered} y\left( t \right) = 0.569 + \\ 0.125\cos \left( {\displaystyle\frac{ { {\text{π}} t} }{ {12} } + 1.6} \right) + \\ 0.055{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 1.501} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.96$
    $\begin{gathered} T\left( t \right) = 3.841 + \\ 0.751\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.825} \right) + \\ 0.188\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} + 2.445} \right) + \\ 0.174\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{3} - 0.89} \right) + \\ 0.106{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} + 0.303} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.87$
    $\begin{gathered} B\left( t \right) = 2.234 + \\ 0.697\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 2.19} \right) + \\ 0.12{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} + 2.693} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.82$
    $\begin{gathered} H\left( t \right) = 1.554 + \\ 0.376\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.02} \right) + \\ 0.157\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{3} - 0.585} \right) + \\ 0.111{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} - 0.372} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.55$
    切变线$\begin{gathered} y\left( t \right) = 0.508 + \\ 0.176\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.892} \right) + \\ 0.054{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 1.542} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.99$
    $\begin{gathered} T\left( t \right) = 4.074 + \\ 0.679\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.522} \right) + \\ 0.129\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} + 0.578} \right) + \\ 0.107\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{3} - 0.552} \right) + \\ 0.088{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 2.81} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.91$
    $\begin{gathered} B\left( t \right) = 2.670 + \\ 0.488\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.553} \right) + \\ 0.102\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} + 1.604} \right) + \\ 0.099{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{3} - 0.553} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.77$
    $\begin{gathered} H\left( t \right) = 1.348 + \\ 0.305\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.812} \right) + \\ 0.092\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 2.055} \right) + \\ 0.086\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{2} - 1.387} \right) + \\ 0.067\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{3} + 0.870} \right) + \\ 0.056\cos \left( {\frac{ {2\text{π} t} }{ {2.18} } - 1.743} \right) + \\ 0.054{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} - 0.708} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.67$
    低涡$\begin{gathered} y\left( t \right) = 0.73 + \\ 0.095\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 2.3} \right) + \\ 0.055\cos \left( {\frac{ {5\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 0.074} \right) + \\ 0.04\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} - 0.83} \right) + \\ 0.038{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {7\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 2.75} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.69$
    $\begin{gathered} T\left( t \right) = 4.080 + \\ 0.849\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.137} \right) + \\ 0.453\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} + 0.625} \right) + \\ 0.396\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 1.224} \right) + \\ 0.381\cos \left( {\text{π} t - 1.674} \right) + \\ 0.338\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {2.4} } + 0.135} \right) + \\ 0.321\cos \left( {\frac{ {2\text{π} t} }{3} + 1.744} \right) + \\ 0.277{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {5\text{π} t} }{4} - 0.217} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.40$
    $\begin{gathered} B\left( t \right) = 2.523 + \\ 0.773\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } + 1.139} \right) + \\ 0.449\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 0.552} \right) + \\ 0.410\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} + 0.255} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.34$
    $\begin{gathered} H\left( t \right) = 1.565 + \\ 0.388\cos \left( {\frac{ {5\text{π} t} }{ {12} } - 0.156} \right) + \\ 0.276\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{3} + 0.078} \right) + \\ 0.243\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{6} - 2.544} \right) + \\ 0.224\cos \left( {\frac{ {2\text{π} t} }{ {1.14} } + 0.473} \right) + \\ 0.222\cos \left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{ {12} } - 2.98} \right) + \\ 0.218cos\left( {\frac{ {2\text{π} t} }{ {1.7} } + 2.013} \right) + \\ 0.218\cos \left( {\text{π} t - 1.671} \right) + \\ 0.196\cos \left( {\frac{ {10\text{π} t} }{7} - 2.29} \right) + \\ 0.191{\text{cos} }\left( {\frac{ {\text{π} t} }{4} + 2.3} \right) \\ \end{gathered}$
    ${R^2} = 0.28$
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-12
  • 录用日期:  2021-06-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-21
  • 刊出日期:  2022-07-19

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