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青藏高原两类对流层顶频率的季节分布特征及其与同纬度地区的差异

秦亚兰 周顺武 张人禾 杨双艳 闫梓宇

秦亚兰, 周顺武, 张人禾, 杨双艳, 闫梓宇. 青藏高原两类对流层顶频率的季节分布特征及其与同纬度地区的差异[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(4): 509-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.16153
引用本文: 秦亚兰, 周顺武, 张人禾, 杨双艳, 闫梓宇. 青藏高原两类对流层顶频率的季节分布特征及其与同纬度地区的差异[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(4): 509-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.16153
Yalan QIN, Shunwu ZHOU, Renhe ZHANG, Shuangyan YANG, Ziyu YAN. Seasonal Variations of Occurrence Frequencies of Two Types of Tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau and Their Differences from Those in the Same Latitudes[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(4): 509-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.16153
Citation: Yalan QIN, Shunwu ZHOU, Renhe ZHANG, Shuangyan YANG, Ziyu YAN. Seasonal Variations of Occurrence Frequencies of Two Types of Tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau and Their Differences from Those in the Same Latitudes[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(4): 509-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.16153

青藏高原两类对流层顶频率的季节分布特征及其与同纬度地区的差异

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.16153
基金项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划项目 2012CB9552003

国家自然科学基金项目 41405070

国家自然科学基金项目 41275095

国家自然科学基金项目 41675039

国家自然科学基金项目 91537213

国家自然科学基金项目 41641042

详细信息
    作者简介:

    秦亚兰, 女, 1991年出生, 硕士研究生, 主要从事气候动力学研究。E-mail:qyl00527@163.com

    通讯作者:

    周顺武, E-mail:zhou@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P461

Seasonal Variations of Occurrence Frequencies of Two Types of Tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau and Their Differences from Those in the Same Latitudes

Funds: 

National Key Research and Development Program of China 2012CB9552003

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41405070

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41275095

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41675039

National Natural Science Foundation of China 91537213

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41641042

  • 摘要: 基于1979~2014年ERA-Interim逐日再分析温度资料,依据温度递减率插值法,计算出北半球两类对流层顶(热带对流层顶和极地对流层顶)频率数据。对比分析了青藏高原与同纬度地区两类对流层顶频率在季节变化上的差异,并讨论了青藏高原两类对流层顶频率分布与高空温度的关系。结果表明:1)依据温度递减率插值法计算出的再分析两类对流层顶频率可以反映青藏高原两类对流层顶频率季节变化特征:热带对流层顶全年频率高,冷、暖季节差异不明显;极地对流层顶盛夏频率极低,冷、暖季节差异明显。与极地对流层顶频率相比,青藏高原热带对流层顶频率的可信度更高。2)青藏高原和同纬度地区热带(极地)对流层顶频率在暖季增加(减少),在冷季减少(增加)。相比同纬度地区,青藏高原热带(极地)对流层顶频率在冬季偏少(多),其他季节偏多(少)。青藏高原两类对流层顶频率等值线的梯度更大,表明青藏高原对流层顶更易断裂。3)青藏高原两类对流层顶频率与高空温度关系密切。青藏高原对流层中上层(平流层下部)温度升高(降低),有利于青藏高原热带对流层顶频率增加,极地对流层顶频率减少,反之亦然。
  • 图  1  1979~2014年平均的青藏高原探空站范围内(a)热带对流层顶、(b)极地对流层顶频率的逐月变化(灰色代表探空资料,黑色代表再分析资料)

    Figure  1.  Monthly variations of multi-year mean (a) tropical tropopause occurrence frequency and (b) polar tropopause occurrence frequency around locations of the radiosonde stations over the Tibetan Plateau averaged during 1979-2014 (gray bar indicates observations of radiosondes and dark bar indicates ERA-Interim analysis data)

    图  2  1979~2014年平均的北半球纬向(0°~180°~178.5°W)平均(a)热带对流层顶频率和(b)极地对流层顶频率

    Figure  2.  Latitude-time cross sections of zonal-mean (averaged over 0°-180°-178.5°W) occurrence frequencies of (a) tropical tropopause and (b) polar tropopause in the Northern Hemisphere (averaged during 1979-2014)

