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Assessing Raindrop Size Distribution Parameterization for Enhanced Prediction of Heavy Precipitation Process in Xinjiang
Weixi SHU, Shuiyong FAN, Ying HUANG, Jing REN, Shujing SHEN
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21204
Abstract(279) HTML(23) PDF (26198KB)(63)
Utilizing the raindrop spectrum observation data from Urumqi, Xinjiang, collected between 3 July and 3 October 2018, this study aimed to enhance the WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) scheme in the Urumqi regional high-resolution numerical prediction system. The improved scheme’s effectiveness in predicting heavy precipitation events was evaluated in Xinjiang from 1200 BJT (Beijing time) on 15 June to 0000 BJT on 17 June 2021. The results indicated that the average diameter (D0), maximum diameter (Dmax), and mass-weighted average diameter (Dm) of raindrops in Urumqi were 0.65 mm, 1.60 mm, and 0.93 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the refined WSM6-new scheme, which considered the fitting relationship between parameters lgNw and Dm in Xinjiang, enhanced the prediction capability for precipitation intensity and strong center ranges to some extent. Evaluation metrics, such as TS, BR, ETS, and TSS, revealed that with the WSM6-new scheme significantly improved the prediction accuracy as precipitation grade increased, specifically for heavy and torrential rainfall. Different raindrop size distribution parameter schemes influenced precipitation cloud systems characteristics, vertical velocities, atmospheric stratification, and divergence field. Moreover, the effect on cloud microphysical processes primarily manifested in rainwater content and distribution. The WSM6-new scheme incorporated the statistical characteristics of Xinjiang’s raindrop spectrum, rendering the raindrop size distribution in the model more accurate. The number concentration of larger raindrops in the raindrop spectrum increased significantly, along with terminal raindrop velocity and enhanced drag effects. This facilitated the intensification and maintenance of downdraft below the freezing level. The strong downdraft generated a powerful divergent outflow near the ground layer, which intensified air convergence in the ground-level convection area, promoting updraft development and strengthening. Consequently, a more intense precipitation process occurred at the surface, and the prediction capability for heavy rain and torrential rain was remarkably enhanced.
Analysis of Flood Disasters and Heavy Precipitation Events in the Sichuan–Chongqing Region in the Summer of 2020
Defang XIONG, Shuqing SUN, Jingbei PENG, Yuanfa GONG
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21133
Abstract(253) HTML(26) PDF (39231KB)(65)
This paper investigates flooding events caused by heavy precipitation and the corresponding 15 heavy rainfall events in the Sichuan-Chongqing area in the summer of 2020 and compares them with the situation in the 2006 drought year. The western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) was stronger than its climatological mean, and its western edge was beyond 110°E, which is to the west of its climatological position. Since the Qinghai–Tibet high was strong and extended eastward, the upper and lower layers worked together to keep the WPSH stable. The cold air that causes precipitation in the Sichuan–Chongqing region is primarily caused by short waves in the westerlies. Short waves were frequent in the mid-latitudes and influenced the region. The Sichuan–Chongqing region forms an area of major water vapor flux convergence due to the joint influence of the southwesterly flows on the western flank of WPSH and the northerly wind. It provides the best water vapor conditions for the occurrence of heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the monsoon air stream, which travels from northern India to the east side of the plateau, rounds the south side of the plateau and transports water vapor eastward, forming another important water vapor channel. 2006 was a typical drought year in the Sichuan-Chongqing region, with the fewest heavy rainfall events. In contrast with 2020, the WPSH is easterly this year, the short-wave trough in mid-latitude westerlies is less active, the southwest monsoon is weaker, and water vapor convergence in the Sichuan–Chongqing region is lower.
Interdecadal Oscillations and Underlying Mechanisms Linking Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature to East Asian Water Vapor Transport in December and February
Shenglong ZHANG, Bo SUN, Ping CHEN
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21129
Abstract(302) HTML(40) PDF (37197KB)(58)
Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, ERA5 vertical integrated water vapor flux data, and NOAA monthly mean SST (sea surface temperature) data, the interdecadal variations in the relationship between central and eastern tropical Pacific SSTs and East Asian WVT (water vapor transport) in December and February from 1950 to 2019 were investigated. The finding reveals that the correlation between East Asian meridional WVT and central and eastern tropical Pacific SSTs in December was weak before the mid-1980s, becoming significantly positive afterward. In February, the correlation was significantly positive during 1950–1970 and 1990–2010. Interdecadal variations in the relationship between East Asian meridional WVT and central and eastern tropical Pacific SSTs in December stem from the increased influence of Pacific–East Asian (PEA) teleconnection and Northern Hemisphere circumglobal teleconnections on East Asian meridional WVT, driven by tropical SSTs after the mid-1980s. The PEA teleconnection and Northern Hemisphere circumglobal teleconnection would induce anomalous southerly WVT over East Asia, corresponding to warm SST anomalies in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. Unlike December, the relationship between the two factors in February was primarily modulated by the PEA teleconnection during 1950–1970 and 1990–2010. However, from 1971 to 1989, East Asian WVT was influenced by the circumglobal teleconnection in the Northern Hemisphere, corresponding to cold SST anomalies in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. This resulted in an insignificant relationship between the two factors during 1971–1989, as the above mechanism counteracted the effect of the PEA teleconnection. Furthermore, the impact of tropical Indian Ocean SSTs on East Asian WVT in December and February increased after 1990. In December, East Asian WVT was modulated by the Kelvin wave-induced Ekman divergence mechanism, while in February, it was influenced by the Walker circulation over the Indian Ocean, corresponding to warm SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean.
Hourly Rapid Updating Assimilation Forecast System of CMA-MESO and Preliminary Analysis of Short-term Forecasting Effect
Zhaorong ZHUANG, Yuan JIANG, Weihong TIAN, Liping HUANG, Xingliang LI, DENG Liantang dan
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21090
Abstract(143) HTML(26) PDF (39797KB)(41)
Based on the CMA-MESO (China Meteorological Administration MESOscale weather forecast system) horizontal 3 km resolution 3 h cycle rapid update assimilation and forecast system, an hourly cycle analysis and forecast system was established. In this system, the background error correlation structure is improved by adopting a Gaussian correlation model with five-scale superimposition and introducing an anisotropic correlation scale scheme, and the impact of introducing a global large-scale information scheme on the analysis and forecast of the hourly cycle is examined. Numerical simulations of the strong convective case in eastern China on July 19, 2020, show that: (1) The hourly cycle absorbs more high-frequency observations and uses the more proximate 1 h forecast field as the background field in the cycle, which improves the quality of analysis and short-range forecasts compared to the 3 h cycle. (2) The introduction of large-scale information from the global forecast field to the hourly cycle regional analysis can weaken the influence of regional observations, which can negatively affect forecasting. (3) The improved five-scale superimposed Gaussian correlation model and the anisotropic horizontal correlation scale make the representation of the background error horizontal correlation coefficients of wind variables closer to the statistical results of the samples. Thus, the analyzed wind fields are closer to the observations in the hourly cycle, and the composite reflectivity and short-term precipitation forecasting of the strong convective process in Eastern China are closer to the real situation.
Statistical Characteristics of Tropical Cyclone Gale and Its Accompanying Weather in Southeast China
Jingru LIU, Ying LI, Qing MENG, Jie WANG
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21136
Abstract(222) HTML(24) PDF (21844KB)(64)
The China Meteorological Administration (CMA) tropical cyclone best track data and hour-by-hour precipitation data from 2010 to 2016 were used in a statistical analysis of surface gales and their accompanying weather in southeastern China under the influence of tropical cyclones (TCs), and the results show that: (1) In this region, TC gale is primarily dispersed along the coastline, with decreasing frequency from coast to inland; TC gale is dominated by the northeast wind direction, and the gale occurs primarily before the typhoon landfall. Strong wind speeds of magnitude 12 and higher are scattered within 300 km of the TC center; (2) TCs of tropical storm (TS) and typhoon (TY) intensity caused the most gales, while strong wind speeds of magnitude 16 and above are mainly found in the severe typhoon (STY) and super typhoon (Super TY) intensity classes. Gale induced by slow TC appears primarily on the right front side, while gale caused by quick TC appears primarily on the right rear side. The mean onshore wind speed of TC gales is slightly greater than the offshore wind speed, despite the fact that the station frequency of onshore wind is greater than that of offshore wind when the wind speed is between level 12 and level 16, and when the wind speed is above level 16, offshore wind is much greater than that of onshore wind; (3) The percentage of TC gales that are precipitation-accompanied accounts for roughly 89.8% of the total number of TC gales; these gales are primarily caused by northeasterly winds, peaking in August. About 10.2% of the TC’s gales are dry, with the majority occurring at the TC’s periphery with weak northerly and southeasterly winds, primarily in May and December. TC gales with wind speeds above level 12 are almost always accompanied by precipitation, while there are few samples of TC gales with wind speeds above 12 without precipitation; (4) TC gales accompanied by strong convective weather account for approximately 23.8% of the total TC gale, with northeasterly winds dominating, the average wind speed is larger than the non-strong convective TC gale; strong convective weather with short-term heavy precipitation and thunderstorms, with the majority of which is short-term heavy precipitation (approximately 79.5% of this type of TC gale), mainly distributed in the northeast quadrant near the TC center, while thunderstorm TC gale mainly appears in the periphery of TC (approximately 28.0% of this type of TC gale), of which there are relatively few in the southeast quadrant. (5) TC gale with both short-term heavy precipitation and thunderstorms accounts for only 1.8% of the total TC gale and 7.5% of strong convective TC gale, indicating that thunderstorms are not common in TC gale with short-term heavy precipitation.
