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Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Thunderstorm Charge Distributions on the Discharge Characteristics of Positive Intracloud Lightning Flashes
Tianxue ZHENG, Yongbo TAN, Linjie LUO
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21079
Abstract(91) HTML(4) PDF (4652KB)(32)
In this study, a stochastic lightning parameterization scheme is coupled with a dipole charge structure, and the parameters and positions of the main negative charge region are fixed. Positive intracloud (+IC) flashes initiating at different altitudes are simulated by adjusting the parameters (charge concentration and horizontal range) of the upper positive charge region, and then the relationships between the characteristics of the +IC flashes and thunderstorm charge distributions are discussed. Simulation results indicate that in dipole charge structures, the elevation of the upper positive charge region can generate high-altitude +IC flashes, which is consistent with observations. Unlike normal IC flashes that are dominated by upward negative leaders and horizontal or slightly downward positive leaders, IC flashes initiated at high altitudes are characterized by long-distance downward positive leaders and horizontal or slightly upward negative leaders. The initiation altitudes of +IC flashes increase with the elevation of the upper positive charge region. When the upper positive charge region is lifted to a certain altitude (in this paper, the upper positive charge region’s lower boundary altitude is 12 km), IC flashes are usually initiated from the main positive charge region, and the concentration and horizontal radius of the upper positive charge region have no major effect on the initiation altitude of IC flashes. In addition, the length of positive or negative leader channels has a substantial positive correlation with concentration and horizontal radius of the charge region and the distance between the initiation point and the negative or positive charge region.
Mechanism of the Influence of Topography on the Initial Upscaling of the South China Squall Line: A Numerical Simulation Study
Xinyong SHEN, Lin WANG, Na QIAO, Yizhou YIN, Huanlian LI
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21045
Abstract(137) HTML(8) PDF (10001KB)(57)
In this study, the National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research 1 ×1° reanalysis data and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) 4.0 mesoscale numerical model were used to simulate the upscale process of a squall line in South China on April 13, 2016. To examine the role of topography in the upscaling process of the squall line, a number of sensitivity tests was designed to comprehensively examine the influence of Nanling on the upscale growth of the squall line and associated mechanism. The WRF model effectively simulated the changes before and after the squall line crossed the mountain and the precipitation distribution. The convection after the mountain is stronger than that before the mountain, and the horizontal scale grows faster; however, the terrain sensitivity tests at different heights demonstrated that a suitable terrain height is extremely beneficial to storm development. The topography affects the scale and organization of the squall line, and the high topography disperses the convection in the north of Guangdong. Terrain can indirectly affect the distribution of convective cells and the strength of convective cells in the squall line by changing the horizontal flow field, water vapor field, vertical movement, and vertical wind shear at the lower level. The absence of terrain obstruction is beneficial to the jet stream and transporting water vapor toward the northward direction is more convenient. A certain terrain height is beneficial to the vertical movement of the low level; however, the terrain is extremely high to facilitate the vertical movement of the upper level; furthermore, the low level is more likely to be primarily detoured. When the terrain exceeds a certain height, the low-level convergence field is correspondingly weakened.
A Numerical Simulation on the Impacts of the Offshore Typhoons on Water Vapor Flux, Dynamic and Thermal Conditions of the Extreme Rainstorm Event in Henan Province in July 2021
Chenhong RAO, Xinxin BI, Guanghua CHEN, Zifeng YU
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21255
Abstract(217) HTML(37) PDF (11440KB)(100)
This study uses the WRF model to numerically simulate the influence of offshore typhoon In-Fa and typhoon Cempaka on the extreme rainstorm process in Henan on 19–21 July 2021. The control (CTL) experiment reasonably captures the tracks and intensities of the two typhoons, the large-scale circulation pattern, the intensity, and spatial distribution pattern of the rainstorm event in Henan, basically reproducing the extreme rainstorm process in Henan. In addition, the sensitivity experiments indicate that after the removal of typhoon In-Fa, the subtropical high extends southward and forms the southeast wind jet in the south, causing the south (east) wind component to obtain weakened (strengthened) around Henan. The water vapor transport in the zonal direction becomes dominant, which is conducive to the transition of the rainfall distribution from the south–north orientation in CTL to the east–west orientation. On the other hand, given that the southeast wind at the low level is weaker than the easterly jet before the removal of typhoon In-Fa, the local convergence at the Henan rainfall area is weakened, and the net water vapor flux is reduced by 5.81% compared with that in CTL experiment. The slowdown in the westward movement of the mid-latitude cold air causes the reduction of the local equivalent potential temperature gradient. Therefore, the rainfall intensity in the removal of typhoon In-Fa (NOINFA) experiment is relatively weaker than that in CTL. After the removal of typhoon Cempaka, the large-scale circulation characteristics are almost unaffected, and the water vapor transport on the south side of Henan is slightly weakened. Therefore, the distribution of heavy rainfall is similar to that in CTL, with a slight decrease in rainfall peak. Compared with typhoon In-Fa, typhoon Cempaka has less effect on the rainstorm event in Henan.
Stratospheric Assimilation, Weather Forecast, and Climate Prediction Model Based on Data Assimilation Research Testbed and Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model
Fei XIE, Wenshou TIAN, Fei ZHENG, Jiankai ZHANG, Jinpeng LU
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.21014
Abstract(184) HTML(7) PDF (2860KB)(20)
Herein, an assimilation interface for temperature, ozone, and water vapor data in the middle and upper atmosphere is developed, and an assimilation model with complete stratospheric processes, including assimilation, weather forecasting, and short-term climate prediction system, is built based on the latest version of the whole atmosphere community climate model (WACCM6) and the data assimilation research testbed. Using the assimilation analysis field as the initial value, the system performed assimilation simulations of the stratospheric atmosphere in March and April 2020 and provided 0–3 days, 4–15 days, and 16–30 days forecast, as well as 1–60 days short-term climate prediction for stratospheric atmosphere changes in May and June. The results show that the system can accurately reflect the time evolution of the very unusual ozone depletion event in the Arctic stratosphere in March and April 2020, which is very similar to the microwave limb sounder (MLS) satellite observations. While simulations without assimilation can simulate the Arctic ozone depletion event, the ozone depletion magnitude is less than that of the MLS satellite. The assimilation model system improves the simulation of not only the chemical composition of the Arctic stratosphere but also the Arctic stratospheric temperature and circulation changes. The simulated March and April and predicted May and June Arctic stratospheric temperature and latitudinal wind variability are in good agreement with the assimilation and reanalysis results using Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA2). In most regions, the root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated March and April and predicted May and June Arctic stratospheric temperature and wind and the MERRA2 reanalysis data are ~3 K and ~4 m/s, respectively. On a global scale, this system has the most significant improvement in the simulation of the middle and lower stratosphere, with the RMSE in the prediction results reduced by more than 50% when compared to unassimilated simulation experiment prediction results.
