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华南沿海暖区辐合线暴雨地形动力机制数值模拟研究

王坚红 杨艺亚 苗春生 高义梅 张旭

王坚红, 杨艺亚, 苗春生, 高义梅, 张旭. 华南沿海暖区辐合线暴雨地形动力机制数值模拟研究[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(4): 784-796. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1702.16182
引用本文: 王坚红, 杨艺亚, 苗春生, 高义梅, 张旭. 华南沿海暖区辐合线暴雨地形动力机制数值模拟研究[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(4): 784-796. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1702.16182
Jianhong WANG, Yiya YANG, Chunsheng MIAO, Yimei GAO, Xu ZHANG. The Numerical Study of Terrain Dynamic Influence on Warm Area Heavy Rainfall of Convergence Lines in South China Coast[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(4): 784-796. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1702.16182
Citation: Jianhong WANG, Yiya YANG, Chunsheng MIAO, Yimei GAO, Xu ZHANG. The Numerical Study of Terrain Dynamic Influence on Warm Area Heavy Rainfall of Convergence Lines in South China Coast[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(4): 784-796. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1702.16182

华南沿海暖区辐合线暴雨地形动力机制数值模拟研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1702.16182
基金项目: 

国家科技支撑计划项目 2012BAH05B01

公益性行业(气象)科研专项 GYHY201206068

国家自然科学基金项目 41276033

江苏科技支撑项目 BE2012774

江苏科技支撑项目 BE2014729

江苏高校优秀学科建设工程项目 PAPD

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王坚红,女,1956年出生,教授,博士生导师,从事海洋气象学和区域海气相互作用研究。E-mail:jhwang@nuist.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    苗春生,E-mail:1597706505@qq.com,csmiao@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P444

The Numerical Study of Terrain Dynamic Influence on Warm Area Heavy Rainfall of Convergence Lines in South China Coast

Funds: 

National Key Technology Research and Development Program of theMinistry of Science and Technology of China 2012BAH05B01

Special Scientific Research Fund of Meteorological Public Welfare Profession of China GYHY201206068

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41276033

Jiangsu Science and Technology Support Programs BE2012774

Jiangsu Science and Technology Support Programs BE2014729

Superiority Discipline Construction Project of Jiangsu Universities and Colleges PAPD

  • 摘要: 华南沿海暖区暴雨是单一暖气团降水。本文采用客观分析方法确定暖区暴雨主要影响系统为两类辐合线低值系统:偏南向辐合线与西南向辐合线;此类辐合线系统具有强烈的辐合上升层次与暖心结构,是一类强烈的暖区暴雨天气系统。偏南向辐合线多出现在粤西沿海,而西南向辐合线多出现于粤东沿岸,分别具有短时团状与持续带状两类强降水。华南沿海地区山脉河口众多,其中珠江口以西的团状云雾山正面阻挡偏南向辐合线,河口以东的带状莲花山侧面阻挡西南向辐合线。利用WRF数值模式分别研究粤东和粤西山脉对两类辐合线及其暴雨的地形影响,包括正面阻挡和侧面摩擦。结果显示,将偏南向型辐合线所遇云雾山范围地形降低80%后,因正面阻挡缺失,辐合线及其降水向北推进,雨带强度减弱,形状改变。地形的正面阻挡促使低层辐合气流迅速抬升触发强降水。降水释放的凝结潜热,又加强系统的上升运动和暖心结构强度与层厚,进而增强暴雨。填充偏南向型狭管地形的试验显示,狭管效应构成对强降水位置和强度的直接强迫影响,加之与云雾山正面阻挡配合,两项作用造成粤西暴雨频繁特征。测试粤东西南向莲花山脉对西南向辐合线的侧向阻挡与摩擦效应,通过对比莲花山两种地表粗糙度环境模拟效果,获得显著的局地垂直上升速度差,显示粤东沿海山脉的侧向摩擦不仅增强西南辐合线强度也加强垂直上升运动强度,由于西南气流的持续,山脉走向与气流的配置,维持了降雨时长及雨带范围。同时对粤西近海西南辐合气流及河口的暴雨雨带也有连带增强与维持作用。进一步地山脉地形抬升以其抬升迅速,范围集中,层次深厚,而有别于锋面气团抬升。加之近海水汽充沛,抬升后中层凝结释放的配合,增强了辐合线低值系统强度,造成暖区降水雨强远高于华南锋面降水。
  • 图  1  两类华南沿海暖区辐合线暴雨合成的平均降水分布与客观分析的辐合线系统轴线(850 hPa):(a)偏南向型;(b)西南向型。阴影为典型个例最强降水时刻合成降水量,单位:mm;红色箭头为客观判定的辐合线,虚线为研究区域的南北边界

    Figure  1.  Distribution of precipitation and convergence axes of the two types of convergence lines that induce warm area heavy rainfall along South China coastal region (850hPa): (a) Southerly pattern; (b) southwesterly pattern. Shaded areas indicate precipitation, units: mm. Red arrows are the convergence axes, dashed lines indicate the south-north border lines of research area

    图  2  华南地形图。阴影为海拔高度,单位:m。图中箭头表示两类辐合线与两个研究区的相对位置

    Figure  2.  Terrain height (units: m) in South China. Shaded areas indicate the altitude of the topography, the vectors show the convergence line positions related to the two experiment areas