Impact of the Summer Tropical Atlantic Sea Temperature on the First Rainy Season Precipitation in South China
Hao QIN, Liquan WU, Hui HE
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21108
Abstract(328) HTML(53) PDF (8517KB)(86)
The impact of summer tropical Atlantic sea temperature (TAST) on the first rainy season precipitation in South China (FRSP) is investigated using monthly precipitation data from 160 stations in China, Hadley Center sea surface temperature (SST) data, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1979 to 2019. Correlation analysis and information flow theory indicate that a rise (reduction) in the previous summer TAST partially accounts for an increase (decrease) in FRSP. The SST increases in the critical zone (35°W–10°E, 10°S–5°N) may amplify the Walker circulation and produce abnormal subsidence across the Pacific, resulting in an easterly wind anomaly throughout the central and western equatorial Pacific during the summer. The ocean–atmosphere interactions aided in the formation of La Niña in the fall and winter that followed. The same forces govern the negative SST anomaly but in the opposite direction, which is favorable for the growth of El Niño. When the La Niña (El Niño) reaches its height in the northern hemisphere, convection heating intensifies (or is inhibited) in the western Pacific, triggering atypical cyclones (anticyclones) in the lower troposphere to its north. The anomalies persist until the first rainy season of the second year, resulting in the persistence of abnormal cyclones (anticyclones), which, on the one hand, contribute to the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) weakening and eastward retreating (strengthening its westward extension), thereby reducing (increasing) the transport of water vapor from the South. Thus, the WPSH reduces (increases) water vapor movement from the South China Sea to South China. On the other hand, in tropical regions, convective activity (suppression) is favorable to strengthening (weakening) the local Hadley circulation, resulting in the subsidence (ascent) anomaly in South China and suppressing (intensifying) convection. Additionally, the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern Pacific energized a Pacific–North American-like wave train, and the SST anomalies in the North Atlantic energized the Eurasian (EU) wave train, resulting in negative (positive)– positive (negative) – negative (positive) geopotential height anomalies in the Eurasian mid-high latitudes region, which is unfavorable (favorable) for the cold air affecting South China.
2023 Issue 3
Display Method:
2023, 47(3).  
Abstract(30) PDF (4532KB)(10)
Differences between Various North China Climatic Normals in Winter and Summer: A Study of Its Impact on Climate Monitoring
Xiaofan LI, Changwen YU, Zhiqiang GONG, Guolin FENG, Shaojing CHE, Tianyu LI
2023, 47(3): 599-615.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21200
Abstract(177) HTML(30) PDF (11004KB)(51)
This research compared and analyzed the precipitation and temperature differences in North China during winter and summer under different climate conditions to explore the characteristics and differences between various climate normals in this region and their impacts on regional climate monitoring. Then, we analyzed the impact of these average climatic changes on extreme historical events. Investigations revealed that although the average precipitation in winter and summer during 1991–2020 (climate state Ⅱ) was more than that during 1981–2010 (climate state I), it was lesser than that in 1961–2020. However, the annual variation of state Ⅱ was smaller than that of state Ⅰ in winter, whereas vice versa in summer. Furthermore, although the state Ⅱ climate precipitation of the different regions varied in winter, it decreased in the central area and increased in the eastern and western parts of North China in summer. Also, we observed that the average winter and summer extreme precipitation thresholds in North China were higher in state Ⅱ (0.86 and 22.0 mm) than in state Ⅰ (0.83 and 21.6 mm), causing several extreme precipitation days in winter and summer in most parts of North China for the past 60 years. This event, however, reduced corresponding to state Ⅱ than Ⅰ. Although the average winter and summer temperatures of state Ⅱ were significantly higher than those of state Ⅰ, they remained higher than the average winter and summer temperatures of 1961–2020, indicating that while state Ⅱ temperatures maintained the characteristic of being overall warmer than state Ⅰ, the change characteristics of the different regions varied. Conversely, the extremely low average winter temperature and the extremely high summer temperature threshold in state Ⅱ (−9.8°C and 27.9°C) exceeded those in state Ⅰ (−10.2°C and 27.5°C), causing several extremely low winter temperature days in most parts of North China corresponding to state Ⅱ for the past 60 years. While this event increased compared with state Ⅰ, the extremely high summer temperature days corresponding to state Ⅱ reduced to varying degrees compared with state Ⅰ. Overall, our investigations propose that applying new climate normals will increase the extreme precipitation and extreme temperature thresholds in most parts of North China, leading to more frequent low temperatures, less precipitation, and less extreme historical climate events in climate monitoring. Hence, the possible impact of the new climate normals on climate monitoring and prediction over the next decade should be fully considered.
A Tracing Study on Influence Factors of East Asian Stable Isotopes in Atmospheric Water Vapor
Yujia LIU, Wenmin MAN, Tianjun ZHOU, Dongdong PENG
2023, 47(3): 616-630.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21119
Abstract(296) HTML(41) PDF (25894KB)(74)
Stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor, which can track moisture sources and water vapor transport, are extensively used as a crucial tracer of the present-day water cycle. To interpret water vapor stable isotopes in the mid-low latitude monsoon region, the “amount effect” is invoked. However, recent studies have demonstrated that nonlocal factors, such as moisture sources and water vapor transport, have a significant effect on stable isotopes. Thus, the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model and Satellite remote sensing deuterium isotope data (expressed by parts per thousand of their deviation, δD) in water vapor are used to investigate the primary factors affecting water vapor δD in the region with abundant Chinese stalagmite δ18O records. On the seasonal scale, water vapor δD is more depleted in late summer and early autumn and enriched in winter and spring. This characteristic is difficult to interpret in terms of “temperature effect” or “amount effect.” However, accumulated rainfall over water vapor transport paths is the dominant factor of water vapor δD, and there is a significant negative correlation between them. On an interannual scale, water vapor δD is enhanced in the summer of the El Niño year and depleted in the summer of La Niña year. The contribution of moisture sources to water vapor δD is small; however, the accumulated rainfall over water vapor transport paths increased substantially in the La Niña year compared with the El Niño year. This shows that in the La Niña year, tropical convection and depletion in water vapor transport paths are significant, resulting in depleted water vapor δD in the study area. Finally, on a seasonal to interannual scale, upstream convection, as measured by accumulated rainfall, is the primary driver of water vapor δD variations. In the study area, enhanced convection will deplete δD, whereas the weakened convection will enrich δD.
Identification of the Reflected Signal in the COSMIC-2 Occultation Signal Using the Improved GoogLeNet Deep Learning Model
Wenjie LUO, Jie XIANG, Huadong DU
2023, 47(3): 631-641.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21096
Abstract(202) HTML(28) PDF (16324KB)(35)
As an advanced atmospheric detection method, GPS (Global Positioning System) occultation detection technology has been widely used in numerical weather forecasting, climate, and space weather research. One of the problems in occultation detection is that it is easily interfered with by the reflected signals on the surface of the earth. Identifying and separating the reflected signals in the occultation detection signal helps assimilate the occultation data into the numerical weather prediction system, which has considerable importance. This study proposes a deep learning model based on improved GoogLenet (Im-GNet) model and applies it to COSMIC-2 occultation detection data to identify reflected signals. This study selects the COSMIC-2 occultation data (conPhs file) from 1 January to 9 January 2020. After quality control, the radio holography method is used to obtain the spatial spectrum image of the occultation signal, and the Im-GNet deep learning model is trained. The accuracy rate of the Im-GNet model test reached 96.4%, which is significantly higher than the result of the support vector machine method. This study also analyzes the impact of reflected signals on occultation data. The geographic distribution of occultation events and the refractivity comparison between the occultation inversion data (atmPrf file) and the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) 12-h forecast files (avnPrf file) shows that the quality of the occultation event data with reflection signals is better, and the atmospheric information contained is richer.
Study on Statistical–Dynamical Downscaling for Precipitation in the Heihe River Basin
Haifeng SU, Xin’ gang DAI, Zhe XIONG, Xiaodong YAN
2023, 47(3): 642-654.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21081
Abstract(224) HTML(23) PDF (9585KB)(53)
This paper focuses on the dynamic and statistical–dynamical downscaling techniques for estimating the precipitation at the stations in the Heihe River basin of Northwest China based on local observations at 14 sites and the outputs from RIEMS2.0 (Regional Climate Model) with a grid resolution of 3×3 km. The precipitation estimated further using MLR (multiple linear regression) and BMA (Bayesian Model Average) with different factor combinations is tested on the assessment indices as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error), correlation coefficient, variance percent, and “negative precipitation bias” with observation. Results show that the precipitation produced by the dynamic model has the largest RMSE, the most significant coherence, and a considerably larger variance than the observation by a factor of 1.5–2. Except for correlation coefficients, the statistical–dynamical downscaling models are optimal, and the statistical models are between statistical–dynamical models and dynamic model. The test shows that the correlation coefficient of the statistical downscaling models constructed with 700-hPa geopotential height field, meridional wind, and specific humidity is lower, and the RMSE is larger. The statistic indices were improved when the precipitation factor was introduced into the statistically downscaling models. The correlation coefficient and variance percentage of MLR models are considerably higher than BMA models, the RMSE of the two types of models is close in value, but the bias of negative precipitation of the former is significantly higher than that of the latter. The negative precipitation produced by the statistically downscaling models appears mainly in the cold season or dry and arid lands, such as the lower reaches of the river, of which the “negative precipitation” frequency decreases if the model precipitation is added as a factor in the downscaling models. Moreover, the statistical assessment of the monthly precipitation estimated from the downscaling models reveals that the four indices would evolve with season, in which the errors of dynamical downscaling are also the largest among the downscaling models, and their relative errors are smaller in summer and larger in winter, particularly in lower reaches of the river. This implies that precipitation downscaling in the dry land or dry season is still difficult for climate study. These results show a significant bias in dynamic downscaling, even for the high-resolution regional climate model. Therefore, the regional model must be combined with statistic downscaling to form a statistical–dynamical model for decreasing the precipitation uncertainties estimated in the river basin.
