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内蒙古呼包鄂区域冬季大气细颗粒物污染成因解析

杨颖川 叶倩 魏颖 陈学舜 陈焕盛 王威 吴林 王自发

杨颖川, 叶倩, 魏颖, 等. 2022. 内蒙古呼包鄂区域冬季大气细颗粒物污染成因解析[J]. 大气科学, 46(6): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21049
引用本文: 杨颖川, 叶倩, 魏颖, 等. 2022. 内蒙古呼包鄂区域冬季大气细颗粒物污染成因解析[J]. 大气科学, 46(6): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21049
YANG Ying chuan, YE Qian, WEI Ying, et al. 2022. Analysis of the Causes of Atmospheric Fine Particle Pollution in Winter in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos Area of Inner Mongolia [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(6): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21049
Citation: YANG Ying chuan, YE Qian, WEI Ying, et al. 2022. Analysis of the Causes of Atmospheric Fine Particle Pollution in Winter in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos Area of Inner Mongolia [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(6): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21049

内蒙古呼包鄂区域冬季大气细颗粒物污染成因解析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21049
基金项目: 内蒙古自治区科技重大专项“呼包鄂区域大气环境预测预警与污染防治重大关键技术研究”2020ZD0013,国家重点研发计划高性能计算专项2016YFB0200800,国家自然科学基金项目42007199
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨颖川,女,1998年出生,博士研究生,研究方向为大气数值模拟。E-mail: yangyingchuan19@mails.ucas.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    陈学舜,E-mail: chenxsh@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P427.2

Analysis of the Causes of Atmospheric Fine Particle Pollution in Winter in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos Area of Inner Mongolia

Funds: Key Project of Science in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region"Study on Major Key Technologies of Prediction and Early Warning of Atmospheric Environment and Pollution Prevention and Control in Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos region" (Grant 2020zd0013), National Key Research and Development Plan High Performance Computing Project (Grant 2016YFB0200800), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant 42007199)
  • 摘要: 利用气象模式WRF和中科院大气所自主发展的大气气溶胶与大气化学模式IAP-AACM对2016年冬季内蒙古中部呼包鄂地区大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)的典型污染过程进行了模拟分析。结果表明,呼包鄂地区的空气质量变化主要受大范围天气形势影响。污染累积阶段,500 hPa高度上该区域受阻塞高压或弱高压脊前平直的偏西气流控制,地面为弱高压或均压场,风速较小,边界层高度低,污染物不易扩散,且气温和相对湿度较高,利于二次颗粒物生成;污染消散阶段,天气形势发生明显变化,550 hPa高度以下有强冷平流,地面易形成大风天气,利于污染物消散,伴随着冷空气的南下,下游地区的污染物也得到清除。呼包鄂区域PM2.5主要来源于本地排放,鄂尔多斯本地排放贡献大于60%,呼和浩特本地排放贡献大于80%,包头本地排放贡献达到90%,该区域空气质量的变化可以反映区域大气污染气象条件的变化。交叉相关分析发现,呼包鄂区域的PM2.5浓度与其下游的山西、河北、河南地区的PM2.5浓度具有高度的时间相关性,相位差在6~24小时。呼包鄂区域PM2.5污染的改善有赖于本地污染源的管控,该区域冬季空气质量变化可作为下游地区空气质量变化的前兆因子,有助于下游地区空气质量的预报预警。
  • 图  1  2016年1月SO2平均排放强度(单位:μg m−3 s−1)的区域分布(黑框为研究区域,黑圈代表呼包鄂三市位置)

    Figure  1.  The regional distribution of the average emission intensity of SO2 (unit: μg m−3 s−1) in January 2016 (Beijing time, the same below) (the black box represents the study area, and the black circle represents the location of the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area).

    图  2  2015年12月30日至2016年1月31日呼包鄂地区空气质量指数(AQI),EP1至EP5代表5个污染过程

    Figure  2.  Changes in AQI in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area from December 30, 2015, to January 31, 2016. EP1–EP5 represent five air pollution processes.

