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基于多源资料的积层混合云降水微物理特征

王洪 张佃国 王文青 王俊 李毅 王烁

王洪, 张佃国, 王文青, 等. 2022. 基于多源资料的积层混合云降水微物理特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21043
引用本文: 王洪, 张佃国, 王文青, 等. 2022. 基于多源资料的积层混合云降水微物理特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21043
WANG Hong, ZHANG Dianguo, WANG Wenqing, et al. 2022. Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform Precipitation with Embedded Convection Based on Multisource Data [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21043
Citation: WANG Hong, ZHANG Dianguo, WANG Wenqing, et al. 2022. Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform Precipitation with Embedded Convection Based on Multisource Data [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21043

基于多源资料的积层混合云降水微物理特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21043
基金项目: 山东省自然科学基金项目ZR2020MD054,国家重点研发计划项目2018YFC1507903,国家自然科学基金41875172、42075192,中国气象局云雾物理环境重点开放实验室开放课题2019Z01607,山东省气象局项目2020sdqxz08
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王洪,女,1984年出生,博士,高级工程师,主要从事云降水物理的研究。E-mail: wh42233691@163.com

    通讯作者:

    张佃国, E-mail: zdg131415@sohu.com

  • 中图分类号: P401

Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform Precipitation with Embedded Convection Based on Multisource Data

Funds: Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant ZR2020MD054), National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2018YFC1507903), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41875172, 42075192), Open Project of Key Laboratory for Cloud Physics of China Meteorological Administration (Grant 2019Z01607), Program of Shandong Province Meteorological Bureau (Grant 2020sdqxz08)
  • 摘要: 基于地基云雷达、微雨雷达和天气雷达等遥测设备观测资料,结合挂载KPR云雷达和DMT粒子测量系统的飞机平台,详细分析了山东积层混合云降水过程的云降水微物理结构特征。结果表明,积层混合云降水过程呈现层状云和对流云降水特征。零度层以上,5~6 km高度层内,对流云降水多普勒速度和谱宽均大于层状云,说明对流云降水环境垂直气流、粒子尺度等均大于层状云。对流云降水,云雷达和微雨雷达时空剖面上出现由衰减造成的“V”字形缺口,云雷达衰减程度大于微雨雷达,且随高度增加,衰减越大。层状云降水,零度层亮带附近,雷达反射率因子跃增高度比多普勒速度高80 m,多普勒速度跃增高度又比谱宽高20 m。降水云系零度层附近降水机制复杂,粒子形态有辐枝冰晶聚合物、针状冰晶聚合物和云滴;0°C层以上,5~6 km处,对流云降水的多普勒速度和谱宽均大于层状云降水,即对流云降水环境垂直气流、粒子尺度范围等均大于层状云降水。
  • 图  1  2018年4月22日(a)机载云雷达原始反射率因子的时空剖面和(b)机载云雷达反射率因子高度订正后的时空剖面。BJT:北京时间

    Figure  1.  (a) Raw radar reflectivity and (b) corrected radar reflectivity presented in time vs. height coordinates measured by the airborne cloud radar on 22 April, 2018. BJT: Beijing Time

    图  2  2018年4月22日10:20齐河天气雷达组合反射率因子(单位:dBZ)。黑色实线为飞机飞行轨迹,箭头代表了飞机的飞行方向;黑色三角为云雷达、微雨雷达的位置;黑色实心圆代表起降机场(遥墙机场)位置

    Figure  2.  Composite reflectivity factor (units: dBZ) of the Qihe weather radar at 1020 BJT on April 22, 2018. The black solid line is the flight path of the aircraft, and the arrow represents the flight direction of the aircraft. The black triangular area shows the positions of the cloud radar and microrain radar. The black solid circle represents the location of the takeoff and landing airport (Jinan Yaoqiang Airport)

    图  3  2018年4月22日飞机飞行高度以及机载AIMMS30系统探测到的温度随时间的变化

    Figure  3.  Flight altitude and temperature measured by the airborne AIMMS30 system changes over time on April 22, 2018

    图  4  2018年4月21~22日(a)微雨雷达、(b)地基云雷达和(c)天气雷达反射率因子时空演变趋势,(d)微雨雷达探测到的地面雨强随时间演变;(e)FY2卫星反演的云顶高度(ztop)、云顶温度(ttop)随时间演变;(f–i)同(a–d),但为2018年4月21日23:10~23:45时段

