Advanced Search
Articles Online First have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
Snow Accumulation Efficiency Difference and Mechanism during the Two Snowstorm Events in Jiangsu Province in January 2018
Wenjun HAN, Yueyue YU, Yumeng ZHOU, Shengjie CHEN, Zhaoyong GUAN, Wei HUANG, Wenlu WU, Liangmeng LIAO
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21065
Abstract(194) HTML(10) PDF (50338KB)(44)
The first snowstorm event in Jiangsu during 3–5 January 2018, had heavier snowfall but lower snow accumulation efficiency, whereas the second snowstorm event during 24–28 January had lighter snowfall but higher snow accumulation efficiency. This study investigated the temperature and humidity conditions in these two snowstorm events using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and observation data from the China Meteorological Administration and explored the underlying physical processes in the framework of isentropic atmospheric mass circulation. The main findings are as follows: (1) Compared with the second snowstorm event, the early stage of the first snowstorm event was characterized by higher temperature in the entire troposphere, which was attributed to a relatively deeper and stronger poleward warm air branch of isentropic atmospheric mass circulation to the south of Jiangsu. In contrast, the stronger equatorward cold air branch of isentropic atmospheric mass circulation resulted in a temperature lower than 0°C in the second snowstorm event, promoting higher snow accumulation efficiency. (2) The deep water vapor mass inflow layer in lower isentropic layers collaborated with the wide range of ascending motions during the first snowstorm and further brought lower-level water vapor to higher layers for the formation of larger snowfall. Larger meridional water vapor transport but weak zonal water vapor net mass outflow in the low isentropic layers increased near-ground specific humidity, contributing to the lower snow accumulation efficiency. However, there was a deep layer of water vapor mass outflow in the lower isentropic layers during the second snowstorm event, which contributed to the greater snow accumulation efficiency. Colder and dryer conditions resulting from the abnormal meridional cold air transport and weak water vapor transport in both meridional and zonal directions caused higher snow accumulation efficiency in the second snowstorm event. The comparison of the spatial distribution of temperature and humidity with snow accumulation efficiency further reveals that under high temperature and humidity conditions, snow accumulation efficiency is more sensitive to the local temperature and humidity.
Mechanism and Seasonal Prediction of Interannual Variations of the Surface Air Temperature in May and September over Northwest China
Mengying YAO, Zhiwei ZHU, Rui LU, Junqiang YAO
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21124
Abstract(302) HTML(38) PDF (3585KB)(75)
Based on the daily surface air temperature (SAT) gauge data and global reanalysis datasets from 1961 to 2016, this study revealed the interannual variability of the SAT over Northwest China (NWC) in May and September via observational diagnosis and numerical simulations, and constructed their corresponding seasonal prediction models. The results are as follows: 1) The first modes of the SAT over NWC during May and September are characterized by a similar homogenous spatial pattern but with different interannual variations. 2) The positive anomaly of the SAT over NWC in May is related to the tropical zonal tripole anomalous convection (precipitation), corresponding to the tropical sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) during the decaying phase of La Niña. The extratropical teleconnection wave train excited by tropical convection anomalies leads to a barotropic anticyclonic (high pressure) anomaly over NWC, which increases the downward solar shortwave radiation and causes an increased local SAT. In September, the tropical zonal dipole convection (precipitation) anomaly associated with the tropical SSTA during the developing phase of La Niña can trigger the barotropic anticyclonic (high pressure) anomaly on the east and west sides of NWC, leading to a positive SAT anomaly over NWC. 3) Based on the SSTA predictors associated with the decaying and developing phase of La Niña, the seasonal prediction model for the SAT over NWC in May and September was established. The prediction skill in terms of the correlation coefficient during the independent prediction period (2006–2016) can reach 0.74 (0.62) in May (September), providing a reference for seasonal prediction of the SAT over NWC.
Preliminary Analysis of the Water Vapor Characteristics of the “July 19” Heavy Rain in 2021 in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang
Junlan ZHANG, Ruqi LI, Na LI, Haihua LI, Junjie SHI
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21153
Abstract(157) HTML(18) PDF (9553KB)(35)
The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang is a world-renowned arid area with an average annual precipitation of less than 100 mm. A rare heavy rain occurred in the basin around July 19, 2021. The maximum cumulative rainfall and daily rainfall were 107.3 and 78.5 mm, respectively (both values are up to the magnitude of Xinjiang’s heavy rain). The following conclusions were drawn by analyzing the characteristics of the storm water vapor. For the first time, the concept of a “uniform twin” of the South Asia high was proposed. During the transition of the 100-hPa South Asian high from “high in the west to low in the east,” the 500-hPa Iranian high and the plateau anticyclone, the central Asian low and the Indian low, and the plateau vortex were jointly structured. The “two highs and one low” circulation situation reveals the large-scale circulation and physical mechanism of vapor from the Arabian Sea and the northern Bay of Bengal entering the basin under a stable anticyclonic circulation of Iran under high pressure. The main sources of storm water vapor in the basin are the Mediterranean Sea and the western ocean, central Asia, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal. The water vapor transport has three paths and trajectories: west, east to west, and southwest + south, and the easterly wind on the south side of the Iranian high pressure and central Asian regional westerly winds play a key role in the “east to west” water vapor transport. The easterly winds in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal merge with the west wind belt to form a water vapor conveyor belt that is an important condition for the occurrence of this heavy rain. Water vapor is input from the western, southern, and eastern boundaries. The water vapor income from the eastern boundary mainly comes from the low-level east wind. The water vapor income from the western and southern boundaries comes from three middle and high-level paths. The “southwest + south” path of water vapor transport brings water vapor to the southern boundary, where the input contribution is substantially greater than that of the western boundary. The heavy rain in the Tarim Basin depends on the central Asian low pressure and whether the central Asian low pressure, Indian low pressure, and plateau vortex coexist and affect the atmospheric circulation field.
Impact of the Summer Tropical Atlantic Sea Temperature on the First Rainy Season Precipitation in South China
Hao QIN, Liquan WU, Hui HE
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21108
Abstract(205) HTML(23) PDF (6039KB)(62)
The impact of summer tropical Atlantic sea temperature (TAST) on the first rainy season precipitation in South China (FRSP) is investigated using monthly precipitation data from 160 stations in China, Hadley Center sea surface temperature (SST) data, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1979 to 2019. Correlation analysis and information flow theory indicate that a rise (reduction) in the previous summer (TAST) partially accounts for an increase (decrease) in FRSP. The SST increases in the critical zone (35°W–10°E, 10°S–5°N) may amplify the Walker circulation and produce abnormal subsidence across the Pacific, resulting in an easterly wind anomaly throughout the central and western equatorial Pacific during the summer. The ocean–atmosphere interactions aided in the formation of La Niña in the fall and winter that followed. The same forces govern the negative SST anomaly but in the opposite direction, which is favorable for the growth of El Niño. When the La Niña (El Niño) reaches its height in the northern hemisphere, convection heating intensifies (or is inhibited) in the western Pacific, triggering atypical cyclones (anticyclones) in the lower troposphere to its north. The anomalies persist until the first rainy season of the second year, resulting in the persistence of abnormal cyclones (anticyclones), which, on the one hand, contribute to the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) weakening and eastward retreating (strengthening its westward extension), thereby reducing (increasing) the transport of water vapor from the South. Thus, the WPSH reduces (increases) water vapor movement from the South China Sea to South China. On the other hand, in tropical regions, convective activity (suppression) is favorable to strengthening (weakening) the local Hadley circulation, resulting in the subsidence (ascent) anomaly in South China and suppressing (intensifying) convection. Additionally, the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern Pacific energized a Pacific–North American-like wave train, and the SST anomalies in the North Atlantic energized the Eurasian (EU) wave train, resulting in negative (positive)– positive (negative) – negative (positive) geopotential height anomalies in the Eurasian mid-high latitudes region, which is unfavorable (favorable) for the cold air affecting South China.
Interannual Variation of the Quasi-biweekly Diabatic Heating over the Tibetan Plateau during Boreal Summer and its Relationship with Rainfall Anomaly over Eastern China
Jia TIAN, Shuangyan YANG, Yashu LIU
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21106
Abstract(208) HTML(23) PDF (4645KB)(48)
Using China’s high-resolution grid rainfall data as well as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) and ERA-Interim reanalysis data from 1979 to 2018, the relationship between the interannual variation of the main mode (southern concentrated pattern) of the quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) of diabatic heating over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during boreal summer and rainfall anomaly over eastern China is investigated. When the interannual intensity of QBWO over TP is strong, a significant positive correlation exists between the summer rainfall anomaly in the south of the Yangtze River and QBWO over southern TP. In the weak years, rainfall anomalies in the Jianghuai region and South China characterize a dipole pattern. Additionally, in the strong (weak) years, the low-latitude intraseasonal signal originating in the Northwest Pacific region mainly shows a westward (northwestward) propagation, and the mid-high-latitude quasi-barotropic intraseasonal signal mainly shows a southward (southwestward) propagation. The combined effect of signals from low latitudes propagating westward (northwestward) and mid-to-high latitudes propagating southward (southwestward) cause different abnormal rainfall patterns in China. The low-latitude QBWO signal propagating westward (northwestward) weakens and disappears after reaching the Arabian Sea (southeast of TP). The southward (southwestward) signal in the mid-high-latitude converges with the westward (northwestward) signal in the low-latitude, continues propagating westward, and finally weakens and disappears.
