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索马里急流与南亚高压年代际变化的可能联系

石文静 肖子牛 孙杭媛

石文静, 肖子牛, 孙杭媛. 索马里急流与南亚高压年代际变化的可能联系[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(3): 561-577. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1609.16163
引用本文: 石文静, 肖子牛, 孙杭媛. 索马里急流与南亚高压年代际变化的可能联系[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(3): 561-577. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1609.16163
Wenjing SHI, Ziniu XIAO, Hangyuan SUN. The Correlation of Somali Jet Strength with South Asia High on Interdecadal Timescale[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(3): 561-577. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1609.16163
Citation: Wenjing SHI, Ziniu XIAO, Hangyuan SUN. The Correlation of Somali Jet Strength with South Asia High on Interdecadal Timescale[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(3): 561-577. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1609.16163

索马里急流与南亚高压年代际变化的可能联系

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1609.16163
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 Grants 91637208

国家自然科学基金项目 41375069

国家自然科学基金项目 41175051

云南省重点基金项目 Grant 2016FA041

详细信息
    作者简介:

    石文静, 女, 1986年出生, 博士后, 主要从事海气相互作用、东亚季风气候的研究.E-mail:shiwj@lasg.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    肖子牛, E-mail:xiaozn@lasg.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P461

The Correlation of Somali Jet Strength with South Asia High on Interdecadal Timescale

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China Grants 91637208

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41375069

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41175051

the Key Fund Project of Yunnan Province Grant 2016FA041

  • 摘要: 索马里急流是北半球夏季最为强盛的越赤道气流,南亚高压则是出现在对流层高层、平流层低层最大最稳定的反气旋环流系统,基于近60年NECP/NCAR再分析资料,本文研究了年代际尺度上夏季索马里急流与南亚高压的联系。研究结果表明:年代际尺度上,索马里急流与南亚高压存在显著的正相关关系,当索马里急流偏弱(强)时,夏季南亚高压偏弱西退(偏强东进)。对不同年代际背景下南亚高压东西部的经向垂直环流的分析发现,当索马里急流处于偏弱位相时,南亚高压西半部(20°~70°E)经向垂直环流偏强,而其东半部(75°~120°E)经向垂直环流减弱;反之亦然。南亚高压南北两侧的纬向垂直环流的变化也有差异,索马里急流偏弱(强)时,北部南亚高压(27.5°~35°N)的青藏高原上空纬向垂直环流显著减弱(增强),而南部南亚高压(20°~27.5°N)的伊朗高原上空纬向垂直环流减弱(增强)明显。进一步的研究发现,年代际尺度上索马里急流与南亚高压的联系受到PDO(Pacific Decadal Oscillation)年代际变化的调制。PDO正负位相的转折,首先改变了对流层高层副热带西风急流的强弱变化,从而使得位于其南部的南亚高压强度和热带东风急流发生相应的改变,热带东风急流的变化又通过热带印度洋上空的局地纬向垂直环流将异常信号传递到对流低层,改变热带地区索马里急流的强弱变化。
  • 图  1  (a-c) 夏季南亚高压强度指数 (SAHI)、(d-f) 南亚高压东伸指数 (SAHE) 和夏季索马里急流强度指数 (SMJI) 的时间序列及其11年高通、低通滤波时间序列:(a、d) 滤波前的时间序列;(b、e) 高通滤波后的时间序列;(c、f) 低通滤波后的时间序列。图中“R”为时间序列之间的相关系数,(a、d) 中加粗虚线为SMJI的9年滑动平均,加粗实线为SAHI (SAHE) 的9年滑动平均

    Figure  1.  Time series of (a-c) the South Asia high intensity index (SAHI), (d-f) South Asia high east extension index (SAHE), and the Somali jet intensity index (SMJI) in the summer, as well as their 11-year high-and low-pass filtering time series. (a) and (d) are time series before filtering, (b) and (e) are time series after high pass filtering, (c) and (f) are time series after low pass filtering. The bold dashed lines in (a) and (d) are 9-year running means of SMJI; the bold solid lines in (a) and (d) are the 9-year running means of SAHI and SAHE, respectively. R represents the correlation coefficient between SMJI and SAHI /SAHE