Dynamic Analysis and Local Circulation Numerical Simulation of a Warm-sector Mountain Rainstorm Event in the Western Sichuan Basin
Zhilong FU, Guoping LI, Fengyou JIANG, Jie GUO
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21054
Abstract(160) HTML(49) PDF (6136KB)(103)
Based on the hourly precipitation data from automatic weather stations, FY-2G TBB data, and ERA5 reanalysis data, dynamic analysis and numerical experiments are performed for a warm-sector mountain rainstorm event in the western Sichuan Basin on 23 July 2017. The results showed that: (1) The warm-sector mountain torrential rainstorm occurred at the edge of the West Pacific subtropical high under the background of weak synoptic forcing. The high temperature and high energy in the western Sichuan Basin and the southeast wind intruding into the basin, lifted by Longmen Mountain, induced this rainstorm. (2) The conversion of the mountain–plain circulation is the reason for the intensification of the rainstorm and the reorganization of the mesoscale convective cloud clusters. (3) Moreover, the mountain–plain circulation uplifts the background wind that causes the upward sloping motion. Further study of the results of the numerical simulation showed that the mountain–plain circulation is driven by near-surface thermal perturbation. In the daytime, a positive virtual temperature disturbance area on the hillside of the western Sichuan Basin is detected, and a plain-to-mountain flow is developed. After sunset, the distribution of the virtual temperature disturbance on the mountain and plain is reversed. Therefore, the mountain–plain circulation shifts from mountain to plain. When the model surface heat source is removed, the near-surface thermal perturbation tends to disappear, and the mountain–plain circulation does not form in the western Sichuan Basin. Consequently, the convergence area related to the mountain–plain circulation dissipates, resulting in the decline of the simulated cumulative precipitation and the disappearance of the heavy precipitation center.
Cloud Liquid Water Path Retrieval Products over the Pacific Ocean and Their Climate Change Characteristics
Xiaoli QIAN, Zhengkun QIN, Wenjun ZHANG
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.21063
Abstract(112) HTML(13) PDF (6115KB)(34)
Based on the multi-year brightness temperature observation data of the AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) on the polar-orbiting satellite NOAA-15, a product of cloud liquid water path on the global ocean has been established and compared with ERA5 and FNL/NCEP. We analyzed the ability of retrieval products to reproduce the climate change characteristics of cloud liquid water path, and further analyzed the linear and nonlinear climate change trend characteristics of cloud water path in the Pacific region through linear regression and EEMD (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition) methods. The results show that the CLWP (Cloud Liquid Water Path) inversion data can well reproduce the average spatial distribution characteristics of the years and the corresponding climate change trend. The CLWP climate trend shows obvious latitude zone characteristics, and the increasing and decreasing trends appear with the latitude zone interval. Moreover, in the eastern Pacific region of the northern hemisphere, the latitude zone characteristic of the climatic trend of the CLWP has a phenomenon of migration northward. In contrast, the climatic trend of the inversion product has better similarity with the ERA5 reanalysis data. While the latitude zone characteristics of the trend, especially the northward movement of the latitude zone characteristics, cannot be reproduced well by the FNL data. It is characterized by a decrease in water vapor in the equatorial region, and a significant increase in cloud liquid water paths on both sides.
Analysis of the Causes of Atmospheric Fine Particle Pollution in Winter in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos Area of Inner Mongolia
Ying chuan YANG, Qian YE, Ying WEI, Xueshun CHEN, Huansheng CHEN, Wei WANG, Ling WU, Zifa WANG
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21049
Abstract(140) HTML(17) PDF (7929KB)(42)
Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Aerosol and Atmospheric Chemistry Model developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, several typical pollution episodes of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area of Inner Mongolia in the winter of 2016 were analyzed. The results indicated that the air quality changes in the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area were mainly affected by the large-scale synoptic pattern. At the stage of pollution accumulation, at 500 hPa, this area was controlled by the flat westerly airflow in front of the blocking high pressure or weak high-pressure ridge. At the ground level, this area was located in the weak high-pressure or uniform-pressure field. The low wind speed and the low height of the boundary layer were unfavorable to pollutant dispersion. Meanwhile, the air temperature and relative humidity were high, which were conducive to the formation of secondary particles. At the stage of pollution dissipation, the synoptic patterns had significantly changed. Below 550 hPa, strong cold advection occurred, causing gale weather on the ground, which was beneficial to pollutant elimination. Cold air moved southward, and pollutants over downstream areas were removed. Local emission was the main source of PM2.5 over the Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos area. Local emission accounted for over 60%, 80%, and 90% of the air pollution in Ordos, Hohhot, and Baotou, respectively. The change in the air quality of these regions can reflect the change in regional air pollution meteorological conditions. Cross-correlation analysis showed that the PM2.5 concentrations in Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan regions were correlated with those in Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos , with a phase difference of 6–24 hours. The improvement of PM2.5 pollution in Hohhot–Baotou–Ordos depended on the control of local source emissions. In winter, the air quality change in this region can serve as an indicator of the air quality change in the downstream region, which is helpful for the prediction and early warning of air quality in the downstream region.
2022, 46(5).  
Abstract(20) PDF (4475KB)(8)
Heavy Precipitation in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River during the 2020 Meiyu Period: Features and Relationship with Baroclinic Rossby Wave in the Upper Troposphere
Siyuan SUN, Zhaoyong GUAN
2022, 46(5): 1041-1054.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21006
Abstract(180) HTML(29) PDF (10955KB)(94)
Abnormal heavy precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the 2020 Meiyu period (June–July) resulted in enormous loss of lives and property. Moreover, the length and intensity of precipitation during this period far exceed the historical average. Using daily National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data and the Climate Prediction Center global daily precipitation data, this study investigated the features of heavy precipitation and their relationship with baroclinic Rossby wave in the upper troposphere. The results showed that the total precipitation and precipitation anomalies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were located in the southern part of Anhui Province, and that there were seven consecutive precipitation processes. The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River featured a convergence, while the upper troposphere featured a dispersion, and a strong anomalous upward motion occurred over the region, which favored the development of anomalous heavy precipitation. Moreover, water vapor was transported from the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which provided sufficient water vapor for heavy precipitation. Wavelet-based analysis of the standardized time series of daily precipitation in this region revealed significant cycles of 2–4 days and 6–14 days. The Rossby fluctuations shown by high-frequency (2–14 days) perturbations exhibited a downstream dispersion in the upper troposphere, with fluctuations originating near Lake Baikal. The propagation process of the fluctuations downstream, shown by the wave disturbance energy and flux, was more consistent with that of the wave packet. The wave disturbances originating near the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Baikal could disperse eastward or southeastward to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The energy transmitted to the middle and lower reaches of the river favored the intensification of the disturbance in this region and thus the occurrence and continuation of heavy precipitation. The results of this study further clarify the causes of the 2020 super-long “violent Meiyu” and may help scientists effectively predict similar events.
Combined Disaster Events of Extensive and Persistent Low Temperatures, Rain/Snow, and Freezing in Southern China: Objective Identification and Key Features
Haifeng ZONG, Cholaw Bueh, Jingbei PENG, Dawei LIN
2022, 46(5): 1055-1070.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21052
Abstract(155) HTML(30) PDF (8957KB)(95)
Combined disaster events refer to the combination of several simultaneously occurring weather disasters. In this paper, the daily mean temperature, precipitation, and glaze data of 206 stations over southern China in winter from 1961 to 2013 are integrated to establish an objective method for identifying combined disaster events of extensive and persistent low temperatures, rain/snow, and freezing weather in winter, and the key features of these kinds of combined disaster events are discussed. First, the identification methods for extensive and persistent low temperatures and rain/snow and freezing events are proposed according to the thresholds of their intensities and impact areas. The three most prominent combined disaster events, namely cold-rain/snow (C-RS), cold-freezing (C-F), and C-RS-freezing (C-RS-F) disaster events, are identified. These combined disaster events often occur from early January to mid-February. Although they have similar low temperatures and precipitation levels, their formation conditions are significantly different. Abundant water vapor supply and large-scale strong water vapor convergence are key conditions for the occurrence of C-RS and C-RS-F disaster events, while an inversion layer and cold pad are necessary conditions for the occurrence of C-F and C-RS-F disaster events. The large-scale tilted ridge in mid- and high-latitude Asia is the key circulation feature of C-F and C-RS-F disaster events. It provides favorable circulation conditions for strong cold air activities. During C-RS disaster events, wavy circulation prevails in mid- and high-latitude Asia, which is conducive to moderate cold air activities. The water vapor supply and inversion layer formation associated with the three kinds of combined disaster events are controlled by different subtropical anomalous circulation systems. The southern branch trough over the Bay of Bengal and the anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea are key subtropical circulation systems for the formation of C-RS and C-F disaster events, respectively, while the combination of the southern branch trough over the Bay of Bengal and anomalous anticyclone over Northwestern Pacific is the key circulation system for the formation of C-RS-F disaster events.