Comparative Analysis of Rainfall Droplet Spectra of Typhoon Wipha (201907) in Chongzuo and Fangchenggang, China
Jiashen MAO, Yilun CHEN, Aoqi ZHANG, Shumin CHEN, Rong FANG, Weibiao LI, Mingxue LI
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21116
Abstract(358) HTML(51) PDF (4073KB)(42)
We analyzed the structural characteristics and differences in raindrop spectrum at different precipitation stages on the inland leeward side (LSI) and near-coast windward side (WSC) during the impact of typhoon Wipha from August 2 to 3, 2019. We used the raindrop spectrum observation data from Chongzuo National Meteorological Observatory and Fangcheng National Reference Climate Station, combined with rainfall data and radar observation data for the analysis. The results show that typhoon Wipha’s rainfall is mainly contributed by medium and small raindrops, with the proportion of medium raindrops consistently exceeding 70%. The rainfall at LSI is dominated by stratiform clouds with relatively gentle rain intensity, while the rainfall at WSC is characterized by mixed cumulus clouds with considerable rain intensity and severe fluctuations. Raindrop concentration and diameter are significantly larger at WSC than at LSI due to the considerable convective activity and upward velocity. The main factor for the increase in rain intensity at LSI after typhoon landfall is an increase in raindrop diameter. Meanwhile, the increase in rain intensity at WSC after the change from typhoon eye wall to a strong convective spiral rain band is mainly due to an increase in raindrop number concentration. The average mass-weighted mean diameter of typhoon Wipha’s convective precipitation is 1.85 mm, with a logarithmic normalized intercept of 3.95 mm−1 m−3. Convective precipitation occurs in the maritime convective region at LSI, while it occurs between maritime and continental convection at WSC.
Impact of Madden–Julian Oscillation on Pacific Blocking Frequency during Two Types of El Niño
Mingxiang GAO, Shuangyan YANG, Qiang WANG, Tim LI
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21105
Abstract(172) HTML(29) PDF (5727KB)(36)
The influence of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) on Pacific blocking frequency during two kinds of El Niño (Eastern Pacific and Central Pacific El Niño) is investigated using a two-dimensional blocking index in winter, based on ERA-interim reanalysis of daily data from 1979 to 2019. In this research, phases 3 and 7 were chosen because they had a greater frequency. In MJO phase 3, during the Eastern Pacific and Central Pacific El Niño years (EP3 and CP3), the sites of MJO teleconnections are found to be comparable, correlating to a positive (negative) geopotential height anomaly in the polar area (the Bering Sea). Thus, during EP3 and CP3, there are positive blocking frequency anomalies in the high-latitude Pacific sector. Blocking frequency anomalies across the mid-high-latitudinal Pacific are notably positive in MJO phase 7 during the Eastern Pacific El Niño years (EP7) but not so much in MJO phase 7 during the Central Pacific El Niño years (CP7). Because the MJO-related anomalous Ross wave source is located northwest of the EP7 subtropical jet core region, the MJO teleconnection is located north of 50°N. This teleconnection relates to geopotential height abnormalities in the Pacific sector, which enhance the frequency of Pacific blocking. However, during the CP7, the MJO-related anomalous Rossby wave source was located in the subtropical jet core region. The associated teleconnection propagates across the subtropical jet stream, exerting a negligible impact on the geopotential height in the Pacific area. Thus, there are no statistically significant blocking frequency anomalies in the CP7 across the Pacific area. Finally, the ECHAM4.6 model is used to validate the results.
Influence of Indian Ocean Warming on Extreme Precipitation in the Western Tianshan Mountains from Late Spring to Early Summer
Miaomiao NIU, Jie ZHANG, Qianrong MA, Zhiheng CHEN
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21102
Abstract(207) HTML(29) PDF (6938KB)(55)
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center’s daily grid precipitation data is used to analyze the spatial–temporal change of extreme precipitation in the Tianshan Mountains from late spring to early summer (May and June), as well as the mechanism of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOBM) on extreme precipitation. The results show a clear spatial difference in extreme precipitation in the Tianshan Mountains from late spring to early summer. Extreme precipitation increased dramatically in the Western Tianshan Mountains, whereas other regions experienced little variation. The diagnostic and numerical simulation results consistently showed that the increase in extreme precipitation in the Western Tianshan Mountains was caused by a coetaneous positive anomaly of IOBM, which promoted the convergence of warm and cold airflows in the Western Tianshan Mountains. On the one hand, the positive anomaly of IOBM strengthened the anticyclonic anomalies located in Eastern Europe and the northern part of Central Asia, promoting cold airflow southward transportation. On the other hand, it induced the Indian Ocean to warm unevenly, resulting in abnormal vertical circulation and subsidence, which caused the anticyclonic anomalies in the Arabian Sea and the Indian peninsula. Warm moisture from the Indian Ocean was delivered to the Western Tianshan Mountains by the anomalous anticyclone and southerly airflow, which aided in the increase of extreme precipitation in the Western Tianshan Mountains.
Relationship between Vertical Convection Structure and Precipitation Simulation Bias in the Tropical Atmosphere: An Analysis Based on GAMIL3 Model
Zikun REN, Tianjun ZHOU, Zhun GUO, Xiaolong CHEN, Lijuan LI, Bo WU
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21098
Abstract(144) HTML(29) PDF (5869KB)(26)
The simulation ability of tropical precipitation and convective vertical structure was evaluated using the two version of GAMIL (Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG). In this work, we focused on the differences between GAMIL2 (G2) and GAMIL3 (G3), and the reasons for improved precipitation simulation in the G3 and the relationship between the convective vertical structure of tropical convection and precipitation simulation deviations were investigated. Both GAMIL versions accurately represent the key features of tropical precipitation, with G3 being more globally accurate than G2. The updated version greatly reduces the positive precipitation bias in the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean. The water vapor budget diagnosis reveals that the precipitation deviation is primarily caused by the evaporation and the vertical advection dynamic terms, where the latter is attributed to the combined influence of vertical motion intensity and profiles. The vertical structure deviation of convection is most prevalent in the equatorial Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean areas, which primarily corresponds to small convergence component in the lower atmosphere and a larger height of detrainment. The traditional “top-heavy” and “bottom-heavy” vertical motion profile characteristics are strongly represented in the tropical northwest Pacific and equatorial Eastern Pacific Ocean, although deeper convection than reanalysis data is still evident. The moist static energy budget reveals that the estimated vertical motion divergence is primarily caused by the excess net energy flow across the tropical northwest Pacific Ocean. Alternatively, the deeper vertical convective structure leads to a larger gross moist stability, which offsets the net energy flux deviation and inhibits G3. This offset effect has significantly improved precipitation simulation in the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean due to a decrease in the positive deviation of convective intensity. The down-regulation of convective stratus thresholds in G3 increases the frequency of convection without inhibiting excessive vertical motion intensity. The vertical structure of tropical convection has various intimate links with precipitation deviation, which should be considered for future model development.
Analysis of the Effect of an Anomalous Convective Longitude Position Difference on Regional Climate Caused by El Niño
Junjie CHEN, Jilin SUN
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21085
Abstract(146) HTML(23) PDF (12517KB)(33)
Based on NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) monthly OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) data from 1979 to 2019, NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA5 monthly reanalysis datasets, and East Anglia Climatic Research Unit surface temperature data from 1960 to 2019, the effects of El Niño events with anomalous convection at a different zonal position on regional climate are discussed. The findings show that studying the effects of El Niño events on atmospheric circulation and regional climate anomalies based on the zonal positions of anomalous convection in the tropical Pacific can overcome the limitation that SST anomalies do not fully reflect the atmospheric convection anomalies. In super El Niño events, the anomalous convection is located near 140°W. During the boreal autumn and winter, anomalous subsidence over the tropical western and eastern Pacific moves eastward, resulting in higher temperatures and drought in northeastern Australia and northeastern Brazil, as well as more rainfall along the coasts of Peru and Ecuador. The PNA (Pacific–North American) wave train is located eastward, which significantly weakens the North American trough and brings warmer weather to North America. From Greenland to northwest Europe, the geopotential height is low, making northern Eurasia significantly warmer. The anomalous convection in eastern El Niño is located near 160°W. As a result, from boreal autumn to spring, anomalous subsidence is westward, resulting in dry northwestern Australia, northwestern South America, and wet eastern Australia. The PNA wave train originates in the south of the Aleutian Islands and deepens the North American trough, causing severe cold winters in eastern North America. The anomalous convection is located near 180° in El Niño Modoki. Contrary to super El Niño, the coasts of Peru and Ecuador are dry due to abnormal subsidence, and most of Australia experiences drought from boreal autumn to spring under the control of anomalous anticyclones. The PNA wave train is located westward, resulting in severe cold winters in southeastern America. The Atlantic exhibits a negative North Atlantic Oscillation pattern during the winter of eastern and El Niño Modoki events, and temperatures in the middle latitudes of Eurasia are low.
The Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution in Two Rainstorms with Extreme Rainfall Rates in Summer in Shandong Province
Jun WANG, Zhanyu YAO, Shumei HOU, Hong WANG, Qiuchen ZHANG, Dianli GONG
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104
Abstract(246) HTML(48) PDF (4778KB)(86)
Abstrcat The raindrop size distributions and integral parameters of convective precipitation and formation mechanism of ground Raindrop size distribution in two extreme precipitations were analyzed using data from the Thies disdrometer and the CINRADA/SA Doppler radar. The results showed that: (1) The two precipitation processes were both affected by the southwest airflow outside the subtropical high and the westerly trough with the characteristics of high temperature and high humidity, which were conducive to the production of heavy rain. (2) The relationships between parameters lgNw, D0 and rain intensity R of severe convective precipitation episodes (rain intensity R>20 mmh−1) revealed there was a large coefficient and a small index on 3 August 2015, whereas it was just the opposite on 26 July 2017. On 3 August, D0 rapidly increased as R increased for the median volume diameter of the raindrop, and the slope of the fitting line was large, while lgNw gradually decreased as R increased. Furthermore, the slope of the linear fitting line was negative. D0 and lgNw were both positively correlated with R on 26 July 2017; however, D0 increased slowly as R increased, and the slope of the fitting line was small. In addition, the slope of the linear fitting line was smaller. For the raindrop concentration (NT), the exponential function can be used to fit the NT as R increases. On 3 August, there was a large coefficient and a small index, whereas on 26 July, it was just the opposite. (3) The average raindrop size distribution of convective precipitation with different rainfall intensities show that, On 3 August, with the increase of rain intensity (R>50 mm h−1), the concentration of small particles in diameter 1–3 mm varied slightly, while the concentration of large raindrops in diameter 3–6 mm increased significantly, and the ZR relationship of convective precipitation had a large index (1.61). On 26 July, with the increase of rain intensity, the concentration of particles in each diameter range basically increased at the same time, and the ZR relationship of convective precipitation had a small index (1.25). In conclusion, the precipitation on 3 August had typical size-controlled raindrop size distribution characteristics, whereas the convective precipitation on 26 July had concentration–diameter mixed control of raindrop size distribution characteristics based on the relationship between integral parameters and rain intensity and the average raindrop size distribution. (4) The normalized Gamma NWD0 distributions showed that the convective precipitation in the two cases had the characteristics of the typical raindrop size distribution of continental convective precipitation. Many raindrop size distributions in the processes of 3 August showed the characteristics of ice phase and warm mixed convective precipitation, but most of the convective precipitation in the two processes had the characteristics of ice-based raindrop size distribution.
2023 Issue 1
Display Method:
2023, 47(1).  
Abstract(55) PDF (3438KB)(22)
Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of the Sudden Rainstorm Inducing the “6.26” Mountain Torrent Disaster in Mianning, Sichuan Province
Boyu CHEN, Yun CHEN, Jisong SUN, Tao CHEN, Zhaoping CHEN, Ning HU
2023, 47(1): 1-19.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21186
Abstract(429) HTML(80) PDF (10043KB)(149)
Based on multisource observations, reanalysis, and convection-resolving model forecast data, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the sudden rainstorm process on 26 June 2020 in Mianning, Sichuan Province, were analyzed by employing physical quantity diagnosis, standardized anomaly analysis, and comparison with similar processes. The results were as follows: (1) The process was a local sudden rainstorm characterized by several banded meso-γ convective systems and extreme hourly precipitation generated by the “train effect”. The convective cloud clusters had the features of a mesoscale convective complex with a low center of convective echoes. (2) Surface convergence and uplift, formed by the outflow of a convective cold pool in the northern part of Mianning and a strong southerly wind in the valley, triggered convection. (3) The southerly low-level flow in Southwest Sichuan exhibited phased enhancement and provided continuous warm and moist air transportation. Its interaction with the downhill cold pool early in the process and the confluence with the southward cold air from the western basin later in the process repeatedly triggered convective cells on the west and south sides of Mianning station, causing the “train effect” in downstream areas. (4) Physical quantities, such as the convective effective potential energy of the environmental atmosphere, had more significant anomalies and persistence of anomalies compared with a similar process in the past. (5) The high-altitude terrain in the northern part of Southwest Sichuan has a substantial effect on delaying the entry of cold air into the Anning River valley and maintaining unstable stratification in the valley. The forcing uplift of the terrain in this area formed potential convection-triggering conditions in the river valley upstream. Finally, the conceptual model of the formation mechanism of this rainstorm process was presented.
Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Ice Nuclei on the Electrification Process of Thunderstorms
Zheng SHI, Xiaolin GUAN, Xiaotong LIN, Yongbo TAN, Xiufeng GUO, Haichao WANG
2023, 47(1): 20-33.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101
Abstract(188) HTML(39) PDF (4328KB)(48)
This work is conducted based on an existing two-dimensional convective cloud model to investigate the role of ice nuclei in dynamic, microphysical, electrification, and charge structure in thunderstorm clouds by changing the concentration of ice nuclei. The results show that thunderstorm clouds develop ahead of time as ice nuclei increase and both updraft and downdraft velocities decrease. A high concentration of ice nuclei enhances the heterogeneous nucleation process. In the high-temperature region, a large number of ice crystals form while the homogeneous nucleation process is inhibited. Therefore, the overall content of ice crystals decreases, resulting in a decrease in graupel content in the low-temperature region and a decrease in graupel size in the high-temperature region. Therefore, the positive non-inductive electrification rate decreases while the negative non-inductive electrification rate increases. The time for the polarity of charge carried by high-temperature ice crystals to change from negative to positive is advanced as the liquid water content gradually decreases with increasing ice nuclei concentration. The extreme value of the inductive electrification rate gradually decreases during the process of inductive electrification due to the decrease in graupel particle size and the rapid consumption of cloud droplets. Because the ice crystals are preferentially generated in the high-temperature region and are negatively charged, the space charge structure of thunderstorm clouds with different ice nuclei concentrations presents a negative dipole charge structure at the initial stage of thunderstorm cloud development. With an increase in ice nuclei concentration, the space charge structure changes from three polarities to a complex four-order structure during the thunderstorm’s growing period. In the dissipation stage of a thunderstorm cloud, different cases show dipole charge structures, and the charge density decreases with the increased concentration of ice nuclei.
Influence of Multi-scale Topographic Factors on Vortex Development during an Eastward-Propagating Rainstorm Event in Southwest China
Xiang LI, Shuai YANG, Shuyun YANG
2023, 47(1): 34-52.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21072
Abstract(432) HTML(67) PDF (22306KB)(149)
Using observation and numerical simulation results, we reveal that three vortexes, namely the northern plateau vortexes (TPV1), southern plateau vortex (TPV2), and Southwest vortex (SWV), developed successively during a disaster-causing rainstorm event in Southwest China from August 5 to 6, 2019, which led to the intensification and eastward propagation of the rainstorm. Through numerical experiments, we study the effects of multi-scale topographic factors (Tibetan Plateau [TP], Hengduan Cordillera [HC], and Sichuan Basin [SB]) on vortex evolution. The results show that HC plays a key role in SWV formation, while SB influences the SWV location and intensity. The topography of the SB only affects the intensity of TPV2 but does not change the propagation path. In the absence of HC, the plateau vortex does not propagate. The influence of slope change of the steep terrain at the boundary between TP and SB on vortex development was further analyzed. The steeper the slope, the faster the propagation speed of the plateau vortex, and the stronger the SWV after the merging of TPV2 and SWV. Finally, the impact of the terrain slope on the evolution of vortex intensity was analyzed according to the theory of slantwise vorticity development. As the slope becomes steeper, the development coefficient of inclined vorticity decreases rapidly along the vortex slide path, and the forcing effect on the local tendency of vertical vorticity intensifies the rapid strengthening of vorticity.