    图  3  两种类型(a、c)实况与(b、d)对照试验降水量(填色;单位:mm)与850 hPa风场分布:(a、b)偏南向型(2013年5月7日19:00至8日06:00 12 h累积降水量和5月8日00:00风场分布);(c、d)西南向型(2013年5月21日06:00至22日12:00 30 h累积降水量及5月21日18:00风场分布)

    Figure  3.  Precipitation distribution (units: mm) and streamline (wind field at 850 hPa) patterns from (a, c) observations and (b, d) numerical simulations: (a, b) Southerly patterns (12-h cumulative precipitations from1900 UTC 7 May 2013 to 0600 UTC 8 May 2013 and wind at 0000 UTC8 May 2013); (c, d) southeasterly patterns (30-h cumulative precipitations from 0600 UTC 21 May 2013 to 1200 UTC 22 May 2013 and wind at 1800 UTC 21 May 2013)

    图  4  偏南向型对照试验与RM0.2试验的地形与辐合线及雨带配置:(a、b)对照试验;(c、d)RM0.2试验。填色为海拔高度,单位:m;实线表示2013年5月8日01:00至06:00大于50 mm的6 h累积降水量,单位:mm;流线为925 hPa上5月8日02:00的风场辐合线,点线为925 hPa上大于12 m s-1等风速线, (单位:m s-1

    Figure  4.  Terrain height, convergence line, and precipitation in the (a, b) control experiment and (c, d) RM0.2 experiment for the southerly pattern. Shaded area indicates terrain height, units: m; solid lines show 6-h accumulated precipitation of greater than 50mm during 0100-0600 UTC 8 May 2013, units: mm; streamlines show the wind field convergence lines, and dashed lines display wind speed of greater than 12 m s-1 at 925 hPa at 0200 UTC 8 May 2013, units: m s-1

    图  5  2013年5月8日(a-f)00:00~05:00偏南向型辐合线暴雨过程最强6个时刻的TCTL(对照试验)与RM0.2试验垂直速度差沿111.8°E的垂直剖面(填色;单位:m s-1

    Figure  5.  Vertical cross sections of vertical velocity differences (units: m s-1) along 111.8°E between TCTL (control experiment) and RM0.2 experiment at six times of strongest precipitation for the southerly pattern. (a-f) From 0000 to 0500 UTC 8 May 2013, respectively

    图  6  2013年5月8日偏南向型FILL试验地形与辐合线及雨带配置:(a)925 hPa上03:00风场辐合线(流线;虚线为大于12 m s-1等风速线,单位:m s-1);(b)01:00~06:00 大于50 mm的6 h累积降水(实线,单位:mm)。阴影为海拔高度,单位:m。图中矩形区为地形修改研究区

    Figure  6.  Terrain height, convergence line, and precipitation in the FILL experiment for the southerly pattern. (a) Streamlines show the wind field convergence line, dashed lines are for wind speed of greater than 12 m s-1 at 925 hPa at 0300 UTC 8 May 2013, units: m s-1; (b) solid lines are for 6-h accumulated precipitation of greater than 50 mm (units: mm) during 0100-0600 UTC 8 May 2013.Shaded area indicates height, units: m. The rectangle indicates the terrain change area

    图  7  西南向型(a、b)对照试验TCTL和(c、d)敏感性试验RM50的地形与辐合线及雨带配置。阴影为海拔高度,单位:m;流线为925 hPa上2013年5月21日20:00风场辐合线,虚线为大于12 m s-1等风速线,单位:m s-1;实线表示2013年5月21日19:00至22日00:00大于50 mm的6 h累积降水量(单位:mm)

    Figure  7.  Terrain height, convergence lines, and precipitation (greater than 50 mm) in (a, b) TCTL (control experiment) and (c, d) RM50 experiment for the southwesterly pattern. Shaded area shows terrain height, units: m; streamlines show the wind field convergence lines, dashed lines are wind speed of greater than 12 m s-1 at 925 hPa at 2000 UTC 21 May 2013, units: m s-1; solid lines show 6-h accumulated precipitation of greater than 50 mm from 1900 UTC 21 May 2013 to 0000 UTC 22 May2013

    图  8  2013年5月西南向型辐合线暴雨过程降水区(a)控制实验与(b)敏感实验22日01:00垂直速度沿114°E经向—垂直剖面(单位:m s-1)和(c、d)21日23:00 925 hPa层比湿差水平分布(单位:g kg-1):(a、c)TCTL;(b、d)CHANGE(低粗糙度试验)

    Figure  8.  Vertical cross sections of vertical velocity along 114°E for the southwesterly patterns between (a) the control and (b) the sensitive tests (0100 UTC 22 May 2013, units: m s-1) and (c, d) specific humidity distribution at 925 hPa (2300 UTC 21 May 2013, units: g kg-1) in (a, c)TCTL and (b, d) CHANGE (low roughness experiment)

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    Zhao Yuchun, Li Zechun, Xiao Ziniu. 2008. Comparison analysis of South China front and warm area heavy rain systems in June 2006[J]. Meteorological Science and Technology (in Chinese), 36 (1):47-54, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-6345.2008.01.009.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-05-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2017-02-24
  • 刊出日期:  2017-07-15

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