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1956~2012年浙闽登陆热带气旋降水精细化观测统计分析

王坚红 姜云雁 崔晓鹏 沈新勇 任福民

王坚红, 姜云雁, 崔晓鹏, 沈新勇, 任福民. 1956~2012年浙闽登陆热带气旋降水精细化观测统计分析[J]. 大气科学, 2018, 42(1): 16-32. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1705.16253
引用本文: 王坚红, 姜云雁, 崔晓鹏, 沈新勇, 任福民. 1956~2012年浙闽登陆热带气旋降水精细化观测统计分析[J]. 大气科学, 2018, 42(1): 16-32. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1705.16253
Jianhong WANG, Yunyan JIANG, Xiaopeng CUI, Xinyong SHEN, Fumin REN. Statistical Analysis of Accurate Observations of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces from 1956 to 2012[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2018, 42(1): 16-32. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1705.16253
Citation: Jianhong WANG, Yunyan JIANG, Xiaopeng CUI, Xinyong SHEN, Fumin REN. Statistical Analysis of Accurate Observations of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces from 1956 to 2012[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2018, 42(1): 16-32. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1705.16253

1956~2012年浙闽登陆热带气旋降水精细化观测统计分析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1705.16253
基金项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划) 2015CB452804

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划) 2015CB453201

国家自然科学基金项目 41175056

国家自然科学基金项目 41530427

国家自然科学基金项目 41276033

上海台风研究基金课题项目 2013ST01

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王坚红, 女, 1956年出生, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事海洋气象学和区域海气相互作用研究。E-mail:1597706505@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    崔晓鹏, E-mail:xpcui@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P444

Statistical Analysis of Accurate Observations of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces from 1956 to 2012

Funds: 

National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) 2015CB452804

National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) 2015CB453201

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41175056

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41530427

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41276033

Shanghai Typhoon Research Foundation 2013ST01

  • 摘要: 选取我国东南沿海热带气旋登陆数目多、经济发达的浙江和福建两省,利用国家级地面气象站逐小时降水观测资料,结合热带气旋降水客观分离方法,对1956~2012年(共57年)浙、闽两省沿海登陆热带气旋降水开展客观分离,统计分析热带气旋登陆期间降水精细化时空分布特征。结果表明:热带气旋平均路径在登陆前6小时至登陆后24小时呈西北行,累积降水具有明显非对称分布特征,与主要水汽辐合区相吻合,登陆后24小时至48小时的降水分布与鄱阳湖水体以及局地地形有密切联系;伴随登陆进程,降水分布呈现显著变化,登陆前,浙、闽两省降水较强;登陆后,降水范围向内陆扩展到浙、闽两省以外地区;登陆点聚类分析指出,所有类别的较强降水时段均位于登陆前12小时至登陆后6小时,但不同类别的降水分布和演变特征具有显著差异,这种差异与局地地形和热带气旋环流所处位置关系密切;小时强降水统计分析显示,伴随着登陆进程强降水频次分布逐渐变化和向内陆地区推进,高频次强降水主要出现在登陆前、后6小时的浙、闽两省沿海地区,且以两省交界附近地区最为集中,与该地区明显的高大地形分布有着密切的关系。两省各台站由登陆热带气旋带来的小时降水极值差异较大,从10到143 mm均有分布,大部分极值在30至60 mm之间。其中,极值大于50 mm的站点主要分布在沿海地区,在浙、闽交界处较为集中,与小时强降水的频次分布一致。
  • 图  1  1956~2012年浙、闽沿海登陆热带气旋路径

    Figure  1.  Tracks of tropical cyclones (TCs) that made landfall in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces from 1956 to 2012

    图  2  登陆时刻合成的500 hPa高度场(等值线,单位:dagpm;红色加粗等值线为588 dagpm)与850 hPa水汽通量(矢量箭头,彩色表示矢量大小,单位:g s-1 hPa-1 cm-1

    Figure  2.  Composite geopotential height at 500 hPa (contours, units: dagpm; the bold red line indicates 588 dagpm) and water vapor flux at 850 hPa (vectors, colors indicate magnitudes of the vectors, units: g s-1 hPa-1 cm-1) at the time of TC landfall

    图  3  (a)登陆前6小时至登陆后24小时、(b)登陆后24至48小时的热带气旋平均路径(紫色点线),平均累积降水量(等值线,单位:mm)和地形高度(阴影,单位:m)

    Figure  3.  The averaged paths (purple dotted lines) and accumulated precipitation (contours, units: mm) of all TCs (a) from 6 hours before landing to 24 hours after landing, and (b) from 24 hours after landing to 48 hours after landing. Shaded areas indicate terrain height

    图  4  统计平均的逐6小时累积降水量(阴影,单位:mm):(a)登陆前12至6小时;(b)登陆前6小时至登陆时刻;(c)登陆时刻至登陆后6小时;(d)登陆后6至12小时;(e)登陆后12至18小时;(f)登陆后18至24小时;(g)登陆后24至30小时;(h)登陆后30至36小时;(i)登陆后36至42小时;(j)登陆后42至48小时。紫色圆点代表 6小时平均的热带气旋中心位置