Relationship between Two Types of East–West Oscillations of the South Asia High in Summer and Their Influences on Weather
Chuandong ZHU, Rongcai REN
2023, 47(1): 53-69.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075
Abstract(253) HTML(44) PDF (7791KB)(65)
The South Asia high (SAH) center is characterized by bimodal distribution [i.e., the Tibetan Plateau (TP) mode and Iranian Plateau (IP) mode], showing an east–west oscillation pattern. In addition, the eastern edge of the SAH also regularly extends eastward to East Asia or retreats westward to the TP, manifesting another type of east–west oscillation. Using NCEP1 daily reanalysis data, APHRODITE daily precipitation data, and daily India precipitation data, this paper investigates the relationship between the two types of east–west oscillations of the SAH and the differences in their impacts on the circulation and weather in Asia. The results show that bimodal east–west oscillation of the SAH center can significantly affect the occurrence and amplitude of the eastward extension/westward retreat of the eastern edge of the SAH. Although the eastern edge of the SAH can extend eastward when the SAH center is in the TP or IP mode, the frequency of the eastward extension of the eastern edge of the SAH in the TP mode is significantly higher than that in the IP mode. In the IP mode, the eastern edge of the SAH is more inclined to retreat westward, and the magnitude of the eastward extension of the eastern edge of the SAH in the TP mode is larger than that in the IP mode. Further analysis reveals that the bimodal east–west oscillation of the SAH center is closely related to the rainfall anomaly pattern in North India and the TP region and is coupled with the variation of thermodynamic effect related to rainfall anomaly. The eastward extension/westward retreat of the eastern edge of the SAH is related to the dipole rainfall anomaly pattern in East Asia (i.e., rainfall anomalies in the central and eastern TP and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze Riverand Yellow River are opposite to those in the southern region of the Yangtze River), resulting in the westward extension/eastward retreat of the western Pacific subtropical high. Furthermore, when the SAH is in the TP mode and its eastern edge extends eastward and when the SAH is in the IP mode and its eastern edge retreats westward, rainfall anomaly in the western TP is always opposite to that in the central and eastern TP.
Statistical Characteristics of Cloud Precipitation in the Motuo Area Observed by X-band Dual-Polarization Phased Array Radar
Weiran ZHANG, Liping LIU, Chong WU
2023, 47(1): 70-85.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050
Abstract(244) HTML(32) PDF (3739KB)(68)
During the second comprehensive scientific expedition to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, an X-band phased array polarimetric radar (X-PAR) was installed in Motuo. For the first time, the most advanced dual-polarization phased array radar is used to continuously observe the precipitation in the valley area. The monthly, diurnal, and altitude variations of echo intensity and echo top height of precipitation in Motuo were quantitatively analyzed using the observation data of Motuo X-PAR from November 2019 to October 2020 to reveal the characteristics of precipitation in the southeast valley of the plateau. The results are then compared to those obtained using Doppler radar during the summer monsoon in Naqu. The results show that: (1) The echo peak height, echo area, proportion of strong echo, and echo distribution range from April to October are greater than those from November to March in Motuo, indicating that the precipitation frequency is high and convective precipitation is more from April to October, particularly in June. However, the increase in the number of weak echoes in April shows that the echo intensity from April to October is less than from November to March. According to the monthly variation characteristics of cloud precipitation in Motuo and the plateau monsoon index, the year is divided into the dry season (November to March) and the rainy season (April to October). (2) The echo frequency, top height, and area of precipitation in the rainy season are higher than those in the dry season. The diurnal variations of echo frequency, top height, and area show that the strongest convection occurs in the afternoon in both seasons. Precipitation occurs primarily in the afternoon and first half of the night during the dry season and in the second half of the night during the rainy season. (3) In Motuo, the echo intensity of precipitation is mostly less than 30 dBZ. The echo frequency is higher both in dry and rainy seasons for altitude >3 km and <3 km, respectively. (4) During the summer monsoon, the echo peak height of Motuo is lower than that of Naqu, and the diurnal variation trend of its peak height and area differs from that of Naqu. Besides, daily precipitation in Naqu is primarily concentrated in the afternoon and the first half of the night. In contrast, precipitation in Motuo is focused mainly in the second half of the night. The characteristics of cloud precipitation in the dry season of Motuo are similar to those in the summer monsoon period of Naqu.
Tropical Amplification in Tropospheric Warming Simulated using the Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Version 3 Climate System Model
Shijia LIU, Tianjun ZHOU, Jie JIANG, Meng ZUO, Mingna WU
2023, 47(1): 86-100.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21083
Abstract(202) HTML(23) PDF (4030KB)(46)
Moist adiabatic processes in the tropics amplify the surface warming, producing a warming peak at approximately 200 hPa, known as the “tropical tropospheric amplification”. Tropical tropospheric amplification, as a remarkable feature of climate change, is an important metric in evaluating model performances. In this study, based on RSS4.0 satellite data and ERA5.1 reanalysis data, we systematically assess the ability of the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Version 3 (FGOALS-g3) model in simulating temperature change, especially the tropical tropospheric amplification, and reveal improved simulation skills in the latest version, FGOALS-g3, compared with those in the previous version, FGOALS-g2. By comparing the results of the historical simulation of FGOALS-g3 with those of the simulation from its atmospheric component, the Grid-Point Atmospheric Model of LASG-IAP (GAMIL3), the role of air–sea coupling is studied. The results show that FGOALS-g3 can reasonably reproduce the observed significant global tropospheric warming, but with a stronger trend that is related to internal variability of the climate system and the differences in historical external forcing used by the two generations of climate system models. FGOALS-g3 has also appropriately simulated the observed vertical profile of mean tropical warming and spatial distribution of the tropical tropospheric amplification. This model has shown a positive bias in the simulated magnitude of the tropical tropospheric amplification, resulting from a greater temperature change in the lower troposphere. Compared with FGOALS-g2, the improvement in FGOALS-g3 is mainly manifested as an enhanced response to volcanic aerosol forcing, a more reasonable spatial pattern of the amplified tropical troposphere and the vertical profile of the mean temperature trend. The GAMIL3 simulation fails to influence the external forcing changes on the tropospheric warming trend because of a lack of the air–sea coupling, leading to biases in the long-term trend simulation. However, the GAMIL3 simulation reasonably captures interannual variability because it is driven by the observed sea-surface temperature.
News & Views
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0501 Synoptic Meteorology
Zhiyong MENG, Xudong LIANG
2023, 47(1): 101-110.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22301
Abstract(605) HTML(63) PDF (1914KB)(201)
In 2019, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) restructured the atmospheric sciences application code. A total of 15 sub-application codes were determined. The application code for synoptic meteorology was changed from the original D0505 to D0501, with the numerical model development studies relocated to the sub-code of D0511. This paper interprets the setting of six research directions and their respective keywords of D0501. Some misuses of keywords are clarified. Meanwhile, the keyword usage status for 2020–2022 is summarized. Suggestions and issues that should be considered when using keywords are proposed. This paper aims to help applicants choose research directions and keywords accurately for a better match between the proposals and reviewers.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0502 Climate and Climate System
Haishan CHEN, Jianqi SUN
2023, 47(1): 111-118.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22302
Abstract(248) HTML(54) PDF (1547KB)(173)
To promote the development of high-quality basic research, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has launched new reforms to optimize the layout of the discipline and its application codes. The discipline of atmospheric sciences in the Department of Earth Sciences of NSFC optimized the application code system and set up 15 application sub-codes since 2019 as its reform objectives. This article describes the background of the reforms, the logic structure, and the connotation for application code D0502 (Climate and Climate System), together with keywords for seven related research directions. Project application and funding of General Program, Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions for application code D0502 during 2020–2021 are reviewed. This article aims to help researchers to learn about the development tendency of sub-discipline and to better understand the logical structure and connotation of D0502, providing a reference for a reasonable selection of research directions and corresponding keywords.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0503 Paleoclimate Modeling and Dynamics
Dabang JIANG, Qing YAN, Xinyu WEN
2023, 47(1): 119-124.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22303
Abstract(93) HTML(31) PDF (1088KB)(92)
The National Natural Science Foundation of China reformed the project review classification of Atmospheric Sciences to help streamline the layout of discipline funding to promote the construction of a scientific foundation system in a new era. The new code system is categorized as “branch disciplines” “supporting technologies” and “social development services”. Particularly, “Paleoclimate Modeling and Dynamics (D0503)” has been introduced into the new code system for the first time to achieve the coverage of climate research from minute to geological timescales. In this paper, the authors interpret the setting background, discipline characteristics, research directions, and keywords of the D0503 and discuss its future development. Furthermore, the authors analyze application acceptance, review, and funding for the general program, funding for young scientists, and funding for less-developed regions of D0503 from 2020 to 2022. We believe that this can help scientists to better understand the research directions and keywords of D0503 and get a timely grasp of the code’s development trend, as well as aid in the application and review of funding proposals in the field of “Paleoclimate Modeling and Dynamics”.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0504 Atmospheric Dynamics
2023, 47(1): 125-131.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22304
Abstract(174) HTML(48) PDF (1517KB)(126)