Comparative Analysis of Rainfall Droplet Spectra of Typhoon Wipha (201907) in Chongzuo and Fangchenggang, China
Jiashen MAO, Yilun CHEN, Aoqi ZHANG, Shumin CHEN, Rong FANG, Weibiao LI, Mingxue LI
2023, 47(3): 655-666.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21116
Abstract(518) HTML(99) PDF (6906KB)(72)
We analyzed the structural characteristics and differences in raindrop spectrum at different precipitation stages on the inland leeward side (LSI) and near-coast windward side (WSC) during the impact of typhoon Wipha from August 2 to 3, 2019. We used the raindrop spectrum observation data from Chongzuo National Meteorological Observatory and Fangcheng National Reference Climate Station, combined with rainfall data and radar observation data for the analysis. The results show that typhoon Wipha’s rainfall is mainly contributed by medium and small raindrops, with the proportion of medium raindrops consistently exceeding 70%. The rainfall at LSI is dominated by stratiform clouds with relatively gentle rain intensity, while the rainfall at WSC is characterized by mixed cumulus clouds with considerable rain intensity and severe fluctuations. Raindrop concentration and diameter are significantly larger at WSC than at LSI due to the considerable convective activity and upward velocity. The main factor for the increase in rain intensity at LSI after typhoon landfall is an increase in raindrop diameter. Meanwhile, the increase in rain intensity at WSC after the change from typhoon eye wall to a strong convective spiral rain band is mainly due to an increase in raindrop number concentration. The average mass-weighted mean diameter of typhoon Wipha’s convective precipitation is 1.85 mm, with a logarithmic normalized intercept of 3.95 mm−1 m−3. Convective precipitation occurs in the maritime convective region at LSI, while it occurs between maritime and continental convection at WSC.
Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric Ice Nucleation Concentration and Nuclei Mechanism in Huangshan and Shenyang
Hang SU, Yan YIN, Deping ZHOU, Jinhu WANG, Yuche LIU, Jiaqi XIA, Kejin REN
2023, 47(3): 667-682.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.21148
Abstract(95) HTML(25) PDF (4502KB)(36)
Herein, atmospheric ice nuclei gradient observation results from Huangshan and Shenyang were used as a representative. Using advanced international instruments for atmospheric ice nuclei observation and Bigg-type mixed and diffusion cloud chambers combined with meteorological element observation equipment, variation in the atmospheric ice nuclei number concentration with height, time, temperature, humidity, and particle size in Huangshan and Shenyang of China is analyzed. Two main mechanisms of atmospheric ice nuclei under different space locations, environmental conditions, and particle sizes are obtained. Finally, based on the above observations and research results, the parameter schemes of atmospheric ice nuclei in typical areas of northern and southern China are fitted with parameter formulas, and the attribute differences of atmospheric ice nuclei number concentration and nucleation mechanism in northern and southern China are finally obtained. Thus, it provides a theoretical basis for different artificial precipitation reduction operations in northern and southern China.
Seasonal Prediction of the Variation of the Winter Cloudy Day Frequency in Eastern China Based on the Tropical and Ex-tropical Influence Routes
Hui TAN, Zhiwei ZHU, Wei JIANG, Lisheng HAO, Linfei LI
2023, 47(3): 683-697.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21117
Abstract(311) HTML(34) PDF (9397KB)(70)
The temporal-spatial characteristics of the leading mode of winter cloudy day frequency (CDF) across eastern China are revealed via Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of daily cloud cover obtained from 1078 gauge stations in eastern China from 1961 to 2003. We identified the two influence routes of this leading mode, which we used to conduct a physical-motivated empirical model to the seasonal forecast of the winter CDF in eastern China. The results demonstrate that: (1) The first EOF mode of winter CDF explains 59% of the total variance, which is significant and independent of the other modes. This mode primarily demonstrates a homogenous spatial pattern across eastern China with dominating interannual variability. In the positive phase of this mode, a significant lower-level anticyclonic circulation anomaly occurs across the North Pacific. The anomalous southerly wind across the western flank of the anticyclonic could transport water vapor from the tropical ocean to eastern China, resulting in higher CDF. (2) the preceding persistent North Pacific dipole (NPD) pattern during August and September, and lowering of sea level pressure across midlatitude North Atlantic (LPA) from September–November are the two independent drivers for the formation and variation of this mode. The cold SSTA in the western pole of the NPD is advected southward to the tropical western Pacific using the anomalous northerly of the local low-level anomalous cyclone, forming the Bjerknes feedback, which maintains and accelerates the “cold west warm east” zonal SSTA dipole pattern in the tropical Pacific. This tropical Pacific zonal SSTA pattern stimulates zonal convection dipole, which induces a meridional atmospheric teleconnection in the North Pacific. The anomalous North Pacific anticyclones’ southerly is conducive to more CDF in eastern China. The LPA demonstrates the transition of a quasi-stationary Rossby wave train in mid-high latitudes Eurasia from autumn to winter. In winter, the southerly on the west of the barotropic anticyclonic anomaly across Northeast Asia, the terminal of the Rossby wave train, could result in increased CDF in eastern China. (3) Based on these two independent routes of physical mechanisms from both tropics and ex-tropics, a physics-motivated empirical model is conducted, which demonstrates potential independent prediction skill during the ten years of 2004–2013. The results are essential references for operational departments on seasonal prediction.
Three-Dimensional Objective Identification of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex Based on a Reanalysis Wind Field with a High Spatial and Temporal Resolution
Huan TANG, Shenming FU, Jianhua SUN, Xiangxian ZHOU
2023, 47(3): 698-712.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21127
Abstract(334) HTML(63) PDF (30952KB)(80)
The Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) is a shallow mesoscale vortex system in the Tibetan Plateau’s main body. It occurs regularly, affects a wide area, and causes strong disasters. It is a major disaster-causing mesoscale system in China. To fully show the statistical characteristics of TPVs, a crucial basis for TPV research must be established. The accurate identification of TPVs is the key to the statistical characteristics of TPVs. TPV research has a better data basis with the emergence of reanalysis data with a high spatial and temporal resolution. However, neither an artificial identification approach nor an objective identification algorithm based on a coarser resolution can be effectively used for the current new reanalysis data. In this study, a restricted vorticity-based TPV identifying algorithm is proposed, which is suitable for high-resolution reanalysis data. This approach first determines the TPV candidate points, divides several octants with the candidate points as the center, and determines the center of the TPV by restricting the conditions of the average wind field in the octant and counterclockwise rotation (Northern Hemisphere) conditions of the octant group. This method can quickly identify the horizontal and vertical tracing of vortexes without complicated calculations and different thresholds for each pressure layer. A large sample evaluation of 15,466 TPVs (99,090 hours in total) in 42 warm seasons (May–September) from 1979 to 2020 shows that the average hit ratio of RTIA exceeds 95%, the average false alarm ratio is below 9%, and the average missing report rate is below 5%. Thus, the RTIA can correctly identify the centers of TPVs. Furthermore, the test results show that the high accuracy of TPV identification can still be maintained when RTIA is applied to the reanalysis data with different spatial resolutions (e.g., 0.5°or 0.25°). The identification results are primarily affected by the strength of the vortexes themselves, and the identification accuracy of weak vortexes is lower than that of strong vortexes. This approach can be used as a reference for identifying other mesoscale vortexes.
Numerical Simulation of Summertime OH Concentrations in China Since the Implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan
Danyuting ZHANG, Hong LIAO, Ke LI, Huibin DAI, Zihui GU
2023, 47(3): 713-724.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21218
Abstract(332) HTML(46) PDF (3746KB)(73)
The OH radical is the primary tropospheric oxidant, accounting for the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. The GEOS-Chem model was used to examine the impact of anthropogenic emission and meteorological parameter changes on summertime OH concentrations in China since the implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. Our modeling results for the years 2014–2017 demonstrate that the summertime OH concentrations in China exhibited an overall upward trend with the fastest increase occurring around 30°N over eastern China; the North China Plain was also simulated to have an obvious upward OH concentration trend of 0.1 × 106 molecules cm−3 a−1 while the Pearl River Delta experienced a weak downward trend. Further sensitivity experiment simulations showed that changes in both meteorology and anthropogenic emissions over the years 2014–2017 contributed to the increases in OH concentrations in the North China Plain, wherein the contribution of anthropogenic emissions was significantly larger than that of meteorology (10% vs. 1.5%). Meteorology played a major role in OH concentration increase around 30°N over eastern China. Further meteorological analysis demonstrated that the meteorological variable with the greatest contribution was solar shortwave radiation, which can explain the changes in the OH concentrations over a large fraction of China during 2014–2017. However, the role of solar shortwave radiation was offset by the boundary layer height in impacting the changes in OH concentrations during 2014–2017 in the North China Plain.