Strong Wind Characteristics of the Lower Boundary Layer (0–300 m) during the Landfall of a Typhoon
Rui CHANG, Rong ZHU, Dajun ZHAO
2022, 46(5): 1071-1086.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21071
Abstract(279) HTML(45) PDF (5981KB)(60)
Based on in situ gradient observations from wind profiler radars, WindCubeV2 lidar, and masts during the landfall of typhoons Mangkhut (1822) and Lekima (1909), combined with the simulated winds of typhoon Mangkhut (1822) with the finest horizontal resolution of 2 km and vertical resolution of 50 model levels in which the lower levels were densified, the strong wind structure in the lower level (below 300 m height over sea level or terrain) were analyzed, and the following results were obtained. (1) Within the range of 0–200 km from the typhoon center, the maximum wind speed height and wind shear index increased outward along the radial direction, and the wind shear index on the land surface was generally higher than 0.12. Because of the weak drag effect on the ocean surface, the wind shear index was generally small, except for island areas. (2) The strong wind shear on the right front quadrant of the moving direction of the typhoon remained stable at approximately 0.17, which was insensitive to distance and altitude. The wind profile was similar to the jet stream on the left rear quadrant, and a previous study pointed out that the changes of supergradient/subgradient wind in the vertical direction were responsible for the jet-type profiles. The vertical variations of strong winds on the left front quadrant showed nonlinear characteristics, indicating the complex, strong wind structure over this area. (3) The gust factor and turbulence intensity decreased with the mean wind speed and altitude. (4) The maximum wind direction variation during the landfall of a typhoon decreased outward along the radial direction and exhibited statistically significant spatial asymmetry, with the largest variation near the right rear quadrant. Over some areas of the right rear quadrant, the wind direction changed more than 30° in half an hour, and most of them occurred before or during the typhoon’s landfall. This information could be useful for microscale wind simulation as well as the prevention and mitigation of typhoon disasters over offshore wind farms in China.
Differences in the Effects of New Particle Formation on Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity in Beijing and Xingtai
Ying GAO, Yuying WANG, Zhanqing LI, Xiaoai JIN, Jingling WANG, Rong HU, Siqi ZENG, Rui ZHANG, Xi CHEN, Jialu XU
2022, 46(5): 1087-1097.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21013
Abstract(215) HTML(16) PDF (3753KB)(47)
Taking aerosol field measurement experiments conducted in the summer of 2016 at Xingtai (XT) site and the 2016 and 2017 winters at Beijing (BJ) site as examples, the effects of typical new particle formation (NPF) events on aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity were investigated. BJ and XT are respectively located in a northern megalopolis area and a central–southern industrial area in the North China Plain. The formation mechanisms of new particles in different seasons at the two sites were different, and the corresponding condensation sink, growth rate, and aerosol chemical composition were also different. Organics and sulfate were the dominant chemical species formed during NPF events at the BJ and XT sites, respectively. Furthermore, the XT site exhibited significantly stronger aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity than the BJ site, especially for the nucleation mode particles. The results of this study indicate that the difference in aerosol hygroscopicity and activation ability should be fully considered in the estimation of the influence of NPF on CCN number concentration.
Simulation of South Asian Summer Monsoon Using the FGOALS-g3 Climate System Model: Climatology and Interannual Variability
Linqiang HE, Tianjun ZHOU, Lijuan LI, Pengfei LIN, Xiaolong CHEN, Liwei ZOU
2022, 46(5): 1098-1112.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.21042
Abstract(160) HTML(22) PDF (7719KB)(48)
In this study, according to observation and reanalysis data, we evaluated the performance of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) using the FGOALS-g3 climate system model. We focused on the differences between FGOALS-g3 and FGOALS-g2, and the coupled model and atmospheric model. The results showed that compared with FGOALS-g2, FGOALS-g3 better simulated climatological Indian Ocean trade winds and the sinking branch of the Walker circulation during El Niño, owing to the change in local sea surface temperature (SST). The FGOALS-g3 model showed that systematic cold biases persisted in the middle and upper troposphere, which reduced the meridional temperature gradient and weakened SASM, leading to biases in descending motion and moisture divergence, and dry biases occurred over the terrestrial monsoon trough. Meanwhile, the negative correlation between El Niño—Southern Oscillation and Indian summer rainfall captured by FGOALS-g3 was weaker than the observation, owing to the weaker descending motion caused by SST biases. The results also showed that climatological SST biases induced by air–sea interactions compensated the wet biases in the SASM region through the change in atmospheric circulation and water vapor transportation. At an interannual timescale, the inclusion of the negative feedback process of SST–precipitation–cloud shortwave radiation in the coupled model effectively improved the bias intensity of rainfall and atmospheric circulation simulated by the atmospheric model; however, the westward biases of the sinking branch of the Walker Circulation caused by SST biases in the coupled model led to greater wet biases in the Indian Peninsula.
Microphysical Characteristics of Winter Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds and Summer Convective Clouds in the Rocky Mountain Region Based on Airborne Measurements
Wenlu FAN, Xiaoqin JING, Jing YANG, Siyu ZHOU
2022, 46(5): 1113-1131.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21046
Abstract(176) HTML(35) PDF (4984KB)(87)
The microphysical characteristics of mixed-phase stratiform and convective clouds are different but have not been well considered in numerical models, leading to uncertainties in modeling clouds and precipitation. To improve our understanding of the difference in microphysics between mixed-phase stratiform and convective clouds and obtain quantitative results for model evaluation and parameterization, the microphysical characteristics of continental winter mixed-phase stratiform and summer convective clouds in the mid-Rocky Mountain region are compared using data collected during the Ice in Clouds Experiment—Layer Clouds (ICE-L) and the High Plain Cumulus (HiCu) projects. The particle images and Particle Size Distributions (PSD) were measured using 2D cloud and 2D precipitation probes, Liquid Water Content (LWC) was measured using the King hot-wire probes, and Ice Water Content (IWC) was calculated based on the particle spectrum. The main findings are as follows: (1) Between −30°C and 0°C, the LWC in summer convective clouds is an order of magnitude higher than that in winter stratiform clouds, and the IWC in summer convective clouds is 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than that in winter stratiform clouds. Supercooled liquid water was observed near the convective cloud top. The LWC in summer convective clouds increases with the decrease in temperature from 0°C to −20°C, while the LWC in winter stratiform clouds decreases with the decrease in temperature. The liquid fraction in summer convective clouds is smaller than that in winter stratiform clouds, indicating rapid ice production. (2) Both winter stratiform and summer convective clouds had large spatial variability in their phase distribution. As the temperature decreased from 0°C to −30°C, ice in winter stratiform clouds grew through the Bergeron process, and the water-dominated zones transformed into the mixed-phase and ice-dominated zones. The phase distribution was complicated in summer convective clouds, indicating a complex liquid–ice interaction. (3) The ice PSD in summer convective clouds was broader than that in winter stratiform clouds between 0°C and −30°C. As the temperature decreased, the ice PSDs in both winter stratiform and summer convective clouds broadened. (4) The observed particle images in winter stratiform clouds were irregular at temperatures lower than −20°C. Meanwhile, between −20°C and −10°C, the ice was dendritic and irregular, and at temperatures warmer than −10°C, the ice was mainly needle-shaped, columnar, and irregular, indicating that the ice grew through vapor diffusion and coalescence in winter stratiform clouds. In summer convective clouds, the ice mainly formed through drop freezing, riming, and coalescence. (5) In strong updrafts of summer convective clouds, a high LWC and large liquid fractions were observed. The IWC had no obvious correlation with vertical velocity, indicating that the efficiency of glaciation in HiCu clouds was independent of vertical velocity.