Since 2019, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has been actively promoting scientific fund reform in the new era. In light of this, NSFC’s Department of Atmospheric Sciences took the lead in carrying out the reform of project review classification to help optimize the layout of discipline funding and formed the new application code system through strategic research and discussion. The new system is made up of 15 secondary application codes divided into three categories: sub-disciplines, supporting technologies, and development fields. As a result, the research directions and keywords of each secondary application code were also redesigned, implemented, and continuously optimized. The secondary application code “D0504 Atmospheric Dynamics” retains its name unchanged in this reform, but its connotation and scope have been slightly widened. One notable development is that the boundary between traditionally accepted “dynamics” and “physical processes” is becoming fuzzy and changing, which leads to a widening of the connotation of atmospheric dynamics to many fields previously considered “physical processes”. Meanwhile, the scope of atmospheric dynamics is also expanding from simply investigating the dynamics of the atmosphere to examining the dynamics of the atmosphere’s interactions with other spheres. Its research methods are also changing, from experimental research, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations with simplified models to experimental research, fact analysis, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations with hierarchical models. In order to serve the application and review of proposals and promote the development of the discipline, this paper interprets the essence, scope, and logic of the research directions and keywords of the secondary application code “D0504 Atmospheric Dynamics”. It also briefly analyzes the application data under the secondary application code to demonstrate how the keywords were used during 2020–2022.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0505 Atmospheric Physics
Minghuai WANG, Shiguang MIAO, Jianchun BIAN, Lei BI, Gaopeng LU
2023, 47(1): 132-144.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22305
Abstract(258) HTML(52) PDF (5444KB)(151)
In 2020, the National Natural Science Foundation of China modified the application code of the atmospheric sciences discipline and established 15 secondary disciplines according to the reform needs of the new era. D0505 is one of the secondary application codes for the subdisciplines. This paper introduced the general framework of the secondary application code, its six research directions (boundary layer atmospheric physics and turbulence, cloud and precipitation physics, aerosol physics and aerosol–cloud interactions, atmospheric optics and radiative transfer, atmospheric electricity and acoustics, and physics of the middle atmosphere), and their keywords, as well as the similarities and differences between D0505 and other relevant secondary application codes. The paper then examined possible research patterns and trends by analyzing the publication records under each keyword in different research directions from the Web of Science database in the last five years (2017–2021). This paper will assist fund candidates in correctly selecting application codes, research directions, and keywords.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0506 Atmospheric Chemistry
Aijun DING, Weigang WANG, Lin ZHANG, Qiang ZHANG, Huizheng CHE, Qingzhu ZHANG
2023, 47(1): 145-153.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22306
Abstract(470) HTML(26) PDF (2007KB)(187)
The Department of Atmospheric Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) took the lead in reforming the application code setting scheme and putting the new version into use in 2020, and since then, it has been continuously improved. The new version of the code setting scheme considers the main research directions and methods and sorts out the main keywords to facilitate the application and evaluation of NSFC projects. This paper summarizes the primary considerations for establishing the research directions and keywords in the subcode D0506 atmospheric chemistry. Simultaneously, the word frequency, research hotspots, and trends in different directions under the subcode are analyzed and discussed. The keyword-based bibliometric analysis highlights existing difficulties and funding priorities with the intention of promoting the development of atmospheric chemistry and relevant areas in the atmospheric discipline.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0507 Eco-meteorology
Xuemei WANG, Zhaozhong FENG, Yuhe JI, Ming CHANG, Fangxia SHEN, Zhen YU, Maosheng YAO
2023, 47(1): 154-166.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22307
Abstract(145) HTML(23) PDF (2484KB)(108)
The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) made adjustments to the application code of the atmospheric sciences discipline in 2020 and established 15 application code. Eco-meteorology is one of the newly established secondary application code. With the support of the special strategic research project and the scientific community, the Keyword Working Group organized experts to determine the research direction and keywords through multiple rounds of discussion. This paper interprets the four research directions and keywords of the ecometeorology discipline. The overall framework of ecometeorology was highlighted, and the characteristics and internal relations of four research directions (atmospheric processes of microorganisms, ecological effects of atmospheric changes, impact of ecosystems on the atmosphere, ecometeorology monitoring, and simulation) were clarified. The connotation and extension of each research direction and its keywords were given, along with how frequently they appeared in the last five years’ worth of literature (2017–2021). Considerations and suggestions were put forward in selecting research directions and keywords. Through the interpretation of research direction and key words, this paper helps fund applicants to choose appropriate research directions and keywords and improve the accurate assignment of communication review experts.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0508 Planetary Atmospheres
Jun YANG, Dali KONG, Guo CHEN, Yongyun HU
2023, 47(1): 167-173.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22308
Abstract(101) HTML(17) PDF (1126KB)(78)
Recently, the Earth Science Department’s Fifth Division of Earth Science (Atmospheric Sciences Discipline) of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has improved the discipline structure and adjusted the fund application code. Among them, the addition of the secondary application code D0508 for “planetary atmospheres” is remarkable. The major purpose of adding this application code is to promote the research of planetary atmospheres, expand the planetary atmospheres research team, and continuously support the development of the entire atmospheric sciences in China. This article explains the settings of three research areas and 24 keywords under this application code and explains the specific reasons and relevant connections for the settings. Through this introduction, fund applicants may better understand the logic of setting these research directions and keywords and lay a good foundation for a more accurate selection of research directions and keywords in the fund application processes.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0509 Atmospheric Observation, Remote Sensing and Detection Technology and Methods
Rui LI, Zhengqiang LI, Kun ZHAO, Yele SUN
2023, 47(1): 174-184.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22309
Abstract(937) HTML(12) PDF (1828KB)(202)
The National Natural Science Foundation of China has actively pursued reform work, with “optimizing the layout of disciplines” as one of the primary tasks, and the adjustment of discipline application codes is an important component and entry point of this task. This work is being done in order to adapt to the new round of scientific and technological development. From 2019 to 2022, the Department of Atmospheric Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China reformed the secondary application codes. D0509, “Atmospheric observation, remote sensing, and detection technologies and methods,” incorporated all atmospheric observation research. The D0509 is defined as “supporting technologies” to differentiate it from “sub-disciplines” and “development areas” of science. At present, D0509 has designed six research avenues from two perspectives, based on the basic level of the discipline and the specific application level, with approximately 20 keywords for each direction. This article describes the reforming process of the D0509 code and interprets the research directions and keywords from the perspectives of the importance, connotation, extension, and development trend of atmospheric observation, remote sensing, and detection technologies and methods. It helps applicants and review experts accurately select keywords according to their academic backgrounds and facilitates the accurate matching of proper reviewers to each proposal.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0510 Atmospheric Data and Information Technology
Xiaomeng HUANG, Fei ZHENG, Ben YANG, Bin MU, Yong ZHOU, Jingjia LUO
2023, 47(1): 185-193.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22310
Abstract(506) HTML(21) PDF (1503KB)(128)
The National Natural Science Foundation of China restructured the financing structure for atmospheric disciplines in 2021, which includes a total of 15 sub-codes that are divided into three categories: (i) Subdisciplines; (ii) supporting technologies; and (iii) development fields. The D0510 “Atmospheric Data and Information Technology” section mainly focuses on advancements in new technologies and methodologies, as well as integrations between atmospheric theories and technologies. In this case study, we interpret the background, logical structure, and setting of the four major research directions and keywords in the new D0510 “Atmospheric Data and Information Technology” section. This paper highlights D0510’s primary objectives for enhancing inclusiveness and coverage in atmospheric disciplines, as well as D0510’s leading roles in promoting inclusive and potentially disruptive technologies. We also provide statistical analyses of the fund applications and bibliometrics in terms of keywords in each direction of D0510 over the past years. Overall, our goal is to assist relevant researchers in better understanding the future development of the D0510 section, as well as the connotation and logical relationships among keywords, research directions, and sub-categories from various categories, which will ultimately help researchers in their research direction and keyword selection.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0511 Atmospheric Numerical Model Development
Jian LI, Qing BAO, Lili LEI, Yi ZHANG
2023, 47(1): 194-202.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22311
Abstract(605) HTML(50) PDF (1633KB)(151)
To serve the application and review of funding proposals in atmospheric numerical model development and promote further development of the discipline, we interpret the research directions and keywords of D0511 atmospheric numerical model development, a second-level application code of the atmospheric science discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, are interpreted herein. The essence of atmospheric numerical model is to solve the numerical solution of partial differential equations using numerical algorithms based on physical or chemical processes. The development of atmospheric numerical models should be guided by tackling key core technologies to enhance China’s comprehensive international competitiveness.This paper reviews the setting background of D0511, the overall framework of the research directions and the keywords of D0511. As well as interpreting the specific considerations of the keywords. The paper analyzes and discusses the word frequency and research hotspots in different directions based on bibliometric methods and the Web of Science database. The use of the keywords is analyzed based on their applications in the recent two years. Suggestions on the choice and optimization of keywords are also put forward. The future setting of keywords should be in accordance with the updated basic guiding principles.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0512 Earth System Model Development