Simulation and Evaluation of Climate Model CAS-ESM-C for Flow Field Modes in the Tropical Pacific Ocean in January
Dongling ZHANG, Xu LU, Ming ZHANG, Qingping LÜ
2023, 47(3): 725-738.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21016
Abstract(162) HTML(33) PDF (20165KB)(28)
In this study, complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (CEOF) and wavelet analyses are applied to the 84-year simulation flow fields in January of the climate model CAS-ESM-C from 1922. The simulation results were compared with the actual situation and theoretical analysis solution to examine the simulation ability of the model for the upper equatorial ocean flow field. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The variance contributions of the first three modes of the CEOF decomposition are 53.5%, 12.9%, and 9.5%, respectively. The cumulative variance contribution was 75.9%, which is higher than the actual situation. (2) The first and second eigenvector patterns are similar to the actual situation. The equator captures the flow fields, and the flow fields in the capture region are dominated by the partial latitudinal flow. The difference is that the equatorial capture area in this study is larger than the actual situation, and the longitudinal flow component, as well as the cross-equatorial flow, are also more obvious than that of the actual situation. (3) There is no linear trend in the real-time coefficient sequence of the first and second modes in this study, but this trend exists in the actual situation. The inter-annual and inter-decadal variations of the CEOF modes are similar to the actual situation. The inter-annual variation of 3–7 years in the first and second modes reflects ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation). The inter-decadal variation of 22–23 years in the first mode is influenced by the North Pacific main climate modal PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). The inter-decadal variation of 13 years in the second mode is influenced by the North Pacific secondary climate modal NPGO (North Pacific Gyre Oscillation). Both modes have an inter-decadal variation of 16 years, which may be related to the cross-flow in Indonesia. (4) The results in this paper show that the flow field is captured by the equator and zonal in the theoretical analytical solution. However, the flow field is pure zonal due to the absence of wind stress in the analytical solution. (5) The first (second) mode has dynamic SSTA (sea surface temperature anomaly) in the eastern (central) equatorial Pacific Ocean, which can be called the eastern (central) ENSO mode. The climate model performs well in simulating the upper flow field of the tropical Pacific Ocean.
Inversion of Precipitation Parameters and Precipitation Type Classification Based on Micro Rain Radar
Hong WANG, Jiefan YANG, Dianli GONG, Jun WANG, Dianguo ZHANG, Shasha SUN, Shu CHEN
2023, 47(3): 739-755.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21210
Abstract(388) HTML(39) PDF (21708KB)(138)
Based on the original backscattering signals of the micro rain radar and a new micro rain radar processing methodology (RaProM), the equivalent radar reflectivity, the particle falling velocity, and Doppler spectrum width are calculated after power spectrum calculation, noise removal, and dealiasing. Furthermore, the precipitation types are identified. The RaProM algorithm can identify particle phases, such as snow, drizzle, rain, hail, and their mixed types, considering particle falling velocity, equivalent radar reflectivity, particle size characteristics of different precipitation types, and presence of bright bands. In addition, liquid precipitation parameters, such as radar reflectivity factor and rain intensity, are computed. Subsequently, three typical cases of stratiform cloud precipitation on July 2, 2021, transition of rain and snow on December 25, 2019, and the precipitation with the height of the zero degree layer decreasing gradually on March 4, 2018, are selected to verify and discuss the results. The method of precipitation type classification is applied to typical stratiform precipitation, the vertical structure shows snowflakes in the supercooled water area, mixed-type precipitation in the ice-liquid conversion zone near the 0°C layer, and liquid precipitation below the bright band, proving the validity of the method. The methods are then applied to precipitation type classification and bright band detection. The results show that the RaProM algorithm has the advantage of making no assumptions about precipitation type and considering particle upward velocity (such as snowflakes) over the standard inversion process of micro rain radar. The RaProM algorithm results are in good agreement with the colocated microwave radiometer and cloud radar in the vertical structure, and the deviations from the ground disdrometer in raindrop size distribution and rain intensity are reduced compared with the products of micro rain radar.
Macro–Micro Physical Characteristics of Rainfall Clouds in the West Tianshan Mountains Based on Ka-Band Cloud Radar
Jinru ZHANG, Lianmei YANG, Fan LIU, Jiangang LI, Yushu ZHOU
2023, 47(3): 756-768.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21112
Abstract(272) HTML(76) PDF (9912KB)(106)
This study analyzed the physical characteristics of rainfall clouds in the West Tianshan Mountains, from May 2019 to August 2020, based on the Ka-band millimeter-wave cloud radar and rainfall data from automatic weather stations. The findings demonstrate that: (1) Rainfall occurs primarily at night. The cumulative rainfall was concentrated from 2100 BJT to 0700 BJT the next day. There was a significant beneficial correlation between rainfall frequency and accumulated precipitation. The frequency of heavy rainfall was the lowest, but its contribution to total accumulated rainfall was significant. (2) The maximum average reflectivity of light, moderate, and heavy rainfall intensities were 30, 35.8, and 39.5 dBZ, respectively, and the maximum average liquid water content was 1.5, 4.2, and 7.3 g m−3, respectively. (3) There are two concentrated areas for the reflectivity of various rainfall intensities. The reflectivity of 2.0–4.4 km was concentrated in 15–26 dBZ, and the reflectivity of light, moderate, and heavy rainfall intensities near the surface was respectively concentrated in 24–32 dBZ, 29–38, and 31–42 dBZ. The frequency of moderate and heavy rain intensity below 1.75 km, where the liquid water content is less than 1 g m−3, is significantly lower than light rain intensity. The greater the intensity of rainfall, the more concentrated the radial velocity of rainfall particles.
Comparative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Lightning Detection Data from FY-4A Satellite and ADTD for Rainstorm in Mianning, Sichuan Province
Chuo ZHAO, Guoqiang XU, Shouyou HUANG, Jiajia CHENG
2023, 47(3): 769-785.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21110
Abstract(315) HTML(64) PDF (29708KB)(108)
Lightning data obtained from the FY-4A satellite and ADTD (Advanced Direction and Time of arrival Detecting system) are significant for studying rainstorms and severe convection weather. This paper compares and analyzes the differences between the two lightning data through a case study of a rainstorm in Mianning, Sichuan Province. A series of numerical experiments are designed to introduce the two kinds of lightning data into a numerical prediction model. The main conclusions are: (1) Two kinds of lightning data have different detection effects in different areas. The ADTD lightning data are more extensive and scattered, whereas the number and distribution of lightning detected by the FY-4A satellite are more intensive. However, there is a good consistency between the two kinds of surrogate radar echo transformed by the two lightning data kinds. For low-frequency lightning, the ADTD lightning localizer may be more efficient than FY-4A LMI (Lightning Mapping Imager). (2) The introduction of these two types of lightning data has positive effects on precipitation forecast, and the application of ADTD lightning data is more effective for improving the accuracy of short-time precipitation forecast. (3) The two types of lightning data have different effects on the cloud microphysical quantities adjustment in different regions. This shows that the distribution of the two types of lightning data is not entirely consistent, but they are complementary to each other.
Evolution Process and Mechanism Analysis of the Mesoscale System of an Extreme Summer Rainstorm in Shandong Province
Wanding GONG, Yushu ZHOU, Shanshan ZHONG, Xinyong SHEN, Xiaofan LI, Guo DENG
2023, 47(3): 786-804.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21261
Abstract(302) HTML(86) PDF (41778KB)(121)
The synoptic circulation pattern and mesoscale systems associated with the extreme torrential rain occurring in the Shandong Peninsula on 22 July 2020, are analyzed with conventional observational data and a high-resolution numerical simulation using the mesoscale model WRF. The simulation agreed well with the precipitation process. The results show that the rainstorm process is characterized by mesoscale features spatially and temporally, represented in its high intensity of short-term rainfall, severe locality, etc. Precipitation occurs in the southwest airflow between the subtropical north elevation and the bottom of a low vortex. Strong vortices and low-level jets are important weather systems that affect this precipitation. The southwest jet stream is the main carrier of extreme water vapor during this heavy precipitation. Under a high-level weak divergent field, the main influence of this rainstorm is the deep low vortex extending from the surface to the 500-hPa high altitude. Its temporal and spatial evolution characteristics are consistent with the mesoscale cloud cluster changes shown by the FY-2E hourly TBB data. This consistency is directly related to the occurrence of heavy rain. The interaction between the vortex, low-level jet, and subtropical high strengthens the development of the low vortex. There are warm, wet airflows from the north and cold, dry airflows from the south of the low vortex. The specific humidity gradient is roughly distributed from south to north, which is a typical flow field distribution of a vortex accompanied by a low-level jet. The convergence of the low vortex and its interaction with the strong wind speed belt at the edge of the subtropical high lead to the development and maintenance of strong vertical motion, thereby contributing to the persistence of extreme rainstorms.
