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风云三号微波观测资料的海雾同化模拟

吴晓京 朱江 王曦 杨冰韵

吴晓京, 朱江, 王曦, 杨冰韵. 风云三号微波观测资料的海雾同化模拟[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(3): 421-436. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16105
引用本文: 吴晓京, 朱江, 王曦, 杨冰韵. 风云三号微波观测资料的海雾同化模拟[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(3): 421-436. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16105
Xiaojing WU, Jiang ZHU, Xi WANG, Bingyun YANG. Sea Fog Simulation with Assimilation of FY-3A Microwave Data[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(3): 421-436. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16105
Citation: Xiaojing WU, Jiang ZHU, Xi WANG, Bingyun YANG. Sea Fog Simulation with Assimilation of FY-3A Microwave Data[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(3): 421-436. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16105

风云三号微波观测资料的海雾同化模拟

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16105
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41075057

国家自然科学基金项目 41675110

详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴晓京, 男, 1968年出生, 理学博士、正研级高工, 主要从事气象卫星资料天气应用研究.E-mail:wuxj8@cma.gov.cn

    通讯作者:

    朱江, E-mail:jzhu@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P413

Sea Fog Simulation with Assimilation of FY-3A Microwave Data

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41075057

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41675110

  • 摘要: 数值模式边界层物理过程和初值场条件的欠缺是海雾模拟准确率偏低的主要原因。本文为改进模式初始场,开展针对海雾模拟的卫星观测资料同化试验,将质量控制和偏差订正后的FY-3A卫星微波湿度计(MWHS)和微波温度计(MWTS)的优选通道数据,经3DVar(Three-dimensional variational data assimilation)进入WRF模式以试验其对黄、渤海海雾模拟的影响。通过分析静止气象卫星检测到的海雾区模拟大气温、湿场同化分析增量,发现代表环境场条件的海雾类型及模式对其模拟能力的差异,显著影响了同化效果,表现为同化对模式模拟能力较强的平流冷型海雾改进明显,对模拟效果不甚理想的非典型混合过程中的暖型海雾阶段则基本没有改进效果。为寻找原因,对包括海雾区低层大气模拟场逆温结构在内的温湿度场与邻近探空观测进行了对比,分析了随时间演变的海雾格点温、湿场同化分析增量,发现冷型海雾区格点同化分析增量能弥补观测—模拟差异,使气温调减,相对湿度调增,同时水汽和液态水也出现负相关的变化,边界层相关热力动力场同化分析增量在垂直方向也有配合迹象,相比而言,主体是暖型海雾的非典型过程则未见此类现象和其他的有益调整迹象。
  • 图  1  2011年2月20日12:00到22日08:00每间隔4小时的同化MWHS资料后RH2m分析增量与卫星检测的海雾区(黄色区域)叠加图。图中“+”、“·”和“Δ”符号分别表示RH2m增加、减少和不变,增减变化幅度如色标所示;红圈为同化分析增量显著的海雾区

    Figure  1.  Evolution of RH2m (relative humidity at 2-m height) increments by the MWHS radiance data assimilation overlapped with the sea fog area (yellow regions) detected by satellite at 4-hour interval from 1200 UTC 20 to 1200 UTC 22 February 2011. "+", "·", and "Δ" denote increases, decreases, and unchanged; red circle represents obvious increments of the sea fog area

    图  2  图 1,但为同化MWTS资料后的结果,时间为2011年3月12日06:00至13日10:00。红圈和蓝圈分别为黄海北部、江苏中部沿海同化分析增量显著的海雾区

    Figure  2.  As in Fig. 1, but for the RH2m increments by MWTS data assimilation for the period from 0600 UTC 12 to 1000 UTC 13 March 2011. Red circles and blue circles represent obvious increments of the sea fog area in northern Yellow Sea and along the coast of central Jiangsu Province, respectively

    图  3  2011年3月12日22:00到13日06:00同化前模拟的RH2m和Wind10m。填色区表示相对湿度RH2m。白圈为黄海北部RH2m相对低值区;黄圈为江苏中部沿海RH2m相对低值区

    Figure  3.  Simulations of RH2m and Wind10m (wind at 10-m height) without assimilation for the period of 2200 UTC 12 to 0600 UTC 13 March 2011. Shaded areas denotes RH2m. White and yellow circles represent low RH2m in northern Yellow Sea and low RH2m along the coast of central Jiangsu Province, respectively

    图  4  2011年3月12日05:00至13日12:00模式输出海雾格点的(a)RH2mT2m和(b)1000 hPa QvQc同化累计分析增量演变

    Figure  4.  Temporal evolutions of cumulative incremental values at sea fog grids for the period from 0500 UTC 12 to 1200 UTC 13 March 2011: (a) RH2m and temperature at 2-m height (T2m); (b) 1000-hPa water vapor content (Qv) and cloud liquid water content (Qc)

    图  5  山东省荣成站2月21日00:00观测点(37.1°N,122.29°E)的RH、T和邻近海雾格点(36.667°N,122.983°E)的同化前RH、T模拟值以及同化增量在600 hPa以下的垂直分布:(a)观测点RH、邻近海雾格点同化前RH(a图左)、同化增量(∆RH,a图右);(b)观测点T、同化前T模拟值(b图左)、同化增量(∆T,b图右)。(c)、(d)同(a)、(b),但为3月13日00:00,邻近海雾格点(37.167°N,123.483°E)的值