Yanluan LIN, Yongqiang YU, Chungang CHEN, Li Liu, Wei Xue
2023, 47(1): 203-211.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22312
Abstract(414) HTML(33) PDF (1579KB)(131)
Since 2018, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has promoted the systematic reform of science funds. As a reform pilot, the Department of Atmospheric Sciences of the NSFC led the reform of proposal review classification to optimize the layout of discipline funding and formed the 2020 application code configuration through strategic research and discussion. The main structure of atmospheric science contains three categories of sublevel codes: (i) subdisciplines; (ii) supporting technologies; and (iii) development fields, totaling 15 sublevel codes. They also organized experts to systematically sort out and analyze the research directions and keywords of each sublevel code, and after three years of implementation and optimization, they developed the current version. The five research directions and keywords of earth system model development (D0512), a second-level code of the atmospheric science discipline of the National NSFC, are systematically interpreted. This paper introduces the overarching background of D0512’s setup, the overall framework of the research directions and keywords of D0512, and the specific considerations for keywords. The frequency and research hotspots of all the keywords in different directions during the last five years are also analyzed and discussed using the Web of Science database. The existing keywords are found to be reasonable, although there is room for improvement. To enhance visibility and attract more research proposals, the keywords must be constantly modified and updated. There are also suggestions for keyword selection and optimization. It is hoped that the new application code will promote the progress of earth system model development in China.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0513 Climate Change, Its Impacts and Countermeasures
Qiang ZHANG, Chaopeng HONG, Long CAO
2023, 47(1): 212-219.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22313
Abstract(174) HTML(59) PDF (1650KB)(130)
In the context of fund reform in the new era, the National Natural Science Foundation of China has optimized the discipline layout and application codes. Under the new application code scheme implemented in 2020, the discipline of atmospheric sciences has 15 secondary application codes under the three major sections of “branch disciplines”, “supporting technologies” and “development fields”. In this paper, we interpret the research directions and keywords under the secondary application code D0513, “Climate Change, Its Impacts and Countermeasures,” and analyze the use of keywords and research hotspots under this application code by combining bibliometric methods and application data. As an application code of the “development fields” section, “Climate Change, Its Impacts and Countermeasures” focuses on the major needs of national and social development, and the research directions and keywords under this application code reflect a scientific, inclusive, and leading nature. With the increasing concern of society regarding climate change, research in this field is developing rapidly, and hot spots are emerging. This paper aims to help scholars grasp the development trend of the discipline, recognize the meaning of the D0513 application code and its research directions and keywords, and select them accurately in fund applications.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0514 Atmospheric Environment and Health Meteorology
Huizheng CHE, Jintai LIN, Aijun DING, Qiang ZHANG
2023, 47(1): 220-229.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22314
Abstract(546) HTML(28) PDF (1912KB)(165)
The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has been promoting its systematic reform since 2018. The adjustment of the application code is the starting point for the reform of optimizing the discipline layout. With the support of strategic research projects, the Working Group optimized and adjusted the application code of the atmospheric sciences discipline and its subordinate research directions and keywords. D0514 (atmospheric environment and health meteorology) is adjusted from the original secondary application code D0513 (atmospheric chemistry and the atmospheric environment) and belongs to the “development field” section in the new application code. It extends the knowledge chain and connotation of the atmospheric environment and is conducive to the cross-integration of different research directions. This paper combs the overall framework of D0514 research directions, explains the keyword settings of each research direction, and proposes precautions for fund applicants in selecting research directions and keywords. D0514 has four research directions, namely, the atmospheric environment and air pollution prevention, indoor air pollution, atmospheric environment epidemiology and toxicology, and health economic loss assessment. These four research directions are not only mutually supportive and closely related but also clearly distinguishable. Based on the perspective of research objects, research methods, and scientific issues, each research direction has approximately 20–30 keywords. The keywords should not be too detailed. To improve the efficiency of artificial intelligence in selecting grant reviewers, the applicant should give priority to the keywords provided by the NSFC system. By interpreting this article, the scientific community can understand the establishment process of research directions and keywords under the application code to better select the corresponding research directions and keywords for applicants.
Research Directions and Keywords under the Secondary Application Codes of the Atmospheric Sciences Discipline of the National Natural Science Foundation of China: D0515 Applied Meteorology
Kaicun WANG, Huiling YUAN
2023, 47(1): 230-238.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22315
Abstract(193) HTML(48) PDF (2768KB)(123)
Since 2019, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has strongly promoted the reform of NSFC for the new era. Under this background, the atmospheric sciences discipline in the department of earth sciences has taken the lead role in optimizing the funding system and adjusting its application code; and has approved a new funding layout across the three major categories, namely, “sub-disciplines, supporting technologies and social development services,” which consist of 15 secondary application codes. The discipline of atmospheric sciences has organized experts to systematically investigate the research directions and to update the keywords under each secondary application code. Applied meteorology is one of the second application codes (D0515). The main research directions in applied meteorology include (1) Weather modification; (2) Agroforestry meteorology; (3) Hydrometeorology; (4) Resource meteorology; (5) Traffic meteorology; and (6) Other applied meteorological directions. To serve the applicants, this study illustrates the evolution of the secondary application code for applied meteorology and introduces the keywords under the major research directions. This study also examines the use of these keywords in research frontiers and project applications. Moreover, the applicants’ main affiliations are analyzed alongside issues related to the selection of keywords and attributes of scientific problems during the application of the secondary application code D5015. Through the above sorting and interpretation, we can help fund applicants choose appropriate application codes and keywords, and improve the efficiency of intelligent assistant assignment of fund applications.
Regionalization?of?the boundary-layer height and Its Dominant Influencing Factors in Summer Over China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22183
Abstract(52) PDF (3829KB)(8)
Study on the Differences of Various Climatic Normals of the North China in Winter and Summer and Its Impact on Climate Monitoring
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21200
Abstract(20) PDF (2370KB)(3)
Non-meteorological echoes identification method based on Bayesian classifier and echo physical characteristics using C-band radar and its performance
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22003
Abstract(43) PDF (4829KB)(6)
Sensitivity Study of Cumulus Convection Parameterization to Gray Zone during a Heavy Precipitation Process over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22045
Abstract(11) PDF (12475KB)(2)
Characteristic of North Atlantic Horseshoe SSTA in Autumn and the Relationship with the Interannual Variation of Early Winter Temperature in China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22106
Abstract(24) PDF (2003KB)(5)
Comprehensive study of the cloud macro- and micro- structure of a rare aircraft icing case in Henan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21044A
Abstract(36) PDF (2599KB)(6)
Comparative Analysis of Water Vapor Transport and Thermodynamic characteristics of Different Types of Jiulong vortex of Southwest China vortex
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21202
Abstract(25) PDF (1901KB)(10)
Reexamine the Tibetan Plateau vortices sources based on multiple resource datasets
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.21262
Abstract(32) PDF (4868KB)(16)
Research and Prediction of Typical Stratospheric Sudden Warming Event in the Arctic in 2021
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22069
Abstract(20) PDF (3257KB)(5)
Characteristics of Atmospheric Heat Source and Cloud Amount over Yunnan before and after Summer Monsoon Rain Onset
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22105
Abstract(71) PDF (3791KB)(14)
Development and application of mid-summer precipitation prediction model over Haihe River Basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22142
Abstract(24) PDF (2459KB)(3)
Pollution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Southeast Tibet
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22165
Abstract(22) PDF (1628KB)(3)
Numerical Simulation of Convective-Stratiform Mixed Clouds Enhancement in Zhejiang Province Based on Ensemble Forecasting
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22177
Abstract(45) PDF (1899KB)(7)
Differences of the low level easterly jet over Tarim in rainstorm and non-rainstorm processes in Southern Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21183
Abstract(29) PDF (5240KB)(7)
Potential Vorticity Analysis and Fine Forecast of Extreme Rainstorm Event in Henan Province in July 2021
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22029
Abstract(26) PDF (5982KB)(6)
The effect of the Atmospheric Heating Source on Tibetan Plateau Vortex during Different Development Stages —A Case Study in July 2013
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.21267
Abstract(45) PDF (2397KB)(13)
Summer hot-dry stages in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the past 136 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22100
Abstract(42) PDF (4253KB)(8)