GNSS/MET Water Vapor Data: Quality Control Method and Comparative Analysis of Reanalysis Datasets
Fang YUAN, Jie LIAO, Zijiang ZHOU
2022, 46(5): 1132-1146.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21139
Abstract(131) HTML(9) PDF (6475KB)(28)
This study proposes a comprehensive quality control (CQC) algorithm for the Chinese ground-based navigation satellite system (GNSS) water-vapor products. The CQC algorithm consists of two sections—Quality check and comprehensive decision-making algorithms. The quality check algorithm consists of seven parts, namely, limit check to eliminate errors that exceed reasonable limits, buddy and low-pass filter checks for better time consistency, neighboring station check, anomaly and peak–valley value checks for better spatial consistency, and background check to identify the data that deviate from the background field for assimilation application. After each check, the data that exceed the threshold are identified, and the comprehensive decision-making algorithm is used to score the identified data and flag (correct, suspicious, or error) the data. Based on the quality-controlled observation data, the precipitable water-vapor simulation of five sets of reanalysis data, including China’s first-generation global atmosphere reanalysis (CRA) product, was evaluated. The results show that the simulated total water vapor of all the reanalysis data in winter is slightly higher than the observation in winter and significantly lower than the observation in summer. Spatially, the simulated water vapor content in southern and western China is lower than the observation, and this situation is more obvious in the summer half of the year. Relative to the observation, the average bias (O−B) of CRA is −0.633 mm, and the root–mean–square error is 3.650 mm. The deviation of CRA relative to the observation is slightly lower than ERA-Interim but slightly higher than ERA5, which is significantly better than JRA55 and NCEP2.
“Extreme Precipitation” Theme
An Intensification of the Warm and Moist Conveyor Belt of the Asian Summer Monsoon in the “21.7” Henan Rainstorm and Its Key Circulation from the Quasi-geostrophic Potential Vorticity Perspective
Zuowei XIE, Cholaw BUEH, Anran ZHUGE, Ruxu LIAN, Zhenyang LIAO, Jie YAN, Dawei LIN
2022, 46(5): 1147-1166.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22039
Abstract(190) HTML(38) PDF (5972KB)(86)
This study uses rain-gauge observation data, the fifth reanalysis dataset of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and the piecewise quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) inversion to mainly investigate the intensification of the warm and moist conveyor belt of the Asian summer monsoon of the Henan extreme rainstorm and its key circulation during July 18–21, 2021. The result shows that the continual westward extension of the subtropical high covered eastern China, on whose southwestern flank, broad southwesterlies transported not only a warm and moist air mass but also a high QGPV over Henan to northwestern China. Meanwhile, in northwestern China, the sensible heating of the Alxa Plateau maintained and deepened a local thermal low, which generated high QGPV anomalies in the near-surface layer of the low-pressure center and the middle and lower tropospheres (750–650 hPa) over the Hetao region. Thus, an extensively high QGPV was formed with low-pressure circulation over Henan, which yielded an extensive confrontation with the subtropical high. The QGPV inversion results show that this meteorological circulation pattern in the middle and lower tropospheres intensified the southerly over Henan. The amplified southerly effectively transported a hot and humid air mass of the warm and moist conveyor belt to the Henan region, which was a key factor for the extreme downpour on July 20. The southerly over Henan on July 20 was primarily contributed by the subtropical high, with secondary contributions from the positive QGPV anomaly at the middle and lower tropospheres over Hetao, while the contribution of the local low-pressure circulation over Henan was slightly smaller.
Diurnal Variation Characteristics of Summer Precipitation and Precipitation Events with Different Durations in Beijing in the Past 40 Years
Wei ZHAO, Cui HAO, Jie CAO, Xuan ZHOU, Li LU
2022, 46(5): 1167-1176.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22028
Abstract(114) HTML(28) PDF (2788KB)(66)
Using the long-term hourly precipitation data of 20 national stations in Beijing in the past 40 years, this study investigates the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the diurnal variation of summer precipitation in Beijing. Results show that (1) the precipitation amount is small in the northwest mountainous area and large in the plain, and the slope in the transition area from the mountainous area to the plain is the largest. In contrast, the precipitation frequency in the plain is less than that in the mountainous area. The precipitation intensity is weak in the northwest and strong in the east. The intensity and extremes of summer precipitation in Beijing are strong, and the risk of disaster is high. (2) The diurnal variation of precipitation amount in summer in Beijing is a single-peak type, the precipitation frequency is a double-peak type, and the precipitation intensity is a multi-peak type. These values reach the maximum at 2200 BJT (Beijing time) and the minimum at 1200 BJT. (3) The peak time of precipitation varies with the month, the earliest in June, the second earliest in July, and the latest in August. The peak precipitation amount is the largest in July, the second largest in August, and the smallest in June. (4) The spatial distributions of the peak precipitation amount, peak precipitation frequency, and peak precipitation intensity exhibit strong consistency. They appear before 2000 BJT in the northwest mountainous area and after 2000 BJT at the other 16 stations. Using the K-means clustering algorithm, the 20 stations are divided into two regions. The results further show that the diurnal variation of precipitation amount, precipitation frequency, and precipitation intensity in the two regions have completely different distribution characteristics. (5) In the past 40 years, the precipitation structure in Beijing has been continuously adjusted, and the short-duration and long-duration precipitation dominant periods appear alternately. Short-duration precipitation within 6 h dominated before 2000, whereas long-duration precipitation greater than 6 h increased significantly in the past 15 years.
Comparative Analysis of Two Extreme Rainstormsin the Arid Area of Western South Xinjiang
Suqin HU, Tiliwaldi Xerinay, Na LI, Lingkun RAN, Youzhi CHANG
2022, 46(5): 1177-1197.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22001
Abstract(99) HTML(69) PDF (14038KB)(55)
This study examines the characteristics of environmental conditions and formation mechanisms of the two extreme rainstorms in the west of southern Xinjiang. Conventional observation data, NCEP reanalysis data, and ERA5 reanalysis data were used to provide a thorough understanding of the occurrence of strong precipitation in this arid area. The two processes occurred in spring and summer with the upper-level circulation presenting quite a different pattern. South Asian highs are located at different latitudes, but both formed favorable configurations with mid-level low troughs for extreme precipitation. The low-level 700–850 hPa easterly jet is one of the most important weather systems for extreme precipitation, transporting moisture, and forming strong convergence with the terrain to trigger the precipitation. The SMPV (second-order moist potential vorticity) quantity was used to diagnose the nonuniform features and the possible generation mechanisms of the two rainstorms. The results indicate that high-value areas of SMPV exhibit high correlations with the evolution of heavy rainstorms by the coupling of convective stability and vertical gradient of absolute vorticity. The process that occurred during 15–16 June 2021 presented extreme precipitation mainly along the Kunlun Mountains, which is associated with the strong low-level cyclonic rotation in the south of the Tarim Basin. This rotation promoted the concentration of water vapor. The vertical gradient of vertical vorticity, which was performed as a superposition of the negative vorticity over positive vorticity, was significant. Meanwhile, the condensation of water vapor during lifting warmed and moistened the mid-level atmosphere with the nonuniformity enhancement of convective stability. Both of these processes contributed to intensifying the upward vertical motion and thus formed extreme precipitation. The process that occurred during 17–24 April 2020 presented strong precipitation in the western trumpet-shaped topography of southern Xinjiang. The dry and cold air flow aroused by the stepped-distributed troughs encountered the easterly warm, moist air flow when crossing the mountain. This formed large vertical vorticity belts and intensified the vertical motions, which was the main mechanism for extreme precipitation.