    图  3  1979~2014年平均的沿青藏高原所在经度(75°E~102.5°E)平均(a)热带对流层顶频率和(b)极地对流层顶频率的时间—纬度分布

    Figure  3.  (a) Tropical tropopause occurrence frequency and (b) polar tropopause occurrence frequency averaged over the Tibetan Plateau longitudes (75°E-102.5°E) (averaged over 1979-2014)

    图  4  1979~2014年平均的青藏高原所在经度减去纬向平均后的(a)热带对流层顶频率和(b)极地对流层顶频率的时间—纬度分布

    Figure  4.  Latitude-time cross sections of differences between occurrence frequencies of (a) tropical tropopause and (b) polar tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau and their zonal means (averaged over 1979-2014)

    图  5  1979~2014年平均的青藏高原所在经度减去纬向平均后的(a)对流层中上层(500~200 hPa)平均温度和(b)平流层下部(100~50 hPa)平均温度(单位:K)时间—纬度分布

    Figure  5.  Latitude-time cross sections of the mean temperature differences (units: K) in the (a) upper troposphere (500-200 hPa) and (b) lower stratosphere (100-50 hPa) between the Tibetan Plateau and their zonal means

    图  6  1979~2014年平均的沿青藏高原所在纬度(27.5°N~40°N)平均的(a)热带对流层顶频率、(b)极地对流层顶频率、(c)对流层平均温度(单位:K)、(d)平流层平均温度(单位:K)的时间—经度剖面以及(e)沿27.5°N~40°N平均的海拔高度随经度分布

    Figure  6.  Longitude-time cross sections of (a) the tropical tropopause occurrence frequency, (b) the polar tropopause occurrence frequency, (c) the mean temperature in the upper troposphere (units: K), (d) the mean temperature in the lower stratosphere (units: K) averaged over 1979-2014 as well as (e) the topography height averaged over the Tibetan Plateau latitudes (27.5°N-40°N)

    图  7  青藏高原上空各层温度分别(a)与热带对流层顶频率以及(b)与极地对流层顶频率的逐月相关系数分布(浅和深的阴影区域分别表示通过0.05、0.01的显著性检验)

    Figure  7.  Monthly correlation coefficients of (a) the tropical tropopause occurrence frequency and (b) the polar tropopause occurrence frequency with temperature over the Tibetan Plateau (light and heavy shadings indicate correlations passing the test at 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels, respectively)

    表  1  1979~2014年平均的青藏高原再分析与探空对流层顶频率逐月误差统计及相关系数

    Table  1.   Monthly deviations and correlation coefficients between multi-year mean tropical tropopause occurrence frequencies from reanalysis data and radiosonde data over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979-2014

    月份热带对流层顶频率极地对流层顶频率
    BIASRMSEMRE相关系数BIASRMSEMRE相关系数
    1-11.8%15.0%14.4%0.45**-22.6%23.2%24.1%0.82**
    2-10.6%14.0%12.6%0.54**-21.9%24.4%23.8%0.65**
    3-12.8%16.0%15.0%0.57**-22.6%26.0%24.0%0.56**
    4-15.6%17.4%17.6%0.83**-26.0%26.1%29.3%0.48**
    52.9%9.7%3.2%0.56**-15.6%14.3%24.5%0.53**
    62.8%5.1%2.9%0.52**-4.0%5.2%28.7%0.41**
    74.5%6.6%4.8%0.12-0.8%1.4%27.2%0.68**
    84.2%7.4%4.4%0.09-0.5%0.9%34.0%0.73**
    93.7%4.9%3.7%0.39*-0.9%1.7%30.4%0.76**
    10-2.7%6.5%2.9%0.53**-6.3%9.6%27.9%0.93**
    11-8.7%11.1%10.3%0.58**-19.6%19.1%25.3%0.88**
    12-12.1%13.9%14.7%0.74**-23.6%23.5%25.5%0.80**
    *表示相关系数通过了0.05水平的显著性检验。
    **表示相关系数通过了0.01水平的显著性检验。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-08-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2017-04-14
  • 刊出日期:  2017-07-20

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