Comparative Machine Learning-Based Correction Experiment for a 10 m Wind Speed Forecast at a 100 m Resolution in Complex Mountainous Areas of the Winter Olympic Games
Jingfeng XU, Linye SONG, Mingxuan CHEN, Lu YANG, Lei HAN
2023, 47(3): 805-824.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22117
Abstract(177) HTML(22) PDF (5143KB)(61)
Based on a traditional machine learning algorithm (XGBoost), a deep learning algorithm (CU-Net), and the winter wind speed data from 10 m near the ground with a resolution of 100 m, this paper studied and compared the correction methods for wind speed forecast deviation in the mountainous stations and surrounding areas of the Yanqing and Zhangjiakou competition areas (Beijing Winter Olympic Games) using the rapid-refresh integrated seamless ensemble (RISE) system. For station correction, the 10-m wind speed predicted by the RISE system is interpolated to the corresponding automatic weather station. Subsequently, a separate XGBoost model is constructed for each classification according to the wind speed rating table. Afterward, each interval model was combined to form L-XGBoost, using the root mean square error and forecast accuracy as its scoring standard. Investigations revealed that the correction effect of the L-XGBoost algorithm for wind speed classification was better than the original XGBoost model without classification, indicating that introducing a classification method to traditional machine learning helped improve the wind speed prediction skills of the complex mountain stations. Subsequently, for the wind speed correction of the station and its surrounding areas based on the CU-Net model, this paper constructed a new algorithm model (CU-Net++) by introducing the CU-Net sub-networks with different depths, considering the influence of daily forecast errors and complex terrains on the 10-m wind speed. This paper also constructed spatial small-area sample data, considering the automatic weather station as the center, to correct the wind speed prediction deviation of the RISE system. The test results indicated that although both CU-Net and CU-Net++ fully mined the wind field change rules in time and space dimensions, the wind speed correction results of the CU-Net++ model performed better than those of the CU-Net model, effectively reducing the grid wind speed prediction error of RISE products. Hence, introducing prediction error and complex terrain plays an important positive role in the deviation correction of a surface 10 m wind speed-based investigation.
“Tibetan Plateau Meteorology” Theme
Abnormal Warming of the Summer Surface Air Temperature in Central Asia from 1980 to 2019
Xiaojing JIA, Xuke LIU, Qifeng QIAN
2023, 47(3): 825-836.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.22054
Abstract(209) HTML(50) PDF (25430KB)(39)
This work analyzes the abrupt change in summer surface air temperature (SAT) in Central Asia (CA) and its relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Atlantic and snow cover in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau between 1980 and 2019 based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, CRU SAT, and snow cover and global SST data. The results reveal a significant summer SAT change in CA in 2005. The standardized regional average temperature index in CA shifts from the previous negative phase to the subsequent positive phase, indicating a significant summer SAT increase in CA. Analysis of the anomalous atmospheric circulations related to interdecadal changes in summer SAT in CA shows the abnormally enhanced anticyclonic circulation system in the west of CA after 2005. The atmospheric subsidence associated with the anomalous anticyclone can cause warming. On the other hand, the reduction in the amount of cloud caused by this anticyclone anomaly enhancement results in the increase in downward short-wave radiation and thus is favorable for the increased summer temperature in CA. Furthermore, the interdecadal summer SAT changes in CA in 2005 are closely related to SST warming in the middle and high latitudes of the North Atlantic and the reduction in snow cover in the west of the Tibet Plateau (TP). The SST increase in the middle and high latitudes of the North Atlantic can stimulate a Rossby wave propagating downstream. The reduction in snow cover in the west of the TP can cause warming to the above atmosphere through the snow albedo effect. The changes in both the North Atlantic SST and the TP snow can strengthen the anticyclone over CA, leading to an abnormally high summer SAT over there.
Reexamine the Tibetan Plateau Vortices Sources Based on Multiple Resource Datasets
Zhiqiang LIN, Weidong GUO, Xiuping YAO, Jun DU, Jun GE, Zhenbo ZHOU
2023, 47(3): 837-852.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.21262
Abstract(148) HTML(31) PDF (16765KB)(54)
The Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) is a kind of mesoscale weather system that exists near the surface of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). TPVs are the major precipitation-producing weather system over the TP, and a small portion of the TPVs move off the TP, causing catastrophic heavy rainfall in the downstream areas of the TP. The yearbook of the TPVs edited by the Chengdu Institute of Plateau Meteorology offers important references in the field of TPVs research. The TPV source of the yearbook is dominantly located over the eastern TP, but most TPVs obtained via the reanalysis are generated over the western TP. It is the most significant difference between the TPVs derived from the yearbook and the reanalysis. To clarify the source of TPVs, we first examine the differences in the general circulation between the eastern and western regions of the TP that affect the development of the TPVs and find that the large-scale circulation in the western TP is more favorable to the generation of TPVs. Second, the atmospheric moving vector and blackbody bright temperature derived from the FY-2 geostationary satellites during 2005–2019 are used to reexamine the TPV sources from the yearbook, showing that most TPVs are generated from the western TP. Finally, we checked the difference in the TPV source via the yearbook between the former and later periods of the construction of the three new sounding stations over the western TP, which are Shiquanhe, Gaize, and Shenzha. It shows that the new data significantly increases the proportion of TPVs generated from the western TP. Combining the results obtained from multiple sources, we conclude that most TPVs originate in the western part of the TP, and the conclusion of the yearbook may be misguided because of the insufficient soundings in the western part of the TP. This study confirms the availability and reliability of reanalysis data in the study of TPVs and emphasizes the importance of satellite-based observations in the study of weather systems and the urgency of further enhancing observations over the TP.
Pollution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere of Southeast Tibet
Han LUO, Qiang ZHANG, Ping YUE, Lizong XI, Qin LIU, Chun Yin, Yuanbing WANG, HaoJun QIN, Qi WANG, BaoZi LI, Jinsong Wang
2023, 47(3): 853-865.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22165
Abstract(145) HTML(27) PDF (8351KB)(35)
To investigate the pollution, source, and transport characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, a comprehensive analysis was carried out using 14 different PAHs from the total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the atmospheric gaseous state in the Lulang area (29.77°N, 94.73°E) and combined with meteorological environment data from the same period. The results show that the variation ranges of PAHs mass concentration in TSP and gas phase are 0.22–5.05 ng m−3 and 0.83–63.75 ng m−3, respectively, with average values of 2.13 ng m−3 and 11.33 ng m−3. The primary source of pollution is the combustion of firewood and diesel, while other sources of pollution include the combustion of gasoline. PAHs are emitted by both local pollution and long-range transmission (LRT). In the four seasons, local pollution varies from source to source. Local pollution is serious in the winter and spring, and the source is in the southeast and due south. Pollution in the summer and autumn is primarily caused by local and LRT sources. The primary local source is mainly in the southeast, but LRT is dominant. The northwest air flow, westerly airflow, and southwest air flow all have an impact on the LRT. When pollution is serious, the dominant airflow is southwest, while the secondary dominant airflow is westerly. When the pollution is light, the dominant airflow is westerly or northwest, and the pollution transmitted by the northwest airflow is the least. The results of this study have contributed to a better knowledge of the changes and transport characteristics of PAHs in Southeast Tibet and a theoretical basis for the control of air pollution in this region and the improvement of plateau air quality.
Comparison of the Dynamic Transport Characteristics of Low Ozone Regions over the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2020
Qilu WANG, Wenwen XU, Jingyi TU, Shuyang YU, Jian RAO, Dong GUO
2023, 47(3): 866-880.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21156
Abstract(259) HTML(32) PDF (12655KB)(65)
Based on the monthly ERA5 reanalysis datasets, this study considers the mean flows and eddies in stationary or transient transport using the Lorenz circulation decomposition method. The purpose is to compare the dynamic transport characteristics of ozone over the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau in detail. Results show that the effect of dynamic transport is strongest in the upper stratosphere of these two regions, which leads to the reduction of ozone. Further analyses indicate that the effect of stationary transport is stronger than that of transient transport and zonal and meridional transports nearly have the opposite effect. However, the intensity of dynamic transport over the Arctic is greater than that over the Tibetan Plateau. Zonal transport over the Arctic results in the reduction of ozone in the upper and middle stratosphere and the increase of ozone in the lower stratosphere, whereas the effect of meridional transport is the opposite and weaker. Both mainly function in the upper stratosphere. Over the Tibetan Plateau, the intensity of zonal transport is the same as that of meridional transport. They nearly have the opposite effect, except for the top of the stratosphere, where both lead to the reduction of ozone. Two centers with the strongest transport are located over the Tibetan Plateau, that is, in the upper stratosphere and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. The differences in zonal and meridional transports over these two regions are mainly caused by stationary transport by eddies. The differences in stationary and transient transports over the Tibetan Plateau are smaller than those over the Arctic. Furthermore, the transport of zonal mean ozone by eddies plays a dominant role in stationary and transient transports. Consequently, eddy transport exerts an indispensable influence on the dynamic transport of ozone over the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau.
Variations in Summer Precipitation over the Three-River Headwaters Region and the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin and Their Response to the Tibetan Plateau Summer Monsoon
Hao YANG, Hongli LI, Bin WANG, Wengang ZHANG, Chunguang CUI
2023, 47(3): 881-892.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22089
Abstract(172) HTML(57) PDF (15310KB)(60)
Based on precipitation and ERA5 reanalysis datasets from 1981 to 2020, this study analyzed the variation characteristics of precipitation at different time scales over the Three-River Headwaters region (TRHR) and the Yarlung Zangbo River basin (YZRB) and their responses to the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon. Results are shown as follows: (1) The seasonal variation in precipitation over the TRHR and YZRB shows a bimodal distribution, and the peaks appear in early July and late August. The interdecadal transitions in summer precipitation occur in the early 21st century, especially the TRHR precipitation increases significantly during the recent 20 years. The onset time of summer monsoon in the Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index (DPMI) and the Zhou Plateau Monsoon Index (ZPMI) is earlier than the precipitation increase period over the TRHR and YZRB. The interannual variation in summer precipitation over the TRHR correlates well with two plateau summer monsoon indices. Although the TRHR is close to the YZRB, the summer precipitation of the TRHR is considerably more affected by the Tibetan plateau monsoon than YZRB. When the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon strengthens (weakens), the TRHR precipitation is more (less). (2) In wet TRHR years, the South Asian High is stronger and more eastward, while the pressure at low-level over the main body of the plateau is lower than in dry years. These situations are conducive to the intersection of southwest and southeast winds over the TRHR so that the warm and humid air from the South can go deep into the hinterland of the plateau, resulting in stronger water vapor convergence. In wet YZRB years, there is no obvious anomaly in the pressure field near the YZRB or the Tibetan Plateau. The water vapor transport over YZRB mainly has two paths. One is the southwest path from the Bay of Bengal along the south slope of the plateau, and the other is the northwest path from Central Asia and through the plateau. The two paths converge on the east side of the plateau and continue to transport eastward.