“Tibetan Plateau Meteorology” Theme
Advances in Studies of Deep Convection over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Effect on Stratospheric–Tropospheric Material Transport
Quanliang CHEN, Guolu GAO, Yang LI
2022, 46(5): 1198-1208.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21118
Abstract(159) HTML(28) PDF (1290KB)(40)
The material transport of deep convection in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere has an important impact on the radiation balance of the tropopause, ozone restoration in the stratosphere, and global climate change. In recent years, a series of important observational facts has shown that the Tibetan Plateau and the Asian monsoon regions are important windows for tropospheric-to-stratospheric transport. This article introduces some recent major progress and achievements and includes four points: First, the maximum value area of water vapor and aerosol and the minimum value area of ozone were found by satellites over the Tibetan Plateau and the Asian monsoon region; second, the main observation methods of deep convection activities and the identification method of satellite observations on deep convection were discussed; third, the physical process of deep convection material transport to the stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau was established; finally, a comparison was made between the structural differences in the deep convections in the Tibetan Plateau, Asian monsoon region, and tropical ocean regions as well as the impact of differences in environmental fields on the process of deep convection material transport.
Comparison Studies of the Effect of Tibetan Plateau and Rocky Mountains on ENSO Variability
Qin WEN, Guorui HE, Haijun YANG
2022, 46(5): 1209-1224.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.21109
Abstract(124) HTML(17) PDF (3022KB)(39)
In this study, the influence of the Tibetan Plateau and the Rocky Mountains on ENSO variability is investigated using a fully coupled climate model. Compared to that in the real world, the amplitude of ENSO variability becomes larger after removing the Tibetan Plateau or the Rocky Mountains. The ENSO amplitude is considerably stronger in a world without the Tibetan Plateau than that without the Rocky Mountains. The ENSO variability is closely linked with the mean climate in the tropical Pacific. The removal of the Tibetan Plateau results in weakened trade winds, an eastward shift of the atmospheric convection center, a shallower mixed layer depth, and an El Niño-like sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. These mean climate changes result in enhanced wind-stress sensitivity, Ekman upwelling sensitivity, and thermocline sensitivity, finally leading to a 60% increase in the ENSO amplitude. However, without the Rocky Mountains, the tropical Pacific shows a more complicated trade wind change, with a slight eastward shift of the atmospheric convection center, a deeper mixed layer depth, a flattened thermocline, and a La Niña-like SST distribution. These mean climate responses strengthen the wind stress and thermocline sensitivities, leading to a 10% increase in the ENSO amplitude. This study suggests that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Rocky Mountains during the geological period has played an important role in suppressing the ENSO variability.
Assessment of the Spring Sensible Heat Flux over the Central and Eastern Tibetan Plateau Simulated by CMIP6 Multi-models
Meirong WANG, Shunwu ZHOU, Yang SUN, Jun WANG, Shujun MA, Zhongshui YU
2022, 46(5): 1225-1238.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21169
Abstract(143) HTML(21) PDF (5855KB)(43)
On the basis of historical observations at 77 meteorological stations and a long-term dataset of integrated land–atmosphere interaction observations on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) (2005–2016), the historical simulations of the 12 models that participated in CMIP6 (the sixth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project), and GEWEX-SRB satellite radiation products, the authors have quantitatively examined the ability of CMIP6 models to simulate the surface sensible heat flux over the TP during 1979–2014 and analyzed the possible causes of simulation biases. The results show that CMIP6 models can well reproduce the annual cycle and seasonal spatial patterns of the sensible heat over the TP, albeit with lower amplitudes than the calculated sensible heat flux, particularly showing obvious underestimation over the strong, sensible heat regions. The area-weighted long-term spring sensible heat fluxes over the central and eastern TP simulated by the 12 models are generally lower than calculated values, with the minimum sensible heat amplitude in the MIROC6 simulation, which has approximately 1/3 of the climatological amplitude in calculated sensible heat flux. Furthermore, the authors find that the wind speed at 10-m height and the springtime land–air temperature difference simulated by models are larger and smaller than the calculated values, respectively, implying that the lower sensible heat amplitudes simulated by CMIP6 multi-models are mainly due to the cold biases of the land–air temperature difference. Spatially, the cold biases of the land–air temperature difference widely exist over the central and eastern TP, in which, more specifically, the surface and air temperatures show the cold biases but with colder biases in surface temperature. The cold biases mechanistically are likely related to the simulated stronger precipitation over the TP in CMIP6 models.
Study of the Microphysical Characteristics of Weak Precipitation in Mêdog, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau Using Ka-Band Cloud Radar
Jingyi ZHANG, Gaili WANG, Jiafeng ZHENG, Liping LIU, Renran ZHOU
2022, 46(5): 1239-1252.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21185
Abstract(78) HTML(12) PDF (3360KB)(35)
Mêdog, located in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the valley of the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is the main water vapor channel from the Indian Ocean to the TP. Mêdog is also an important part of the TP precipitation system because it has the largest annual average precipitation amount over the TP. Based on the Ka-band cloud radar (KaCR) observation data of the Mêdog National Climate Observatory in 2020, this study first preprocessed the power spectrum data of the KaCR, which were verified by comparing with measurements from a collocated precipitation phenomenometer. Then, two weak stratiform precipitation processes that occurred on March 6 and August 24, 2020, were selected, and the raindrop size distribution (RSD) was retrieved from the power spectrum data of the KaCR to explore the microphysical characteristics of weak precipitation in the dry and rainy seasons in Mêdog. Results showed that the systematic error of the reflectivity factor reached approximately 12 dB between KaCR measurements and theoretical values of KaCR calculated from the observations using the precipitation phenomenometer. Good consistency between the two datasets is evident after KaCR was corrected. Furthermore, the near-surface RSDs retrieved from KaCR was close to those observed from the precipitation phenomenometer. The heights of the bright band in Mêdog varied with the seasons and were low in the dry season (i.e., approximately 1.5 km above ground level) and high in the rainy season (i.e., approximately 4 km above ground level). The spectral width of the RSD of the weak stratiform precipitation cases was narrow, and the diameter of the raindrop did not exceed 3 mm in Mêdog. Above the bright band, the diameter of small ice particles gradually increased with the decrease in height according to the spectrum skewness and kurtosis. However, the growth of ice particles in the dry season is more obvious than that in the rainy season. Below the bright band, the ice particles converted into liquid water drops, whose concentration decreased as the height decreased in the process of falling, probably due to the coalescence and evaporation of raindrops. The smaller the diameter is, the faster the concentration of raindrops decreases. Near the ground, the significant decrease in the concentration of raindrops can be attributed to enhanced evaporation.