    图  3  2016年1月呼包鄂地区站点PM2.5质量浓度观测值和模拟值对比,单位:μg m−3

    Figure  3.  Comparison of PM2.5 observation values and simulation values at six stations in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area in January 2016, units: μg m−3

    图  4  第一次过程(a、c)污染持续及(b、d)结束阶段06:00的500 hPa平均位势高度分布(左列)及地面气压分布(右列)。红色虚线为温度场,蓝色实线为位势高度)

    Figure  4.  (a) 500-hPa average geopotential height field (units: dagpm) of the EP1, (b) end stage, (c) surface pressure field (unit: hPa, the same below) of duration, and (d) end stage at 0600 BJT (Beijing time). The red dotted line denotes the temperature field, and the blue solid line denotes the geopotential height

    Figure  5.  The 500 hPa average geopotential height field of the second to fifth processes: (a)–(d) are the pollution duration and end stage; (e)–(h) are the corresponding surface pressure fields at 6 o’clock (The red dotted line denotes the temperature field, and the blue solid line denotes the geopotential height)

    图  6  2016年1月呼包鄂6个环境监测站点的气象要素的时间变化序列

    Figure  6.  Change chart of meteorological elements of six environmental monitoring stations in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area in January 2016

    图  7  五个污染过程持续期(左列)和结束期(右列)的PM2.5质量浓度(填色,单位:μg m−3)及风场(箭头,单位:m s−1)分布

    Figure  7.  PM2.5 concentration (shaded, units: μg m−3) and wind field (arrow, units: m s−1) distributions of five pollution processes: Duration period (left column); end period (right column)

    图  8  2016年1月12~24日呼和浩特地区的(a)垂直速度剖面图(单位:m s−1)和(b)PM2.5的垂直浓度分布(单位:μg m−3)。1月12~17日是第三次过程,1月18~21日是第四次过程

    Figure  8.  Distributions of (a) vertical velocity profile (units: m s−1) and (b) vertical concentration of PM2.5 (units: μg m−3) in Hohhot from January 12 to 24, 2016. Among them, 12–17 January indicate the third process, and 18–21 January indicates the fourth process

    图  9  2016年1月呼包鄂地区六个环境监测站点的风玫瑰图叠加PM2.5浓度

    Figure  9.  Wind rising maps of six environmental monitoring stations in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area in January 2016 superimposed with PM2.5 concentration, with measured values on the left and simulated values on the right

    图  10  2016年1月内蒙古呼包鄂对6个站点PM2.5浓度的贡献,黑线为各站点PM2.5月平均浓度(其他地区指的是呼包鄂以外的地区)

    Figure  10.  Contribution of the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area to the PM2.5 concentration of six stations in January 2016. The black line is the monthly average PM2.5 concentration of each station (districts other than Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos)

    图  11  河北中南部地区、山西地区、河南地区、内蒙古地区4个污染过程的PM2.5小时平均浓度的时间变化

    Figure  11.  Variation in the PM2.5 hourly mean concentration of four pollution processes in South Central Hebei, Shanxi, Henan, and Inner Mongolia

    表  1  模拟的气象要素与观测的对比统计参数

    Table  1.   Comparative statistical parameters between simulated meteorological elements and observations

    城市2 m气温2 m相对湿度气压10 m风速
    NMBRMSErNMBRMSErNMBRMSE/hParNMBRMSE/m s−1r
    包头 1.5%4.4°C0.94−12.7%16.9%0.56 2.4%22.10.97−13.2%1.20.58
    鄂尔多斯−0.8%2.6°C0.96 −4.9%10.1%0.62 0.3% 2.80.94−12.7%1.00.66
    呼和浩特−1.6%4.8°C0.92 8.0%12.4%0.51−3.3%30.10.94 −8.3%1.30.70
    注:NMB:标准化平均偏差;RMSE:均方根误差;r:相关系数
    下载: 导出CSV
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