Evaluation of Six Land Surface Evapotranspiration Products over the Tibetan Plateau
Ling YUAN, Yaoming MA, Xuelong CHEN, Yuyang WANG
2023, 47(3): 893-906.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21208
Abstract(251) HTML(47) PDF (20629KB)(72)
Uncertainties in the evapotranspiration (ET) products used in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) region were determined based on the data from satellite remote sensing and observations having different spatial and temporal resolutions, limiting their utility for hydrometeorological and climate assessment. Six ET (PML, EB-ET_V2, GLEAM, GLDAS, ERA5_Land, and MOD16) products were evaluated based on eddy observations, and the differences between the products were compared. Moreover, the uncertainties in ET products in the TP region were analyzed. The results of the analysis are as follows: (1) A good correlation and consistency exist in the mean state and seasonal cycle between the observed and ET values of the corresponding pixel. Moreover, GLEAM product exhibits a high degree of agreement with the observed values and has applicability, and MOD16 product exhibits poor performance at most sites. (2) In terms of seasonal changes, ERA5_Land product values are highly consistent with the observed changes during spring, GLEAM product values are nearly consistent with the observed changes during summer and winter, and EB-ET_V2 product values are highly consistent with observed values during autumn. (3) Spatially, GLEAM product has higher correlation (the correlation coefficient R>0.88) and consistency (index of agreement IOA>0.89) compared to those of EB-ET_V2 product and GLDAS product. Substantial differences exist in the temporal and spatial distribution of various products during different seasons, especially during spring. Compared with other products, MOD16 product is underestimated in summer and overestimated in winter in most regions. (4) The annual average ET for each product except for MOD16 product is considerably different. The annual average ET values of the remaining five products over multiple years arranged in descending order are as follows: ERA5_Land product (401.46 mm a−1)>PML product (334.37 mm a−1)>GLEAM product (298.46 mm a−1)>EB-ET_V2 product (271.39 mm a−1)>GLDAS product (249.67 mm a−1). The total annual evaporation in the TP region is 330.59 mm a−1. The assessment results provide a detailed understanding of the quality and dynamics of ET products in the TP region, which can serve as reference data for regional water management and water resource assessment in the TP region.
Effect of Atmospheric Heat Source on the Tibetan Plateau Vortex During Different Developmental Stages—A Case Study in July 2013
Shu ZHOU, Fang SUN, Meirong WANG, Shunwu ZHOU, Yiyu QING
2023, 47(3): 907-919.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.21267
Abstract(147) HTML(59) PDF (22564KB)(61)
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) vortex (TPV) is the main precipitation system in summer over the TP and downstream regions. This study analyzes a TPV case from 19 to 21 July 2013, based on high-resolution ERA5 reanalysis, the temperature of black body (TBB) obtained from the Fengyun-2E (FY-2E) satellite, and precipitation amount from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission). The TPV case keeps active on the TP for about 56 h, which can be divided into three stages: Initial, development, and moving-out. Further, the roles of atmospheric heat sources in TPV during different stages and the related mechanisms are investigated. The results show that the TPV intensity increases with fluctuations. Furthermore, by diagnosing the potential vorticity (PV) tendency equation, it was found that the vertical gradient of diabatic heating is the main factor causing TPV development, i.e., a positive (negative) PV is produced below (above) the height where the maximum center of diabatic heating is situated, strengthening the low-level cyclonic and high-level anticyclonic circulations. Further analyses indicate that the atmospheric heat source increased with fluctuations, with the maximum value appearing at noon and the strongest in the moving-out stage. Notably, the formation of TPV is related to the surface warming center driven by surface sensible heat, while its enhancement is mainly dependent on the latent heat of condensation. Furthermore, the main contributor to the latent heat is analyzed as a vertical transport of water vapor that promotes TPV development.
News & Views
General Project Review Analysis of the 2022 Meteorological Joint Fund
Jianjun HE, Yu ZHANG, Zhe LIU, Lei YANG, Ying REN, Fei GE, Yucong GUO, Jing LI
2023, 47(3): 920-924.   doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.23014
Abstract(746) HTML(76) PDF (1747KB)(193)
In 2022, the Meteorological Joint Fund (MJF) supported three key research fields: the key technology of numerical prediction model, the theory and method of disaster weather monitoring and prediction, and the artificial intelligence meteorological application technology. Accordingly, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) received 64 MJF applications comprising 87.5% cooperation applications with different unit attributes, and mail/panel reviews were conducted. Keyword analyses of the application revealed that MJF and the key programs in the “weather, climate, and associated sustainable development” field, Department of Earth Sciences (DES), had strong links and obvious differences. The review process of MJF is similar to the key conventional programs of DES, NSFC. NSFC funded 14 key supporting projects with a success rate of 21.9%, and the average annual funding intensity of the MJF exceeded that of DES, NSFC.
Classification of rain types based on raindrop size distribution retrieval from C-band dual-polarization radar
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2305.22168
Abstract(39) PDF (2500KB)(19)
Simulation Study on the Effect of Updraft on the Complexity of Charge Structures in Thunderstorm Clouds
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2305.22215
Abstract(10) PDF (17171KB)(5)
Statistical analysis of microphysical characteristics and their relationship with visibility in Southern coast of Fujian
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22088
Abstract(53) PDF (2385KB)(11)
Long-term Variability and Causes of Tropospheric Polar Vortex over Northern Hemisphere in Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2305.22172
Abstract(33) PDF (3246KB)(16)
The development of a homogenized in-situ daily and monthly precipitation dataset over China in last 120 years (1900-2022)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22227
Abstract(39) PDF (1842KB)(11)
Spatiotemporal Distribution and Duration Characteristics of Minute-Scale Extreme Precipitation during Flood Season in Guangdong
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22130
Abstract(34) PDF (2461KB)(17)
Comparative Analysis of the Two Unusual Freezing Rain Events in Northeast China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22068
Abstract(36) PDF (8017KB)(9)
Simulating land and atmosphere exchange processes over a mountainous forest in Huainan using CLM4.5
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22186
Abstract(30) PDF (2132KB)(5)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.23015
Abstract(40) PDF (5935KB)(14)
A Simulation Study on the Impact of a Deep Convection on STE over the Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.21040
Abstract(29) PDF (1755KB)(8)
Statistical characteristics and the interdecadal variation of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2303.22075
Abstract(48) PDF (746KB)(7)
Changes in Starting Dates of Spring and Its Early Signals in Northeast China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22139
Abstract(26) PDF (1970KB)(7)
Forecast Evaluation of Short-term Heavy Precipitation from Operational Models by Fractions Skill Score Method Based on the Cumulative Climatological Probability
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22175
Abstract(39) PDF (17020KB)(5)
The long term variation characteristics of Ultraviolet radiation in Beijing base on in situ measured data
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22178
Abstract(17) PDF (1613KB)(4)
Trends of East Asian summer monsoon and rainy season in China and their possible impact factors under global warming
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22188
Abstract(39) PDF (12811KB)(7)
The decadal change of interannual relationship between Victoria Mode in the North Pacific (VM) and autumn precipitation in the Maritime Continent
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2303.22243
Abstract(24) PDF (4591KB)(7)
Diagnostic Research on Heavy Rain Growth in Shandong Province Influenced by Landing Typhoon Lekima due to the Coupling of Upper and Low Level Jet Streams
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22002
Abstract(44) PDF (8471KB)(16)
Influence of radar data cycling assimilation on thunderstorm gale simulation in nantong at 4.30
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22108
Abstract(37) PDF (11279KB)(10)
Comparison between Multi-Physics and Stochastic Approaches for the 18th October 2021 Typhoon
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22122
Abstract(32) PDF (3683KB)(6)
The Triple-frequency Radar Simulation for Liquid Cloud Droplets
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22132
Abstract(32) PDF (2254KB)(6)
Observation and numerical simulation on a sea fog event under the background of an extratropical cyclone entering sea
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2303.22136
Abstract(40) PDF (6976KB)(11)
Numerical simulation and study on the microphysical mechanism of hail formation in Beijing
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2303.22213
Abstract(34) PDF (9492KB)(15)
Analysis of microphysical mechanisms of torrential rainfall during the transitional process of Typhoon Maysak (2020)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22246
Abstract(25) PDF (4854KB)(11)
Numerical Simulation on the Impact of Subcloud Dry Layer on the Effect of Cloud Seeding for Rain Suppression
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22027
Abstract(38) PDF (4844KB)(14)
Impact of Double Low-level Jets on the Extreme Rainstorm in Henan Province in July 2021
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2304.22110
Abstract(73) PDF (11990KB)(35)
Analysis of Heavy Precipitation and Water Vapor Characteristics in Yunnan of Plateau Vortex Shear
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22022
Abstract(68) PDF (24192KB)(33)
Analysis of radar echo evolution characteristics of a severe convective storm artificial hail suppression operation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22043
Abstract(53) PDF (3813KB)(12)
The characteristic of water vapor transportation and three dimensional atmospheric structure during a Persistent precipitation event in northern slope of middle Kunlun Mountains
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22097
Abstract(61) PDF (3077KB)(15)
A new method of fast refined interpolation for model forecast fields
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22104
Abstract(53) PDF (3613KB)(22)
Air mass budget at iso-moist-static-energy levels during the super long-lasting Meiyu in summer 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22144
Abstract(75) PDF (9324KB)(20)
Numerical simulation study on the difference of microphysical characteristics between plain and mountainous areas during a heavy snowfall in Beijing during the 2022 Winter Olympic Games
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22176A
Abstract(45) PDF (6831KB)(19)
The 10- to 30-day intraseasonal variation characteristics of spring snowmelt anomalies over Eurasia and abnormal circulation evolution analysis