Difference/Similarity and Attribution of Changes in Regional Summer Surface Air Temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surrounding Regions in the Past 40 Years
Yuting WU, Song YANG, Xiaoming HU, Ziqian WANG, Mengmeng LU, Ziniu XIAO
2022, 46(5): 1253-1266.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21197
Abstract(66) HTML(19) PDF (3901KB)(34)
The summer surface air temperatures over Eurasia have exhibited significant warming trends in recent decades. Based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5) data, this study investigates the characteristics of the changes in summer surface temperatures over different Eurasian regions during 1979–2019, reveals the similarities and differences among various regions, and explains the contributing factors by adopting a climate feedback response analysis method. As the highest terrain in the world, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has experienced a remarkable warming trend in the past several decades. The lower-elevation regions surrounding the TP, such as North Africa, Southern Europe, Mongolia, and Northeast Asia, also show obvious warming features. Meanwhile, the surface temperature does not change significantly in South Asia to the south of the TP. The decreased summer surface albedo due to melting snow enables more incoming shortwave radiation to reach the surface, amplifying surface warming over the TP. Warming over North Africa and Southern Europe is mainly attributed to the increase in shortwave radiation due to reduced aerosols. Meanwhile, the increase in downward longwave radiation caused by increased atmospheric temperature significantly contributes to warming over North Africa, Southern Europe, and Mongolia. Moreover, the reduction in clouds is the main factor contributing to surface warming over Northeast Asia. In South Asia, warming induced by increased atmospheric water vapor and decreased surface sensible flux is offset by cooling because of increases in clouds and aerosols, leading to small long-term changes in the regional summer surface temperature.
“High-Impact” Theme
Numerical Simulation and Analysis of the Persistent Sea Fog in the Qiongzhou Strait in February 2018
Hui WANG, Jian LIN, Zhanshan MA, Da LIU, Xiaojing WU
2022, 46(5): 1267-1280.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21265
Abstract(81) HTML(11) PDF (5416KB)(31)
During the Spring Festival in February 2018, persistent heavy fog was present in the Qiongzhou Strait, causing a large number of ships to stop sailing. Synoptic causes for the heavy fog event from February 18 to 20 in 2018 were analyzed by using Himawari-8-derived sea fog products, observed visibility data gathered from coastal stations over Qiongzhou Strait, and Final Operational Global Analysis (FNL) from the National Centers for Environment Prediction. Based on the high-resolution numerical model Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (CMA-MESO), sensitive experiments were conducted based on a comparison of multiple boundary layer schemes, vertical resolutions of the model, and algorithms related to the visibility of sea fog. It was found that the offshore sea temperature in South China during the heavy fog event was lower than average. Affected by the supplemented weak cold air via the cold high pressure southward, the warm and humid air in the east flowed through the cold sea surface and condensed quickly. The results of contrast experiments demonstrated that the prediction accuracy of visibility could be significantly improved by employing the Yonsei University (YSU) boundary layer scheme and the sea fog diagnosis scheme of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) along with increasing the vertical levels of the boundary layer. Compared to the MRF (Medium Range Forecast Model) boundary layer scheme, the simulations of the spatial distribution of heavy fog and occurring time of minimum visibility are much better using the YSU boundary layer scheme. Moreover, expanding the levels of the lower layer of the numerical model was found to improve the simulation results regarding the evolution of low visibility. Through the visibility algorithms and the real comparison, based on the well-predicted moisture and temperature, the predictions of visibility using the FSL method are much more accurate.
Objective Identification and Analysis of Warm-Sector Rainstorm with Warm Shear Pattern over Yangtze-Huaihe River Region
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21220
Abstract(18) PDF (2697KB)(8)
Evolution Process and Mechanism Analysis of the Mesoscale System of an Extreme Summer Rainstorm in Shandong Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21261
Abstract(17) PDF (5607KB)(8)
Evaluation of Earth System Model CAS-ESM 1.0 for Ocean Circulation Anomalies Modes of the Tropical Pacific Ocean in Jan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21016
Abstract(14) PDF (2854KB)(6)
An optimized probabilistic prediction method of aircraft icing potential based on convection-allowing model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21235
Abstract(16) PDF (2349KB)(5)
Characteristics of moist potential vorticity over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the Meiyu season and its relationship with the Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21266
Abstract(14) PDF (2021KB)(8)
Spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and causes of short-duration heavy rainfall in the presummer rainy season over the Pearl River Delta region before and after the South China Sea summer monsoon onset in the past 20 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22102
Abstract(82) PDF (5154KB)(11)
Assessment of Cloud Base Height Product from ERA5 Reanalysis Using Ground-Based Observations
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22109
Abstract(23) PDF (2337KB)(10)
Aircraft Measurement on the Microphysical Properties of a Precipitating Stratiform Cloud Event in the Qilian Mountains of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22019
Abstract(60) PDF (3658KB)(24)
Influence of soil hydraulic parameters on global medium-range numerical weather forecast system
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22040
Abstract(13) PDF (2399KB)(4)
Improving the dynamic core of a pseudo-incompressible model in the η coordinate
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22059
Abstract(18) PDF (2005KB)(7)
Preliminary Analysis of the Water Vapor Characteristics of the
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21153
Abstract(27) PDF (8843KB)(15)
A Case Study of Summer Precipitation Process in the Central Tianshan Area using Multi-radar Observation and Model Simulation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21196
Abstract(16) PDF (5154KB)(7)
Analysis on the Applicability of Different Precipitation Products and WRF-Hydro Model over the Source Region of the Yellow River
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22057
Abstract(19) PDF (2166KB)(10)
Application of Machine Learning in Clustering and Discriminant Analysis of Large-scale Circulation Patterns Favorable for Tropical Cyclogenesis over the Western North Pacific
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22074
Abstract(11) PDF (3321KB)(7)
Trends and possible causes of different levels of precipitation variations in China during 1961~2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22033
Abstract(23) PDF (7336KB)(17)
Seasonal prediction and Predictability of East Asian winter monsoon in German Climate Forecast System
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22072
Abstract(24) PDF (3498KB)(5)
Status and Requirement Trend Analysis of Atmospheric Methane SatellitesTowards Achieving carbon neutrality and carbon peaking in China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22096
Abstract(19) PDF (373KB)(2)
Microstructure study of updraft zone of precipitation cloud system in North China based on aircraft observation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21244
Abstract(35) PDF (3145KB)(21)
The impacts of SST warming trend and natural variability to the summer extreme precipitation intensity of the Yangtze River Valley
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21221
Abstract(38) PDF (4139KB)(15)
Humidity Sensitivity of retrieved temperature by microwave radiometer and the feedback on the topography of Liupan Mountain
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22042
Abstract(20) PDF (937KB)(9)
Observational analysis of the heavy rainfall case on June 26, 2020, in Mianning
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21146
Abstract(50) PDF (4011KB)(25)
Evolution Characteristics of Different Scale Initial Perturbation Energy in Convection-Permitting Ensemble Prediction of GRAPES
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21242
Abstract(42) PDF (8072KB)(14)
Baroclinic Disturbances in Nonzonal Flow
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22073
Abstract(40) PDF (578KB)(18)
Variations of summer precipitation over the Three-River Headwaters region and Yarlung Zangbo River basin and response to Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22089
Abstract(22) PDF (17194KB)(12)
A Diagnostic Study of Water Vapor Transport and Budget during wintertime snowstorm days over the different regions of Northern Xinjiang in 1979-2017
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21137
Abstract(32) PDF (2196KB)(13)
A Typical Evolution Mode of Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling During Cold Air Outbreak Events in 2020/21 Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21250
Abstract(47) PDF (2457KB)(15)