    图  2  夏季SMJI与 (a、b、c)100 hPa、(d、e、f)200 hPa位势高度异常的同期相关分布,(a、d) 是原数据结果,(b、e) 是11年高通滤波后的结果,(c、f) 是11年低通滤波后的结果。深、浅阴影区分别代表通过99%和95%信度水平检验

    Figure  2.  Simultaneous correlations of SMJI anomalies with 100 hPa (a, b, c) and 200 hPa (d, e, f) geopotential height anomalies in the summer from 1951 to 2010. (a) and (d) are results before filtering, (b) and (e) are results after high pass filtering, (c) and (f) are results after low pass filtering. Dark (light) shadings indicate the 99% (95%) confidence level

    图  3  夏季SMJI (实线)、SAHI (灰色虚线) 和SAHE (点虚线) 时间序列的滑动t检验曲线,水平实线代表 95%的信度水平检验线,y轴表示统计量t

    Figure  3.  The sliding t-test analysis of the SMJI (solid line), SAHI (grey dashed line), and SAHE (dot-dashed line) in the summer, the horizontal solid lines indicate the 95% confidence level, y-axis is the statistic quantity t-value

    图  4  (a、d) T1(1951~1978年)、(b、e) T2(1979~1994年) 和 (c、f) T3(1995~2010年) 时间段合成的夏季 (a-c)925 hPa、(d-f)200 hPa水平风矢量 (箭头,单位:m s-1) 和100 hPa位势高度 (等值线单位:gpm) 的异常场。黑色粗箭头和打点区表示超过了95%信度水平

    Figure  4.  Composite differences in (a-c) 925 hPa and (d-f) 200 hPa horizontal winds (vectors, units: m s-1) and 100 hPa geopotential height (contour, units: gpm) in the summer between the three periods of (a) T1 (1951-1978), (b) T2 (1979-1994), (c) T3 (1995-2010) and the climatogy. The black bold arrows and areas covered by dots denote values significant at the 95% confidence level

    图  5  (a–d)T1(1951~1978年)、(e–h)T2(1979~1994年)、(i–l)T3(1995~2010年)时间段合成的100 hPa至300 hPa夏季平均的(a、e、i)16800 gpm、(b、f、j)12520 gpm、(c、g、k)11020 gpm、(d、h、l)9720 gpm等高线的分布。黑色实线是1951~2010年平均的气候态值,红色虚线为合成分析结果

    Figure  5.  Composites of the (a, e, i) 16800 gpm, (b, f, j) 12520 gpm, (c, g, k) 11020 gpm, (d, h, l) 9720 gpm contours from 100 hPa to 300 hPa in the summer for the three periods (a–d) T1 (1951–1978), (e–h) T2 (1979–1994), (i–l) T3 (1995–2010). Black solid lines are their climatology from 1951 to 2010 and red dashed lines are composite analysis results

    图  6  (a) T1(1951~1978年)、(b) T2(1979~1994年)、(c) T3(1995~2010年) 时间段合成的夏季平均沿20°~35°N的纬向-垂直环流的异常场[矢量箭头,垂直速度 (单位:-0.01 Pa s-1) 与纬向风 (单位:m s-1) 的合成矢量]。黑色箭头超过了95%信度的显著性检验,等值线是1951~2010年平均的夏季垂直速度场 (单位:Pa s-1;等值线的间隔是0.02 Pa s-1),阴影区域表示20°~35°N的平均地形

    Figure  6.  Composite differences in zonal-vertical circulation [vectors, composed by the vertical velocity (-0.01Pa s-1) and zonal wind (m s-1)] averaged over 20°-35°N in the summer between (a) T1 (1951-1978), (b) T2 (1979-1994), (c) T3 (1995-2010) and the climatology, respectively. The black arrows denote values significant at the 95% confidence level. Contours are the averaged vertical velocity (units: Pa s-1) from 1951 to 2010 in the summer (The contour interval is 0.02 Pa s-1). The shaded area indicates the topography averaged over 20°-35°N