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2303.22203
Abstract(40) PDF (4122KB)(19)
Fusion Test of Wind Data from China-France Oceanography Satellite Scatterometer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22204
Abstract(48) PDF (1628KB)(11)
Circulation characteristics of haze weather over Sichuan Basin in winter and its response to the thermal action of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in the early stage
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22116
Abstract(47) PDF (2252KB)(23)
Application of Aeolus Horizontal Line-of-sight Product Data Assimilation in Typhoon Forecast
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22049
Abstract(50) PDF (5052KB)(11)
Numerical simulation of the effects by sulfate and black carbon aerosols on the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22064
Abstract(41) PDF (2050KB)(4)
MJO propagation speed simulated in CMIP6
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22099
Abstract(37) PDF (3896KB)(4)
Moisture sources and source regions’ contributions of the Northeast cold vortex rainstorm in June 2021
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22202
Abstract(90) PDF (8308KB)(42)
Observational analysis and numerical simulation of the Northeast cold vortex rainstorm physical processes in June 2021
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22207
Abstract(98) PDF (21344KB)(48)
Numerical simulation of the initation and discharge characteristics of lightning under the double-layer uniform pocket charge model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22078
Abstract(43) PDF (4871KB)(7)
Effect of complex terrain on the wind speed profile
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22181
Abstract(73) PDF (1269KB)(29)
In-situ Study on Aerosol-Cloud Interaction in Upper Cloud Process over the Yangtze River Delta
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2301.22071
Abstract(70) PDF (2319KB)(19)
The Impacts of assimilating FengYun-3C/MWHS-2 Observations under All-Sky Conditions on the Forecasts of Typhoon Maria
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22085
Abstract(77) PDF (4011KB)(29)
Prolonged Effects of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on the Persistent Rainfall over Eastern China during 2020 Summer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22126
Abstract(94) PDF (6800KB)(25)
Simulation of 9.2 ka BP weak Asian summer monsoon event
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22166
Abstract(67) PDF (3625KB)(4)
Short-term sea surface temperature forecasts in the equatorial Pacific based on LSTM
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22128
Abstract(70) PDF (3476KB)(24)
The Active Characteristics of Mesoscale Systems during the
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Abstract(100) PDF (4831KB)(59)
Analysis of Surface Ozone Pollution in China Amid the Record Summertime Extreme Heat of 2022
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2302.22211
Abstract(204) PDF (2254KB)(51)
Comparative Study of Characteristics and Causes of Two Low Vortex Heavy Rain Events in North China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22060B
Abstract(95) PDF (7650KB)(42)
Numerical simulation of the influence of dust aerosol on convective cloud precipitation in Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22133
Abstract(38) PDF (2530KB)(6)
Extended period circulation anomalies of the Persistent Extreme Cold Events in northern Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22032
Abstract(99) PDF (5058KB)(26)
Climatic characteristics and interannual variability of the South China Sea Summer Monsoon onset based on three reanalysis data
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22079
Abstract(113) PDF (12105KB)(21)
Characteristics of interdecadal variability of atmospheric aerosol pollution in the Twain-Hu Basin region in winter and spring and its association with north-south anti-phase modes of meridional winds in East Asia
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22179
Abstract(76) PDF (10079KB)(9)
Regionalization?of?the boundary-layer height and Its Dominant Influencing Factors in Summer Over China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22183
Abstract(184) PDF (3829KB)(50)
Non-meteorological echoes identification method based on Bayesian classifier and echo physical characteristics using C-band radar and its performance
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22003
Abstract(107) PDF (4829KB)(19)
Sensitivity Study of Cumulus Convection Parameterization to Gray Zone during a Heavy Precipitation Process over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22045
Abstract(97) PDF (12475KB)(13)
Characteristic of North Atlantic Horseshoe SSTA in Autumn and the Relationship with the Interannual Variation of Early Winter Temperature in China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22106
Abstract(110) PDF (2003KB)(18)
Comprehensive study of the cloud macro- and micro- structure of a rare aircraft icing case in Henan
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Abstract(112) PDF (2599KB)(10)
Comparative Analysis of Water Vapor Transport and Thermodynamic characteristics of Different Types of Jiulong vortex of Southwest China vortex
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.21202
Abstract(98) PDF (1901KB)(17)
Research and Prediction of Typical Stratospheric Sudden Warming Event in the Arctic in 2021
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Abstract(103) PDF (3257KB)(17)
Characteristics of Atmospheric Heat Source and Cloud Amount over Yunnan before and after Summer Monsoon Rain Onset
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22105
Abstract(194) PDF (3791KB)(25)
Development and application of mid-summer precipitation prediction model over Haihe River Basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22142
Abstract(85) PDF (2459KB)(13)
Numerical Simulation of Convective-Stratiform Mixed Clouds Enhancement in Zhejiang Province Based on Ensemble Forecasting
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22177
Abstract(125) PDF (2464KB)(17)
Differences of the low level easterly jet over Tarim in rainstorm and non-rainstorm processes in Southern Xinjiang
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2206.21183
Abstract(87) PDF (5240KB)(17)
Summer hot-dry stages in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the past 136 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22100
Abstract(232) PDF (4253KB)(23)
Analysis on the characteristics of short-term extreme precipitation in China in recent 30 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2212.22118
Abstract(202) PDF (2391KB)(106)
Comparative study on the high-resolution vertical distribution characteristics of meteorological elements and atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer of sunny day and radiation fog events based on UAV observation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22180
Abstract(122) PDF (3157KB)(16)
Study on regional extreme precipitation events over mainland of the South China during 1981-2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2211.22056
Abstract(175) PDF (2004KB)(57)
The distribution and transport of upper tropospheric water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau area during the east?west oscillation of the South Asian high in summer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22066
Abstract(138) PDF (5260KB)(23)
3D wind field retrieval by combining space-borne infrared imager and hyperspectral detection
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Abstract(370) PDF (1941KB)(69)
Evolution characteristics and roles of precipitation cloud systems in the process of size change of tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21256
Abstract(149) PDF (1643KB)(20)
Responses of vegetation to climate change and human activities in arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22048
Abstract(205) PDF (1701KB)(68)
Statistical characteristics of occurrence of blocking highs and their modulation on surface air temperature during anomalous stratospheric northern annular mode events
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Abstract(140) PDF (3726KB)(18)
Objective Identification of the Tibetan Plateau Vortex Based on ERA-5 High Resolution Data
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Abstract(187) PDF (5091KB)(49)
Study for GRAPES-REPS of cosine analysis constraint scheme based on ETKF initial perturbations
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Abstract(124) PDF (3641KB)(12)
Study on the vegetation changes and its relationship with climate factors in different dry/wet areas over China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.21258
Abstract(185) PDF (2369KB)(67)
The Role of Air-sea Coupling in Simulating East Asian Summer Monsoon and responses to pre-winter El Ni?o - Based on FGOALS-g3
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2209.22076
Abstract(119) PDF (10272KB)(15)
Evaluation of heavy rainfall numerical prediction based on subjective and objective circulation classification as well as method for object-based diagnostic evaluation ——method and its application over Northeast China during the warm season of 2019
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2210.22107
Abstract(178) PDF (2486KB)(57)
Numerical Study on Convection Initiation Conditions and Predictability of A Warm-sector Rainstorm Lifting from Boundary Layer under Complex Terrain
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22103
Abstract(288) PDF (4930KB)(111)
Regional differences in surface temperature variation in China from1961 to 2018
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Abstract(159) PDF (2789KB)(30)
Structure and mechanism analysis of the tornado at the periphery of typhoon Mangkhut
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Abstract(186) PDF (4722KB)(34)
Relation of Atmospheric ISO at Mid-High-Latitude-Eurasia to the European Blocking Frequency and Their Co-effect on Extreme Hot Events during Boreal Summer
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22077
Abstract(193) PDF (13809KB)(43)
Objective Identification and Analysis of Warm-Sector Rainstorm with Warm Shear Pattern over Yangtze-Huaihe River Region
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21220
Abstract(363) PDF (2697KB)(48)
An optimized probabilistic prediction method of aircraft icing potential based on convection-allowing model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21235
Abstract(123) PDF (2349KB)(16)
Spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and causes of short-duration heavy rainfall in the presummer rainy season over the Pearl River Delta region before and after the South China Sea summer monsoon onset in the past 20 years
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22102
Abstract(248) PDF (5154KB)(42)
Assessment of Cloud Base Height Product from ERA5 Reanalysis Using Ground-Based Observations
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Abstract(196) PDF (2337KB)(46)
Aircraft Measurement on the Microphysical Properties of a Precipitating Stratiform Cloud Event in the Qilian Mountains of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.22019
Abstract(209) PDF (3658KB)(55)
Influence of soil hydraulic parameters on global medium-range numerical weather forecast system
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Abstract(128) PDF (2399KB)(16)
Improving the dynamic core of a pseudo-incompressible model in the η coordinate
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Abstract(149) PDF (2005KB)(30)
A Case Study of Summer Precipitation Process in the Central Tianshan Area using Multi-radar Observation and Model Simulation
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21196
Abstract(141) PDF (5154KB)(26)
Analysis on the Applicability of Different Precipitation Products and WRF-Hydro Model over the Source Region of the Yellow River