Projection of Rainfall erosivity changes in Northeast China using a high-resolution regional model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22006
Abstract(31) PDF (2411KB)(8)
1991-2020 China Climate Normals
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22010
Abstract(186) PDF (3737KB)(64)
Improvement of the Mesoscale Ensemble Forecast System in East China and the Precipitation Experiment in 2020 Meiyu Season
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21097
Abstract(37) PDF (3243KB)(12)
Air vertical motion and raindrop size distribution retrieval algorithm based on reflectivity spectral density data and dual wavelength ratio constraint with Ka/Ku dual-wavelength cloud radar and its preliminary applicationLiu Liping
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21199
Abstract(39) PDF (4749KB)(14)
The impact of fraction vegetation coverage increase on temperature change in Liaoning Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22005
Abstract(47) PDF (4192KB)(10)
Discharge characteristics of upward negative precursors in positive triggered lightning
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22009
Abstract(37) PDF (1079KB)(7)
Preliminary Analysis of the Interaction between the East Asian Jet Streams and Air Pollutants in the Surface Layer in Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21125
Abstract(52) PDF (30016KB)(17)
Evaluation of six land surface evapotranspiration products over the Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21208
Abstract(39) PDF (4313KB)(13)
Analysis of attractor behavior and predictability in a coupled Lorenz model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21236
Abstract(39) PDF (1849KB)(13)
Influence of Typhoons in the Western Pacific on Summer Precipitation in the Eastern Part of Northwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22011
Abstract(74) PDF (3944KB)(17)
The Maintenance and Development of Ural Blocking High and its Relationship with Severe Cold Wave Activities in 2020/2021 Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21166
Abstract(39) PDF (4207KB)(24)
A Study on the Effects of Vegetation on Dust Weather in Inner Mongolia
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22017
Abstract(35) PDF (3890KB)(13)
Improvement and Application of Time-height Profile Reconstruction Method with X-band Dual Polarization Radar Parameters
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22058
Abstract(36) PDF (3795KB)(21)
The Impacts of Dabie Mountains on a Mesoscale Convective System Occurred at the Background of Northeast Cold Vortex
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21023
Abstract(45) PDF (6876KB)(21)
Feature extraction and analysis of Atmospheric Turbulence Based on new round trip radiosonde
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21103
Abstract(53) PDF (2445KB)(11)
Multi-scale Features and Air-sea Background of Winter PersistentCold Events in Fujian Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21188
Abstract(51) PDF (7176KB)(20)
Improving the Detection Performance of Extreme Precipitation Through Radar-Gauge Merging Algorithm
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21201
Abstract(58) PDF (11642KB)(19)
Statistical characteristics of the Northeast China Cold Vortex and its impact on precipitation distribution from 2000 to 2019
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21227
Abstract(60) PDF (6319KB)(31)
Decadal variation of boreal summer 30~60-day intraseasonal oscillation and its influence on precipitation and temperature over eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21228
Abstract(45) PDF (4711KB)(17)
Barotropic Instability of Geostrophic Flow: The Problem Revisited
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22004
Abstract(68) PDF (511KB)(19)
Interdecadal variations of winter precipitation over the Three River Source region in China and associated physical mechanisms
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22034
Abstract(61) PDF (3495KB)(14)
Spatial Instability of Barotropic Geostrophic Flow
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22037
Abstract(56) PDF (444KB)(20)
Impact of cumulus parameterization schemes on the high-resolution numerical simulation of heavy Meiyu front rainfall events
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21259
Abstract(85) PDF (2489KB)(20)
Analysis on Interannual Variation of Regional Persistent High-Temperature Events in South China during 1961-2017
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21123
Abstract(64) PDF (2519KB)(36)
Tracking and quantitative contribution analyses of moisture sources of
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22016
Abstract(139) PDF (8401KB)(76)
Projection of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River Basin in the future 30 years under different Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21154
Abstract(116) PDF (1605KB)(42)
Three Cold Surges in China during the Winter of 2020/2021 and Their Low-frequency Features
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21222
Abstract(113) PDF (5823KB)(18)
Roles of local mountain-valley wind circulation in the formation of an orographic clouds and precipitation event on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21257
Abstract(100) PDF (4886KB)(43)
Progresses and challenges of direct assimilation of cloud-affected satellite infrared radiances
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21176
Abstract(86) PDF (910KB)(11)
Analysis on the Effect of Anomalous Convective Longitude Position Difference on Regional Climate Anomalies Caused by El Ni?o
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21085
Abstract(84) PDF (4619KB)(23)
Inversion of Precipitation parameters and Precipitation type classification based on Micro Rain Radar
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21210
Abstract(154) PDF (3653KB)(80)
The impact of the “combined modality” of SR and EAP on the heavy precipitation in the early stage of Meiyu in the Yangtze-Huai River region in 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21215
Abstract(141) PDF (3535KB)(30)
Thermodynamic characteristics over North Asian of the steady warming process before the summer onset
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21238
Abstract(74) PDF (2188KB)(10)
The stratospheric Arctic polar vortex modulated by the SST warming in the western equatorial Pacific in early spring
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21254
Abstract(98) PDF (5703KB)(23)
Characteristics of Lightning Activity in Super Typhoon Mangkhut (1822)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21229
Abstract(113) PDF (4022KB)(31)
Interannual Variability of Winter Fog Days over Southern China and Its Relationship With ENSO
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21159
Abstract(161) PDF (7454KB)(32)
Comparison of dynamical transport’s characteristics in low ozone regions over the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21156
Abstract(75) PDF (2986KB)(21)
Frontogenetic analyses of topographic frontal rainstorm in Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21252
Abstract(109) PDF (11737KB)(30)
Improved Visibility Diagnostic Scheme Based on Fog Microphysical Observation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21138
Abstract(100) PDF (1761KB)(29)
Cloud Microphysical Characteristics of Warm Conveyor Belt within a Winter Mesoscale Snowstorm
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21180
Abstract(108) PDF (10266KB)(35)
Characteristics of Cold Pools in the Outer Core of Tropical Cyclones in Different Vertical Wind Shear Magnitudes
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21216
Abstract(94) PDF (2256KB)(29)
Analysis on the organization of a rainstorm in Western Southern Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21245
Abstract(108) PDF (39814KB)(31)
The Analysis of Sea Temperature Variation in Response to Typhoon Lekima(1909)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.20247
Abstract(109) PDF (1711KB)(34)
Impacts of winter and spring snow anomalies on summer precipitation frequency and intensity in Eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.22018
Abstract(112) PDF (6914KB)(40)
Identify the reflected signal in the COSMIC-2 occultation signal using the improved GoogLeNet deep learning model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21096
Abstract(67) PDF (1957KB)(14)
Analysis of circulation characteristics and precipitation phase difference of an extreme freezing rain and snow weather in Southwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21224
Abstract(117) PDF (2664KB)(33)
The Interdecadal Variations and Physical Mechanisms of the Relationship between Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature and East Asian Water Vapor Transport in December and February
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21129
Abstract(133) PDF (13443KB)(31)
Macro-micro Physical Characteristics of Rainfall Clouds in the West Tianshan Mountains Based on Ka Band Cloud Radar
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21112
Abstract(111) PDF (1720KB)(40)
Research progress of vertical motion and new vertical motion equation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21140
Abstract(144) PDF (1176KB)(67)
On the snow accumulation efficiency difference during the two snowstorm events in Jiangsu in January 2018
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21065
Abstract(134) PDF (4993KB)(34)
The Impact of Madden-Julian Oscillation on Pacific Blocking Frequency during Two Types of El Ni?o
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21105
Abstract(90) PDF (4111KB)(23)
Climate Effects of Black Carbon aerosol from China and India in East Asia in Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21163