Analysis on the characteristics of short-term extreme precipitation in China in recent 30 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22118
Abstract(64) PDF (2391KB)(22)
Comparative study on the high-resolution vertical distribution characteristics of meteorological elements and atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer of sunny day and radiation fog events based on UAV observation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22180
Abstract(49) PDF (3157KB)(8)
Study on regional extreme precipitation events over mainland of the South China during 1981-2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22056
Abstract(83) PDF (2004KB)(28)
The distribution and transport of upper tropospheric water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau area during the east?west oscillation of the South Asian high in summer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22066
Abstract(79) PDF (5260KB)(13)
3D wind field retrieval by combining space-borne infrared imager and hyperspectral detection
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22093
Abstract(290) PDF (1941KB)(50)
Evolution characteristics and roles of precipitation cloud systems in the process of size change of tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21256
Abstract(77) PDF (1643KB)(11)
Responses of vegetation to climate change and human activities in arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22048
Abstract(83) PDF (1701KB)(33)
Statistical characteristics of occurrence of blocking highs and their modulation on surface air temperature during anomalous stratospheric northern annular mode events
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22052
Abstract(83) PDF (3726KB)(12)
The abnormal warming of summer surface temperature in Central Asia from 1980 to 2019JIA Xiaojing1, Liu Xuke1 and QIAN Qifeng2
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22054B
Abstract(66) PDF (2703KB)(7)
Objective Identification of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex Based on ERA-5 High Resolution Data
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22119
Abstract(95) PDF (5091KB)(21)
Study for GRAPES-REPS of cosine analysis constraint scheme based on ETKF initial perturbations
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22062
Abstract(63) PDF (3641KB)(7)
Analysis of precipitation characteristics and causes of a rare rainfall process in Henan province in 2021
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.21251
Abstract(122) PDF (4260KB)(31)
Study on the vegetation changes and its relationship with climate factors in different dry/wet areas over China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.21258
Abstract(102) PDF (2369KB)(37)
The Role of Air-sea Coupling in Simulating East Asian Summer Monsoon and responses to pre-winter El Ni?o - Based on FGOALS-g3
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22076
Abstract(67) PDF (10272KB)(13)
Evaluation of heavy rainfall numerical prediction based on subjective and objective circulation classification as well as method for object-based diagnostic evaluation ——method and its application over Northeast China during the warm season of 2019
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22107
Abstract(94) PDF (2486KB)(27)
Studies on approaches for computing stream function and velocity potential in a limited domain during the past 70 years and their recent developments
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22143
Abstract(207) PDF (2437KB)(55)
Numerical Study on Convection Initiation Conditions and Predictability of A Warm-sector Rainstorm Lifting from Boundary Layer under Complex Terrain
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22103
Abstract(206) PDF (4930KB)(86)
The short-term forecasting of the Gaoyou Tornado with hourly assimilation and model forecast cycle of GRAPES-RAFS
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21090
Abstract(81) PDF (3494KB)(28)
Regional differences in surface temperature variation in China from1961 to 2018
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21130
Abstract(81) PDF (2789KB)(17)
Contributions of Large-Scale Circulation and Local Land-Atmosphere Interaction to Precipitation in Eastern China: Investigation on Influencing Factors of the July 2021 Heavy Precipitation Event in Henan Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21239
Abstract(86) PDF (2809KB)(27)
Structure and mechanism analysis of the tornado at the periphery of typhoon Mangkhut
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22038
Abstract(94) PDF (4722KB)(22)
Relation of Atmospheric ISO at Mid-High-Latitude-Eurasia to the European Blocking Frequency and Their Co-effect on Extreme Hot Events during Boreal Summer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22077
Abstract(85) PDF (13809KB)(24)
Objective Identification and Analysis of Warm-Sector Rainstorm with Warm Shear Pattern over Yangtze-Huaihe River Region
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21220
Abstract(260) PDF (2697KB)(28)
Evolution Process and Mechanism Analysis of the Mesoscale System of an Extreme Summer Rainstorm in Shandong Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21261
Abstract(133) PDF (5607KB)(42)
Evaluation of Earth System Model CAS-ESM 1.0 for Ocean Circulation Anomalies Modes of the Tropical Pacific Ocean in Jan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21016
Abstract(77) PDF (2854KB)(14)
An optimized probabilistic prediction method of aircraft icing potential based on convection-allowing model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21235
Abstract(75) PDF (2349KB)(12)
Spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and causes of short-duration heavy rainfall in the presummer rainy season over the Pearl River Delta region before and after the South China Sea summer monsoon onset in the past 20 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22102
Abstract(167) PDF (5154KB)(23)
Assessment of Cloud Base Height Product from ERA5 Reanalysis Using Ground-Based Observations
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22109
Abstract(109) PDF (2337KB)(23)
Aircraft Measurement on the Microphysical Properties of a Precipitating Stratiform Cloud Event in the Qilian Mountains of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22019
Abstract(140) PDF (3658KB)(44)
Influence of soil hydraulic parameters on global medium-range numerical weather forecast system
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22040
Abstract(77) PDF (2399KB)(11)
Improving the dynamic core of a pseudo-incompressible model in the η coordinate
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22059
Abstract(82) PDF (2005KB)(21)
A Case Study of Summer Precipitation Process in the Central Tianshan Area using Multi-radar Observation and Model Simulation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21196
Abstract(79) PDF (5154KB)(15)
Analysis on the Applicability of Different Precipitation Products and WRF-Hydro Model over the Source Region of the Yellow River
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22057
Abstract(73) PDF (2166KB)(19)
Application of Machine Learning in Clustering and Discriminant Analysis of Large-scale Circulation Patterns Favorable for Tropical Cyclogenesis over the Western North Pacific
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22074
Abstract(97) PDF (3321KB)(31)
Trends and possible causes of different levels of precipitation variations in China during 1961~2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22033
Abstract(102) PDF (7336KB)(40)
Seasonal prediction and Predictability of East Asian winter monsoon in German Climate Forecast System
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22072
Abstract(113) PDF (3498KB)(11)
Microstructure study of updraft zone of precipitation cloud system in North China based on aircraft observation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21244
Abstract(122) PDF (3145KB)(32)
Humidity Sensitivity of retrieved temperature by microwave radiometer and the feedback on the topography of Liupan Mountain
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22042
Abstract(89) PDF (937KB)(15)
Observational analysis of the heavy rainfall case on June 26, 2020, in Mianning
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21146
Abstract(135) PDF (4011KB)(44)
Evolution Characteristics of Different Scale Initial Perturbation Energy in Convection-Permitting Ensemble Prediction of GRAPES
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21242
Abstract(125) PDF (8072KB)(27)
Baroclinic Disturbances in Nonzonal Flow
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22073
Abstract(110) PDF (578KB)(27)
Variations of summer precipitation over the Three-River Headwaters region and Yarlung Zangbo River basin and response to Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22089
Abstract(76) PDF (17194KB)(27)
A Diagnostic Study of Water Vapor Transport and Budget during wintertime snowstorm days over the different regions of Northern Xinjiang in 1979-2017
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21137
Abstract(89) PDF (2196KB)(30)
Projection of Rainfall erosivity changes in Northeast China using a high-resolution regional model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22006
Abstract(76) PDF (2411KB)(16)
1991-2020 China Climate Normals
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22010
Abstract(462) PDF (3737KB)(142)
Air vertical motion and raindrop size distribution retrieval algorithm based on reflectivity spectral density data and dual wavelength ratio constraint with Ka/Ku dual-wavelength cloud radar and its preliminary applicationLiu Liping
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21199
Abstract(88) PDF (4749KB)(19)
The impact of fraction vegetation coverage increase on temperature change in Liaoning Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22005
Abstract(96) PDF (4192KB)(20)
Discharge characteristics of upward negative precursors in positive triggered lightning
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22009
Abstract(110) PDF (1079KB)(13)
Preliminary Analysis of the Interaction between the East Asian Jet Streams and Air Pollutants in the Surface Layer in Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21125
Abstract(122) PDF (30016KB)(29)
Evaluation of six land surface evapotranspiration products over the Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21208
Abstract(120) PDF (4313KB)(32)
Analysis of attractor behavior and predictability in a coupled Lorenz model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21236
Abstract(90) PDF (1849KB)(22)
Influence of Typhoons in the Western Pacific on Summer Precipitation in the Eastern Part of Northwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22011
Abstract(133) PDF (3944KB)(23)
The Maintenance and Development of Ural Blocking High and its Relationship with Severe Cold Wave Activities in 2020/2021 Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21166
Abstract(98) PDF (4207KB)(31)
A Study on the Effects of Vegetation on Dust Weather in Inner Mongolia
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22017
Abstract(112) PDF (3890KB)(23)
Improvement and Application of Time-height Profile Reconstruction Method with X-band Dual Polarization Radar Parameters
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22058
Abstract(95) PDF (3795KB)(29)
The Impacts of Dabie Mountains on a Mesoscale Convective System Occurred at the Background of Northeast Cold Vortex
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21023
Abstract(100) PDF (6876KB)(32)
Feature extraction and analysis of Atmospheric Turbulence Based on new round trip radiosonde
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21103
Abstract(120) PDF (2445KB)(22)