    Figure  4.  Statistically averaged 6-hour accumulated precipitation (shaded areas, units: mm) (a) from 12 to 6 hours before landing, (b) from 6 to 0 hours before landing, (c) from 0 to 6 hours after landing, (d) from 6 to 12 hours after landing, (e) from 12 to 18 hours after landing, (f) from18 to 24 hours after landing, (g) from 24 to 30 hours after landing, (h) from 30 to 36 hours after landing, (i) from 36 to 42 hours after lading, (j) from 42 to 48 hours after landing. Averaged location of all TCs for 6 hours is marked by purple dot

    图  5  6类热带气旋路径

    Figure  5.  Tracks of six types of tropical cyclones

    图  6  6类热带气旋登陆前6小时至登陆后24小时的累积降水量(等值线,单位:mm,粗实线为40 mm)、地形高度(阴影,单位:m)和平均登陆点(紫色实心点)

    Figure  6.  Accumulated precipitation from 6 hours before landing to 24 hours after landing (contours, units: mm), terrain height (shaded, units: m), and averaged TC landfall locations (marked by purple dots) of six types of tropical cyclones

    图  7  第一类至第六类(第一行至第六行)热带气旋登陆前12小时至登陆后24小时的逐6小时累积降水量(阴影,单位:mm)和热带气旋中心平均位置(紫色实心点)

    Figure  7.  Accumulated precipitation (shaded areas, units: mm) and the locations of averaged TC centers (marked by purple dots) of six types of tropical cyclones (from row 1 to row 6) at 6 hours interval from 12 hours before landing to 24 hours after landing

    图  8  登陆前12小时至登陆后12小时(图中右上角数字)逐小时累积降水量≥8 mm的频次(实心点,蓝色:1~5,绿色:6~10,黄色:11~15,红色:16~20,黑色:大于20)分布

    Figure  8.  Frequency (marked by filled dots, blue: 1–5, green: 6–10, yellow: 11–15, red: 16–20, black: greater than 20) distributions of hourly precipitation larger than or equal to 8 mm from 12 hours before landing to 12 hours after landing

    图  9  浙江、福建两省各台站历史上(1956~2012年)由登陆热带气旋造成的小时降水量极值分布(实心点,绿色:0~20,蓝色:21~50,红色:51~100,黑色:大于100,单位:mm)和地形高度(阴影,单位:m)

    Figure  9.  Hourly TC precipitation extremes (marked by filled dots, green: 0–20, blue: 21~50, red: 51–100, black: greater than 100, units: mm) observed at weather stations in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces (from 1956 to 2012). Shaded areas indicate terrain height (units: m)

    图  10  浙江、福建两省各台站历史上(1956~2012年)由登陆热带气旋引起的小时降水量极值的盒须图

    Figure  10.  Box-and-whisker plot of hourly TC precipitation extremes observed at weather stations in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces (from 1956 to 2012)

    表  1  1956~2012年由登陆热带气旋造成的浙、闽台站小时降水极值以及出现的时间

    Table  1.   Hourly TC precipitation extremes and their occurrence times observed at stations in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces from 1956 to 2012

    台站位置 降水极值/mm TC 出现时间(UTC) 出现时段
    (119.5°N,25.97°E) 143.2 Longwang 2005-10-02 12时 -5~-4
    (119.28°N,26.08°E) 111.2 Longwang 2005-10-02 13时 -4~-3
    (119.33°N,26.08°E) 109.2 Longwang 2005-10-02 13时 -4~-3
    (119.53°N,26.5°E) 107.9 Longwang 2005-10-02 16时 -1~0
    (119.52°N,26.67°E) 97.5 Gerald 1987-09-10 16时 4~5
    (119.15°N,26.15°E) 83.6 Longwang 2005-10-02 13时 4~5
    (118.07°N,24.48°E) 81.3 Nora 1973-10-10 03时 -2~-1
    (117.5°N,23.78°E) 78.5 Lionrock 2010-09-02 00时 0~1
    (119°N,25.45°E) 77.4 Longwang 2005-10-02 10时 7~8
    (121.15°N,27.83°E) 76.3 Haitang 2005-07-19 18时 9~10
    (119.38°N,25.72°E) 74.8 Chebi 2001-06-23 15时 0~1
    (121.42°N,28.62°E) 72.6 Longwang 2005-10-03 00时 7~8
    (121.37°N,28.37°E) 72.4 Vera 1989-09-15 12时 0~1
    (117.13°N,23.77°E) 71.6 Lionrock 2010-09-02 01时 1~2
    (122.45°N,30.73°E) 67.9 Gloria 1963-09-12 16时 2~3
    注:最后一列中,负值表示登陆前,正值表示登陆后(例如,-5~-4代表登陆前5小时到登陆前4小时;2~3代表登陆后2小时到登陆后3小时)。
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-10-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2017-06-08
  • 刊出日期:  2018-01-15

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