Abstract(78) PDF (5022KB)(23)
Influencing Mechanisms of Cloud Droplet Spectral Dispersion on Cloud and Precipitation Simulation under Different Pollution Backgrounds
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21190
Abstract(103) PDF (1350KB)(26)
Study on characteristics of raindrop size distribution in two mesoscale convective system with extreme rainfall rate
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104
Abstract(133) PDF (2197KB)(54)
Seasonal prediction of the variation of the winter cloudy day frequency in eastern China based on the tropical and ex-tropical influence routes
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21117
Abstract(155) PDF (3400KB)(35)
Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation in Indochina Peninsula and South China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21120
Abstract(131) PDF (2636KB)(45)
The interannual variation of the leading modes of summertime precipitation in Sichuan Basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21167
Abstract(101) PDF (5869KB)(33)
Interdecadal enhancement of the interannual relationship between spring North Atlantic tripolar SST mode and extreme cold event frequency in eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21172
Abstract(80) PDF (1955KB)(34)
Analysis about the Formation Mechanism of Overshooting Convection during a Rainstorm in Sichuan Basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21174
Abstract(139) PDF (4053KB)(45)
Evaluation of Parameterization of Raindrop Size Distribution on Improving the Prediction of Heavy Precipitation Process in Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21204
Abstract(157) PDF (8946KB)(38)
Statistical Prediction of Accumulated Cyclone Energy in the Western North Pacific from July to August
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21207
Abstract(114) PDF (3350KB)(19)
The Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Sudden Rainstorm Inducing the
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21186
Abstract(202) PDF (5766KB)(68)
Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality in Kunshan, Eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21171
Abstract(206) PDF (2070KB)(33)
Numerical simulation of a convective cloud rainfall reduction based on the realistic seeding trajectories of rocket and artillery
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21077
Abstract(113) PDF (6093KB)(28)
The interannual variation of Annual Cycle of the East Asian Subtropical Monsoon and its Impact on Summer Rainfall in North China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21184
Abstract(116) PDF (24977KB)(34)
Future projections of temperature and precipitation over Xinjiang based on CMIP6 models
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21182
Abstract(168) PDF (1850KB)(62)
Simulated Summertime OH Concentrations in China Since the Implementation of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21218
Abstract(118) PDF (2919KB)(25)
Impact of Radar Data Assimilation on A Squall Line
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.20191
Abstract(133) PDF (3179KB)(53)
A study on Statistic-dynamic downscaling for the precipitation in Heihe river basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21081
Abstract(82) PDF (1900KB)(20)
Preliminary Analysis on the Interdecadal Change and Cause of Summer and Autumn Dryness and Wetness over Northwest China in Recent Decades
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21115
Abstract(126) PDF (2411KB)(51)
Self-maintaining mechanism of a large-scale persistent heavy rainfall event in Mei-yu period: case study of Yangtze River heavy rainfall in 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21082
Abstract(156) PDF (3171KB)(53)
WANG Shuang, WU Qigang, LIU Shizuo, LIANG Hanzhou, Kang Caiyan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21051
Abstract(203) PDF (6863KB)(37)
Numerical simulation research on the effect of ice nuclei on the electrification in thunderstorms
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101
Abstract(85) PDF (3072KB)(22)
Influence of Indian Ocean Warming on Extreme Precipitation in the Western Tianshan Mountains from Late Spring to Early Summer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21102
Abstract(121) PDF (6336KB)(44)
A three-dimensional objective identification of the Tibetan Plateau vortex based on wind field
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21127
Abstract(137) PDF (3332KB)(33)
An Ensemble Prediction method of Aviation Turbulence Based on Energy Dissipation Rate
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21147
Abstract(51) PDF (2716KB)(19)
Simulation of Climatology and Interannual Variability of North African Monsoon: An analysis based on FGOALS-g3
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21141
Abstract(127) PDF (3700KB)(20)
Research on the positive growth mechanism of PM2.5 and its chemical components in Beijing urban area from 2013 to 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21142
Abstract(81) PDF (2179KB)(24)
Global monsoon simulated by FGOALS-g3: A comparison with previous version and the influences of air-sea coupling
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21099
Abstract(85) PDF (9370KB)(25)
The Statistic Characteristics of Cloud Precipitation in the Motuo Area Observed by X-band Dual Polarization Phased Array Radar
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050
Abstract(124) PDF (5698KB)(39)
Analysis of diurnal variation characteristics of summer extreme precipitation in Sichuan and Chongqing
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21032
Abstract(163) PDF (2696KB)(75)
Mechanism and seasonal prediction of the interannual variations of surface air temperature in May and September over Northwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21124
Abstract(203) PDF (3549KB)(67)
Modeling studies on future changes of dust emission flux over Northern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21128
Abstract(86) PDF (986KB)(18)
Research on the Statistical Characteristics of Radar Heavy Rainfall Data in Wavelet Domain and Its Relationship with Environmental Parameters
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21080
Abstract(98) PDF (3180KB)(18)
Tropical Amplification in Tropospheric Warming:Simulated by FGOALS-g3 Climate System Model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21083
Abstract(113) PDF (4191KB)(24)
The interannual variation of the quasi-biweekly diabatic heating over Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer and its relationship with rainfall anomaly over eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21106
Abstract(138) PDF (14806KB)(34)
Temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of winter cold hazards with and without precipitation in China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21143
Abstract(162) PDF (23074KB)(69)
Statistical characteristics of tropical cyclone gale and its accompanying weather in southeast China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21136
Abstract(114) PDF (2760KB)(42)
Comparative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Lightning Detection Data from FY-4A LMI and ADTD in Rainstorm in MianNing, SiChuan Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21110
Abstract(125) PDF (6880KB)(47)
A New Objective Identification Method for Mesoscale Vortices: Three-dimensional Tracking and its Quantitative Evaluation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21178
Abstract(129) PDF (3551KB)(52)
Impact of the Summer Tropical Atlantic Sea Temperature on the First Rainy Season Precipitation in South China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21108
Abstract(133) PDF (5242KB)(39)
Comparative Analysis of Rainfall Droplet Spectra of Typhoon Wipha (201907) in Chongzuo and Fangchenggang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21116
Abstract(214) PDF (15036KB)(30)
Analysis of flood disasters and heavy precipitation events in Sichuan-Chongqing region in summer of 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21133
Abstract(134) PDF (3929KB)(46)
Seasonal Evolution of Asian Monsoon Precipitation Simulated by Climate System model: Based on the Comparative Evaluation Between FGOALS-g3 and FGOALS-g2
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21144
Abstract(113) PDF (4714KB)(23)
Microphysical Characteristics of a Cold Front Snowstormin the West Tianshan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.20220
Abstract(164) PDF (3623KB)(68)
Relationship between two types of east-west oscillation of the South Asian High and their different influences on weather
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075
Abstract(127) PDF (6228KB)(33)
Relationship between vertical convection structure and precipitation simulation bias in the tropical atmosphere: An analysis based on GAMIL3
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21098
Abstract(79) PDF (6269KB)(15)
Study on East Asian Stable Isotopes in Atmospheric Water Vapor
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21119
Abstract(114) PDF (1556KB)(38)
Multi-scale topographical attribution detection for the development of an eastward rainstorm vortex in southwest ChinaLi Xiang1,2, Yang Shuai2, Yang Shuyun1
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21072
Abstract(260) PDF (7226KB)(90)

Since 1976 Bimonthly

Supervisor: Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sponsors by: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Meteorological Society

Editor: Lu Riyu


ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

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