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22057
Abstract(162) PDF (2166KB)(36)
Application of Machine Learning in Clustering and Discriminant Analysis of Large-scale Circulation Patterns Favorable for Tropical Cyclogenesis over the Western North Pacific
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2208.22074
Abstract(177) PDF (3321KB)(51)
Trends and possible causes of different levels of precipitation variations in China during 1961~2020
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Abstract(168) PDF (7336KB)(61)
Seasonal prediction and Predictability of East Asian winter monsoon in German Climate Forecast System
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Abstract(201) PDF (3498KB)(17)
Microstructure study of updraft zone of precipitation cloud system in North China based on aircraft observation
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Abstract(179) PDF (3145KB)(35)
Humidity Sensitivity of retrieved temperature by microwave radiometer and the feedback on the topography of Liupan Mountain
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Abstract(151) PDF (937KB)(21)
Evolution Characteristics of Different Scale Initial Perturbation Energy in Convection-Permitting Ensemble Prediction of GRAPES
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21242
Abstract(231) PDF (8072KB)(49)
Baroclinic Disturbances in Nonzonal Flow
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Abstract(176) PDF (578KB)(31)
A Diagnostic Study of Water Vapor Transport and Budget during wintertime snowstorm days over the different regions of Northern Xinjiang in 1979-2017
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21137
Abstract(162) PDF (2196KB)(48)
Projection of Rainfall erosivity changes in Northeast China using a high-resolution regional model
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.22006
Abstract(125) PDF (2411KB)(19)
1991-2020 China Climate Normals
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22010
Abstract(729) PDF (3737KB)(232)
Air vertical motion and raindrop size distribution retrieval algorithm based on reflectivity spectral density data and dual wavelength ratio constraint with Ka/Ku dual-wavelength cloud radar and its preliminary applicationLiu Liping
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21199
Abstract(136) PDF (4749KB)(23)
The impact of fraction vegetation coverage increase on temperature change in Liaoning Province
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Abstract(147) PDF (4192KB)(29)
Discharge characteristics of upward negative precursors in positive triggered lightning
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Abstract(166) PDF (1079KB)(21)
Preliminary Analysis of the Interaction between the East Asian Jet Streams and Air Pollutants in the Surface Layer in Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21125
Abstract(171) PDF (30016KB)(35)
Analysis of attractor behavior and predictability in a coupled Lorenz model
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Abstract(158) PDF (1849KB)(41)
Influence of Typhoons in the Western Pacific on Summer Precipitation in the Eastern Part of Northwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.22011
Abstract(202) PDF (3944KB)(30)
The Maintenance and Development of Ural Blocking High and its Relationship with Severe Cold Wave Activities in 2020/2021 Winter
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21166
Abstract(174) PDF (4207KB)(48)
A Study on the Effects of Vegetation on Dust Weather in Inner Mongolia
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22017
Abstract(161) PDF (3890KB)(30)
Improvement and Application of Time-height Profile Reconstruction Method with X-band Dual Polarization Radar Parameters
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Abstract(148) PDF (3795KB)(34)
The Impacts of Dabie Mountains on a Mesoscale Convective System Occurred at the Background of Northeast Cold Vortex
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21023
Abstract(155) PDF (6876KB)(41)
Feature extraction and analysis of Atmospheric Turbulence Based on new round trip radiosonde
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21103
Abstract(178) PDF (2445KB)(26)
Multi-scale Features and Air-sea Background of Winter PersistentCold Events in Fujian Province
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21188
Abstract(152) PDF (7176KB)(34)
Statistical characteristics of the Northeast China Cold Vortex and its impact on precipitation distribution from 2000 to 2019
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Abstract(256) PDF (6319KB)(102)
Decadal variation of boreal summer 30~60-day intraseasonal oscillation and its influence on precipitation and temperature over eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21228
Abstract(194) PDF (4711KB)(39)
Barotropic Instability of Geostrophic Flow: The Problem Revisited
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Abstract(218) PDF (511KB)(27)
Interdecadal variations of winter precipitation over the Three River Source region in China and associated physical mechanisms
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22034
Abstract(205) PDF (3495KB)(34)
Spatial Instability of Barotropic Geostrophic Flow
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Abstract(195) PDF (444KB)(27)
Impact of cumulus parameterization schemes on the high-resolution numerical simulation of heavy Meiyu front rainfall events
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2203.21259
Abstract(317) PDF (2489KB)(62)
Analysis on Interannual Variation of Regional Persistent High-Temperature Events in South China during 1961-2017
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21123
Abstract(225) PDF (2519KB)(77)
Projection of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River Basin in the future 30 years under different Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21154
Abstract(321) PDF (1605KB)(74)
Three Cold Surges in China during the Winter of 2020/2021 and Their Low-frequency Features
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.21222
Abstract(255) PDF (5823KB)(49)
Roles of local mountain-valley wind circulation in the formation of an orographic clouds and precipitation event on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21257
Abstract(258) PDF (4886KB)(78)
Progresses and challenges of direct assimilation of cloud-affected satellite infrared radiances
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21176
Abstract(219) PDF (411KB)(31)
The impact of the “combined modality” of SR and EAP on the heavy precipitation in the early stage of Meiyu in the Yangtze-Huai River region in 2020
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21215
Abstract(297) PDF (3535KB)(46)
The stratospheric Arctic polar vortex modulated by the SST warming in the western equatorial Pacific in early spring
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Abstract(213) PDF (5703KB)(51)
Thermodynamic characteristics over North Asian of the steady warming process before the summer onset
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21238
Abstract(209) PDF (3011KB)(23)
Interannual Variability of Winter Fog Days over Southern China and Its Relationship With ENSO
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Abstract(300) PDF (7454KB)(49)
Frontogenetic analyses of topographic frontal rainstorm in Xinjiang
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Abstract(237) PDF (11737KB)(48)
Improved Visibility Diagnostic Scheme Based on Fog Microphysical Observation
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Abstract(250) PDF (1761KB)(57)
Cloud Microphysical Characteristics of Warm Conveyor Belt within a Winter Mesoscale Snowstorm
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Abstract(241) PDF (10266KB)(58)
Characteristics of Cold Pools in the Outer Core of Tropical Cyclones in Different Vertical Wind Shear Magnitudes
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Abstract(241) PDF (2256KB)(39)
The Analysis of Sea Temperature Variation in Response to Typhoon Lekima(1909)
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.20247
Abstract(251) PDF (1711KB)(50)
Impacts of winter and spring snow anomalies on summer precipitation frequency and intensity in Eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.22018
Abstract(284) PDF (6914KB)(75)
Analysis of circulation characteristics and precipitation phase difference of an extreme freezing rain and snow weather in Southwest China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21224
Abstract(249) PDF (2664KB)(68)
Research progress of vertical motion and new vertical motion equation
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Abstract(350) PDF (1176KB)(114)
Climate Effects of Black Carbon aerosol from China and India in East Asia in Winter
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Abstract(204) PDF (5022KB)(39)
Influencing Mechanisms of Cloud Droplet Spectral Dispersion on Cloud and Precipitation Simulation under Different Pollution Backgrounds
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21190
Abstract(232) PDF (1350KB)(38)
Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation in Indochina Peninsula and South China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21120
Abstract(320) PDF (2636KB)(76)
Interdecadal enhancement of the interannual relationship between spring North Atlantic tripolar SST mode and extreme cold event frequency in eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21172
Abstract(261) PDF (1955KB)(85)
Analysis about the Formation Mechanism of Overshooting Convection during a Rainstorm in Sichuan Basin
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21174
Abstract(284) PDF (4053KB)(68)
Statistical Prediction of Accumulated Cyclone Energy in the Western North Pacific from July to August
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Abstract(223) PDF (3350KB)(24)
Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality in Kunshan, Eastern China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21171
Abstract(379) PDF (2070KB)(51)
The interannual variation of Annual Cycle of the East Asian Subtropical Monsoon and its Impact on Summer Rainfall in North China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21184
Abstract(272) PDF (24977KB)(52)
Preliminary Analysis on the Interdecadal Change and Cause of Summer and Autumn Dryness and Wetness over Northwest China in Recent Decades
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2112.21115
Abstract(281) PDF (2411KB)(75)
An Ensemble Prediction method of Aviation Turbulence Based on Energy Dissipation Rate
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Abstract(171) PDF (2716KB)(41)
Simulation of Climatology and Interannual Variability of North African Monsoon: An analysis based on FGOALS-g3
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21141
Abstract(309) PDF (3700KB)(39)
Temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of winter cold hazards with and without precipitation in China
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2111.21143
Abstract(301) PDF (23074KB)(117)
A New Objective Identification Method for Mesoscale Vortices: Three-dimensional Tracking and its Quantitative Evaluation
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Abstract(335) PDF (3551KB)(87)
Seasonal Evolution of Asian Monsoon Precipitation Simulated by Climate System model: Based on the Comparative Evaluation Between FGOALS-g3 and FGOALS-g2
 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21144
Abstract(232) PDF (4714KB)(38)

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Supervisor: Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sponsors by: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Meteorological Society

Editor: Lu Riyu


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