Multi-scale Features and Air-sea Background of Winter PersistentCold Events in Fujian Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21188
Abstract(106) PDF (7176KB)(26)
Statistical characteristics of the Northeast China Cold Vortex and its impact on precipitation distribution from 2000 to 2019
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21227
Abstract(144) PDF (6319KB)(58)
Decadal variation of boreal summer 30~60-day intraseasonal oscillation and its influence on precipitation and temperature over eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21228
Abstract(112) PDF (4711KB)(28)
Barotropic Instability of Geostrophic Flow: The Problem Revisited
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22004
Abstract(116) PDF (511KB)(19)
Interdecadal variations of winter precipitation over the Three River Source region in China and associated physical mechanisms
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22034
Abstract(142) PDF (3495KB)(26)
Spatial Instability of Barotropic Geostrophic Flow
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22037
Abstract(133) PDF (444KB)(22)
Impact of cumulus parameterization schemes on the high-resolution numerical simulation of heavy Meiyu front rainfall events
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21259
Abstract(195) PDF (2489KB)(36)
Analysis on Interannual Variation of Regional Persistent High-Temperature Events in South China during 1961-2017
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21123
Abstract(142) PDF (2519KB)(49)
Projection of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River Basin in the future 30 years under different Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21154
Abstract(220) PDF (1605KB)(61)
Three Cold Surges in China during the Winter of 2020/2021 and Their Low-frequency Features
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21222
Abstract(187) PDF (5823KB)(34)
Roles of local mountain-valley wind circulation in the formation of an orographic clouds and precipitation event on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21257
Abstract(167) PDF (4886KB)(58)
Progresses and challenges of direct assimilation of cloud-affected satellite infrared radiances
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21176
Abstract(154) PDF (910KB)(17)
Inversion of Precipitation parameters and Precipitation type classification based on Micro Rain Radar
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21210
Abstract(227) PDF (3653KB)(90)
The impact of the “combined modality” of SR and EAP on the heavy precipitation in the early stage of Meiyu in the Yangtze-Huai River region in 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21215
Abstract(218) PDF (3535KB)(37)
Thermodynamic characteristics over North Asian of the steady warming process before the summer onset
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21238
Abstract(140) PDF (2188KB)(15)
The stratospheric Arctic polar vortex modulated by the SST warming in the western equatorial Pacific in early spring
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21254
Abstract(167) PDF (5703KB)(43)
Characteristics of Lightning Activity in Super Typhoon Mangkhut (1822)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21229
Abstract(187) PDF (4022KB)(39)
Interannual Variability of Winter Fog Days over Southern China and Its Relationship With ENSO
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21159
Abstract(230) PDF (7454KB)(39)
Comparison of dynamical transport’s characteristics in low ozone regions over the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21156
Abstract(150) PDF (2986KB)(34)
Frontogenetic analyses of topographic frontal rainstorm in Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21252
Abstract(181) PDF (11737KB)(37)
Improved Visibility Diagnostic Scheme Based on Fog Microphysical Observation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21138
Abstract(169) PDF (1761KB)(42)
Cloud Microphysical Characteristics of Warm Conveyor Belt within a Winter Mesoscale Snowstorm
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21180
Abstract(179) PDF (10266KB)(48)
Characteristics of Cold Pools in the Outer Core of Tropical Cyclones in Different Vertical Wind Shear Magnitudes
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21216
Abstract(178) PDF (2256KB)(32)
The Analysis of Sea Temperature Variation in Response to Typhoon Lekima(1909)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.20247
Abstract(177) PDF (1711KB)(43)
Impacts of winter and spring snow anomalies on summer precipitation frequency and intensity in Eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.22018
Abstract(196) PDF (6914KB)(59)
Identify the reflected signal in the COSMIC-2 occultation signal using the improved GoogLeNet deep learning model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21096
Abstract(122) PDF (1957KB)(18)
Analysis of circulation characteristics and precipitation phase difference of an extreme freezing rain and snow weather in Southwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21224
Abstract(179) PDF (2664KB)(46)
The Interdecadal Variations and Physical Mechanisms of the Relationship between Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature and East Asian Water Vapor Transport in December and February
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21129
Abstract(221) PDF (13443KB)(44)
Macro-micro Physical Characteristics of Rainfall Clouds in the West Tianshan Mountains Based on Ka Band Cloud Radar
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21112
Abstract(186) PDF (1720KB)(55)
Research progress of vertical motion and new vertical motion equation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21140
Abstract(234) PDF (1176KB)(91)
Climate Effects of Black Carbon aerosol from China and India in East Asia in Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21163
Abstract(146) PDF (5022KB)(32)
Influencing Mechanisms of Cloud Droplet Spectral Dispersion on Cloud and Precipitation Simulation under Different Pollution Backgrounds
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21190
Abstract(172) PDF (1350KB)(34)
Seasonal prediction of the variation of the winter cloudy day frequency in eastern China based on the tropical and ex-tropical influence routes
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21117
Abstract(241) PDF (3400KB)(45)
Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation in Indochina Peninsula and South China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21120
Abstract(212) PDF (2636KB)(56)
Interdecadal enhancement of the interannual relationship between spring North Atlantic tripolar SST mode and extreme cold event frequency in eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21172
Abstract(162) PDF (1955KB)(54)
Analysis about the Formation Mechanism of Overshooting Convection during a Rainstorm in Sichuan Basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21174
Abstract(206) PDF (4053KB)(52)
Evaluation of Parameterization of Raindrop Size Distribution on Improving the Prediction of Heavy Precipitation Process in Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21204
Abstract(223) PDF (8946KB)(48)
Statistical Prediction of Accumulated Cyclone Energy in the Western North Pacific from July to August
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21207
Abstract(169) PDF (3350KB)(23)
Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality in Kunshan, Eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21171
Abstract(300) PDF (2070KB)(44)
Numerical simulation of a convective cloud rainfall reduction based on the realistic seeding trajectories of rocket and artillery
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21077
Abstract(174) PDF (6093KB)(34)
The interannual variation of Annual Cycle of the East Asian Subtropical Monsoon and its Impact on Summer Rainfall in North China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21184
Abstract(176) PDF (24977KB)(38)
Future projections of temperature and precipitation over Xinjiang based on CMIP6 models
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21182
Abstract(244) PDF (1850KB)(79)
Simulated Summertime OH Concentrations in China Since the Implementation of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21218
Abstract(195) PDF (2919KB)(36)
A study on Statistic-dynamic downscaling for the precipitation in Heihe river basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21081
Abstract(131) PDF (1900KB)(28)
Preliminary Analysis on the Interdecadal Change and Cause of Summer and Autumn Dryness and Wetness over Northwest China in Recent Decades
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21115
Abstract(210) PDF (2411KB)(66)
A three-dimensional objective identification of the Tibetan Plateau vortex based on wind field
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21127
Abstract(208) PDF (3332KB)(42)
An Ensemble Prediction method of Aviation Turbulence Based on Energy Dissipation Rate
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21147
Abstract(95) PDF (2716KB)(30)
Simulation of Climatology and Interannual Variability of North African Monsoon: An analysis based on FGOALS-g3
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21141
Abstract(218) PDF (3700KB)(32)
Research on the positive growth mechanism of PM2.5 and its chemical components in Beijing urban area from 2013 to 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21142
Abstract(127) PDF (2179KB)(26)
Global monsoon simulated by FGOALS-g3: A comparison with previous version and the influences of air-sea coupling
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21099
Abstract(134) PDF (9370KB)(34)
Analysis of diurnal variation characteristics of summer extreme precipitation in Sichuan and Chongqing
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21032
Abstract(228) PDF (2696KB)(93)
Modeling studies on future changes of dust emission flux over Northern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21128
Abstract(159) PDF (986KB)(22)
Temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of winter cold hazards with and without precipitation in China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21143
Abstract(223) PDF (23074KB)(87)
Statistical characteristics of tropical cyclone gale and its accompanying weather in southeast China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21136
Abstract(164) PDF (2760KB)(52)
Comparative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Lightning Detection Data from FY-4A LMI and ADTD in Rainstorm in MianNing, SiChuan Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21110
Abstract(190) PDF (6880KB)(63)
A New Objective Identification Method for Mesoscale Vortices: Three-dimensional Tracking and its Quantitative Evaluation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21178
Abstract(214) PDF (3551KB)(64)
Analysis of flood disasters and heavy precipitation events in Sichuan-Chongqing region in summer of 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21133
Abstract(192) PDF (3929KB)(56)
Seasonal Evolution of Asian Monsoon Precipitation Simulated by Climate System model: Based on the Comparative Evaluation Between FGOALS-g3 and FGOALS-g2
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21144
Abstract(165) PDF (4714KB)(28)
Microphysical Characteristics of a Cold Front Snowstormin the West Tianshan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.20220
Abstract(232) PDF (3623KB)(83)
Study on East Asian Stable Isotopes in Atmospheric Water Vapor
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21119
Abstract(187) PDF (1556KB)(44)

Since 1976 Bimonthly

Supervisor: Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sponsors by: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Meteorological Society

Editor: Lu Riyu


ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

NewsMore +


Most Read

Most Cited