    Figure  5.  Vertical distributions below 600 hPa of relative humidity (RH), temperature (T) at observation point (37.1°N, 122.29°E) and RH, T, RH increments, T increments at sea fog grid point (36.667°N, 122.983°E) at 0000 UTC 21 February: RH at observation point (left of Fig. a), RH without assimilation at sea fog grid point (left of Fig. a), RH increments (∆RH) with assimilation (right of Fig. a); T at observation point (left of Fig. b), T without assimilation at sea fog grid (left of Fig. b), T increments (∆T) with assimilation (right of Fig. b). (c, d) As in (a, b), but for 0000 UTC 13 March, sea fog grid point is (37.167°N, 123.483°E)

    图  6  模拟的(同化前)全部海雾格点上的2月(黑线)、3月(红线)过程平均的(a)温度和(b)垂直速度(w)随高度的变化曲线。2月过程平均值计算时段:20日12:00至22日12:00;3月过程平均值计算时段:12日05:00至13日12:00

    Figure  6.  Vertical distributions of simulated (without assimilation) (a) temperature and (b) vertical velocity (w) averaged over all the sea fog grid points during the periods of fog processes of February (black lines) and March (red lines). Statistical average period for February is from 1200 UTC 20 to 1200 UTC 22 February and that for March is from 0500 UTC 12 to 1200 UTC 13 March

    图  7  (a)2月过程和(b)3月过程海雾格点模拟(同化前)和同化后RH2m值随时间的演变。柱状代表同化前的RH2m,红色线代表同化MWHS资料后RH2m的分析增量,蓝色线代表同化MWTS资料后RH2m的分析增量

    Figure  7.  Temporal evolutions of RH2m averaged over all the sea fog grid points from simulations without and with assimilation for the (a) February process and (b) March process. Red lines represent analysis increment of RH2m with assimilation of MWHS data, blue lines represent analysis increment of RH2m with assimilation of MWTS data

    图  8  同化MWHS资料和MWTS资料后2月过程和3月过程海雾的(a)T、(b)RH、(c)Qc、(d)Qv、(e)w的900 hPa以下垂直增量廓线。统计时间段:2月20日12:00至22日12:00;3月12日05:00至13日12:00

    Figure  8.  Vertical distributions of increments of (a) temperature (T), (b) relative humidity (RH), (c) Qc, (d) Qv, and (e) vertical wind speed (w) below 900 hPa after assimilation of MWHS data and MWTS data for the February process and March process. Statistical period for February is from 1200 UTC 20 to 1200 UTC 22 February and that for March is from 0500 UTC 12 to 1200 UTC 13 March

    表  1  MWHS仪器通道特征

    Table  1.   Channel characteristics of MWHS (MicroWave Humidity Sounding)

    通道号 中心频率/ GHz 带宽/ MHz 星下点分辨率/km 噪声等效温差/K 权重峰值高度
    1 150(V) 1000×2 15 0.90 地表
    2 150(H) 1000×2 15 0.90 地表
    3 183±1(V) 500×2 15 1.10 400 hPa
    4 183±3(V) 1000×2 15 0.90 600 hPa
    5 183±7(V) 2000×2 15 0.90 800 hPa
    注:H表示水平极化,V表示垂直极化。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  MWTS仪器通道特征

    Table  2.   Channel characteristics of MWTS (MicroWave Temperature Sounding)

    通道号 中心频率/GHz 带宽/ MHz 星下点分辨率/km 噪声等效温差/K 权重峰值高度
    1 50.30 180 62 0.50 地表
    2 53.596±0.115 2×170 62 0.40 700 hPa
    3 54.94 400 62 0.40 300 hPa
    4 57.29 330 62 0.40 70 hPa
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  同化模拟试验使用的WRF模式设置

    Table  3.   WRF model configurations of assimilation and forecast experiments

    模式选项 设置方案
    区域 中心点纬度30°N,经度125°E;东西方向141个格点,南北方向121个格点
    分辨率 水平分辨率45 km
    时间步长 180 s
    边界层方案 YSU方案
    积云方案 Kain-Fritsch方案
    微物理方案 WSM 3简单冰方案
    辐射方案 长波:RRTM方案;短波:Dudhia方案
    陆面过程 NOAH陆面过程方案
    近地面层 Monin-Obukhov方案
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2011年2月20~22日地面观测风速、风向及气温统计

    Table  4.   Surface observations of wind speed, direction, and temperature from 20 to 22 February 2011

    时间 山东省成山头站(站号54776) 江苏省吕泗站(站号58265)
    风速/m s−1 风向 气温/℃ 风速/m s−1 风向 气温/℃
    2月20日12:00 4 −1 2 4
    2月20日18:00 4 −4 2 3
    2月21日00:00 3 −3 2 西 1
    2月21日06:00 3 1 2 5
    2月21日12:00 0 −3 1 西 4
    2月21日18:00 3 −3 1 3
    2月21日00:00 4 −2 2 2
    2月22日06:00 5 2 5 10
    2月22日12:00 5 0 3 7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  2011年3月11~13日地面观测风速、风向及气温统计

    Table  5.   Surface observations of wind speed, direction, and temperature from 11 to 13 March 2011

    时间 山东省成山头站(站号54776) 江苏省吕泗站(站号58265)
    风速/m s−1 风向 气温/℃ 风速/m s−1 风向 气温/℃
    3月11日12:00 5 3 3 9
    3月11日18:00 5 6 4 8
    3月12日00:00 5 4 5 10
    3月12日06:00 10 4 3 18
    3月12日12:00 9 3 5 10
    3月12日18:00 8 6 3 9
    3月13日00:00 8 6 4 9
    3月13日06:00 6 3 6 18
    3月13日12:00 6 2 4 11
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-01-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2016-11-10
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-15

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