    图  7  图 6,但为南亚高压 (a-c) 西部 (20°~70°E) 和 (d-f) 东部 (75°~120°E) 经向-垂直环流的异常场[矢量箭头,垂直速度 (单位:-0.01 Pa s-1) 与经向风 (单位:m s-1) 的合成矢量]的合成结果,阴影区域表示平均地形

    Figure  7.  Same as Fig. 6, but for the summer meridional-vertical circulation [vectors, composed by the vertical velocity (-0.01 Pa s-1) and meridional wind (m s-1)] averaged over (a, c, e) 20°-70°E and (b, d, f) 75°-120°E. The shaded area indicates the topography

    图  8  图 6,但为南亚高压 (a-c) 南部 (20°~27.5°N) 和 (d-f) 北部 (27.5°~35°N) 纬向-垂直环流的异常场[垂直速度 (单位:-0.01 Pa s-1) 与纬向风 (单位:m s-1) 的合成矢量]的合成结果,阴影区域表示平均地形

    Figure  8.  Same as Fig. 6, but for the summer zonal-vertical circulation [vectors, composed by the vertical velocity (-0.01 Pa s-1) and zonal wind (m s-1)] averaged over (a-c) 20°-27.5°N and (d-f) 27.5°-35°N. The shaded area indicates the topography

    图  9  (a) T1(1951~1978年)、(b) T2(1979~1994年)、(c) T3(1995~2010年) 时间段合成的夏季平均海温场 (阴影,单位:℃)、200 hPa水平风场 (矢量箭头,单位:m s-1) 的异常场,黑色箭头和虚线打点覆盖区超过了95%信度水平

    Figure  9.  Composite differences in horizontal winds (vectors, units: m s-1) at 200 hPa and sea surface temperature (shaded, units: ℃) in the summer between (a) T1 (1951-1978), (b) T2 (1979-1994), (c) T3 (1995-2010) and the climatology, respectively. The black arrows and areas covered by the black dashed lines with dots denote values significant at the 95% confidence level

    图  10  夏季 (a) SMJI、(b) SAHI分别与夏季太平洋年代际震荡指数 (PDOI) 的时间序列及其9年滑动平均曲线,灰色实心圆虚线代表SMJI或SAHI,加粗虚线为SMJI或SAHI的9年滑动平均,空心三角实线代表PDOI,加粗实线为PDOI的9年滑动平均,图中“R”为时间序列之间的相关系数

    Figure  10.  Time series of (a) SMJI (grey dashed line with dots), (b) SAHI (grey dashed line with dots) and the Pacific decadal oscillation index (PDOI, solid line with triangles) in the summer, as well as their 9-year running means. The bold dashed line is the 9-year running mean of SMJI or SAHI; the bold solid line is the 9-yr running mean of PDOI. R represents the correlation coefficient between PDOI and SMJI/SAHI

    图  11  图 9,但为夏季地表温度 (阴影,单位:oC) 及200 hPa位势高度场的异常场 (等值线,单位:gpm) 的合成结果

    Figure  11.  Same as Fig. 9, but for the surface skin temperature (shaded, units: oC) and geopotential height (contours, units: gpm) anomalies at 200 hPa in the summer

    图  12  (a) T1(1951~1978年)、(b) T2(1979~1994年)、(c) T3(1995~2010年) 时间段合成的夏季平均沿5°~20°N的纬向-垂直环流的异常场[垂直速度 (单位:-0.01 Pa s-1) 与纬向风 (单位:m s-1) 的合成矢量],黑色箭头超过了95%信度水平

    Figure  12.  Composite differences in zonal-vertical circulation [vectors, composed by the vertical velocity (-0.01 Pa s-1) and zonal wind (m s-1)] in the summer averaged over 5°~20°N between (a) T1 (1951-1978), (b) T2 (1979-1994), (c) T3 (1995-2010) and the climatology, respectively. The black bold arrows denote values significant at the 95% confidence level

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-04-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2016-09-22
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-15

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