    Figure  4.  Radar reflectivity factor presented in time vs. height coordinates during the passage of the rain period on April 21, 2018: (a) Microrain radar; (b) ground-based cloud radar; (c) CINRAD-SA Doppler weather radar. (d) Rain rate near the ground observed by the microrain radar. (e) Cloud-top altitude (ztop) and cloud-top temperature (ttop) retrieved by the FY2 satellite. (f–i) is the same as (a–d), but for 2310 BJT–2345 BJT on April 21, 2018

    图  8  2018年4月21日16:00~4月22日16:00,地基云雷达的(a)雷达反射率因子,(b)多普勒速度、(c)谱宽的时空剖面。左侧小图为图(a)纵坐标对应高度上飞机CIP探头记录的粒子图像

    Figure  8.  (a) Radar reflectivity factor, (b) Doppler velocities, and (c) spectrum width presented in time vs. height coordinates measured by the ground-based cloud radar from 1600 BJT on April 22 to 1600 BJT on April 22, 2018). The small figures on the left are the particle image recorded by aircraft CIP at the altitude corresponding to the ordinate of panel (a)

    图  5  T2(2018年4月21日 21:00 ~ 21:40)和T4时段(2018年4月22日 00:00 ~ 01:00)地基云雷达的(a)反射率因子、(b)多普勒速度和(c)谱宽均值的垂直分布

    Figure  5.  Vertical distribution of the (a) mean radar reflectivity, (b) Doppler velocities, and (c) spectrum width of the ground-based cloud radar for the periods T2 (2100 BJT–2140 BJT on April 21, 2018) and T4 (0000 BJT–0100 BJT on April 22, 2018)

    图  6  T1(2018年4月21日16:30 ~ 16:55)、T3(2018年4月21日23:20 ~ 23:35)和T5(2018年4月22日06:00 ~ 06:40)时段地基云雷达的(a)反射率因子、(b)多普勒速度和(c)谱宽均值的垂直分布

    Figure  6.  Vertical distribution of the mean (a) radar reflectivity, (b) Doppler velocities, and (c) spectrum width of the ground-based cloud radar for the periods T1 (1630 BJT–1655 BJT on April 21, 2018), T3 (2320 BJT–2335 BJT on April 21, 2018), and T5 (0600 BJT –0640 BJT on April 22, 2018)

    图  7  地基云雷达在(a,c)T1(2018年4月21日16:30 ~ 16:55) 和(b,d)T5(2018年4月22日06:00 ~ 06:40)两个时段粒子多普勒速度(a,b)和谱宽(c,d)的时空分布

    Figure  7.  (a, b) Doppler velocities and (c, d) spectrum widths presented in time vs. height coordinates measured by the ground-based cloud radar for the periods (a, c) T1 (1630 BJT–1655 BJT on April 21, 2018) and (b, d) T5 (0600 BJT–0640 BJT on April 22, 2018), respectively

    图  9  S1(2018年4月22日 00:00~01:00)、S2(2018年4月22日 07:00~10:00)时段地基云雷达的平均(a)反射率因子、(b)多普勒速度、(c)谱宽的垂直分布,(d、e、f)为放大后3~4 km高度上三个变量的垂直分布

    Figure  9.  Vertical distribution of the mean(a) radar reflectivity, (b) Doppler velocities, and (c) spectrum width of the ground-based cloud radar at periods S1 (0000 BJT - 0100 BJT on April 22, 2018) and S2 (0700 BJT - 1000 BJT on April 22, 2018). (d), (e), and (f) correspond to the vertical distributions of the above three variables at the height of 3–4 km after zooming in

    图  10  不同时次飞机轨迹上的高度、温度以及CIP和PIP粒子图像

    Figure  10.  Altitude, temperature, CIP, and PIP particle images on different aircraft tracks

    表  1  观测设备参数

    Table  1.   Parameters of the observation equipment

    雷达微雨雷达地基云雷达天气雷达机载云雷达
    波长1.25 cm8 mm10 cm8 mm
    时间分辨率1 min5 s6 min0.2 S
    垂直分辨率200 m30 m9个仰角扫描30~40 m
    最大探测高度6,000 m15,810 m7,582 m飞机轨迹上下
    约11.9 km
    垂直距离库个数205279640
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  机载DMT粒子测量设备参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of the airborne DMT particle measurement equipment

    仪器名称量程分辨率
    云粒子组合探头CCPCDP:2~50 μm;CIP:25~1550 μm;LWC:0.01~3 g m3粒子:2 μm;25 μm;LWC:0.01 g m3
    降水粒子探头PIP100~6400 μm100 μm
    综合气象要素测量系统AIMMS30高度0~15 km;温度−20~40°C;相对湿度0~100%温度0.05°C;相对湿度2%
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-12
  • 录用日期:  2021-09-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-27

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