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我国登陆热带气旋引起的大陆地面风场分布

梁莉 崔晓鹏 王成鑫 白莉娜

梁莉, 崔晓鹏, 王成鑫, 白莉娜. 我国登陆热带气旋引起的大陆地面风场分布[J]. 大气科学, 2018, 42(1): 96-108. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1708.16224
引用本文: 梁莉, 崔晓鹏, 王成鑫, 白莉娜. 我国登陆热带气旋引起的大陆地面风场分布[J]. 大气科学, 2018, 42(1): 96-108. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1708.16224
Li LIANG, Xiaopeng CUI, Chengxin WANG, Lina BAI. Characteristic Distribution of Surface Winds Associated with Landfalling Tropical Cyclones in Mainland China[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2018, 42(1): 96-108. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1708.16224
Citation: Li LIANG, Xiaopeng CUI, Chengxin WANG, Lina BAI. Characteristic Distribution of Surface Winds Associated with Landfalling Tropical Cyclones in Mainland China[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2018, 42(1): 96-108. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1708.16224

我国登陆热带气旋引起的大陆地面风场分布

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1708.16224
基金项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目 2015CB452804

详细信息
    作者简介:

    梁莉, 女, 1985年出生, 博士研究生, 工程师, 主要从事热带气旋大风统计和数值模拟、专业气象预报方法研究。E-mail:liangli@cma.cn

    通讯作者:

    崔晓鹏, E-mail:xpcui@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P425

Characteristic Distribution of Surface Winds Associated with Landfalling Tropical Cyclones in Mainland China

Funds: 

National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) 2015CB452804

  • 摘要: 利用逐小时风速观测资料以及台风年鉴资料,分析了2008~2014年登陆我国大陆地区的51次热带气旋(TC)的地面风场分布特征,包括TC登陆期间大陆地面风场演变和大风分布特征、海岛站和内陆站的风速差异以及海拔对风力造成的影响等。结果表明:6级及以上大风主要发生在距离TC中心300 km内、TC强度达到台风(TY)以上时,并主要位于TC移动方向的右侧,尤其是右前象限;华南区TC风场分布主要由在此区域登陆的TC(Ⅰ类)造成,较大风速区包括广东西南部沿海、雷州半岛附近和海南西部沿岸;华东区TC风场分布主要由在此区域登陆的TC(Ⅱ类)造成,杭州湾出海口以及浙闽沿海是较大风速区;6级及以上大风广泛分布在华南和华东沿海,6~7级地面大风高频站主要位于杭州湾附近,8级及以上地面大风高频站点在杭州湾和福建沿海分布比广东西南部更为密集;TC登陆前后均可能造成大风,大风出现时间与站点至TC中心的距离密切相关;同等强度TC在海岛站造成的风速比陆地站更大,对高海拔站点造成的风力大于低海拔站点。本文研究结论对于TC大陆地面风场的预报具有一定参考价值。
  • 图  1  圆环区域内平均地面风速随热带气旋(TC)强度等级和距TC中心距离(R)而变化的折线图

    Figure  1.  Distribution of average surface wind speed associated with the TC (tropical cyclone) intensity scale and radius (R) from the TC center

    图  2  各级别地面风力的站点与TC中心距离的盒须图

    Figure  2.  Box plot of surface winds at various Beaufort scales and distances from surface observational sites to TC center

    图  4  地面观测站点发生(a)5级及以下、(b)6~7级、(c)8~9级和(d)10级及以上风力的频数随距TC中心距离、方位的分布以及(e)方位角示意图(“ O”为TC中心,“OA”为x轴正方向即TC移动方向,“OB”为y轴正方向,∠ AOB= 90°)

    Figure  4.  Relationships between frequency distributions of surface observation sites where wind speed (a) are below or reach the Beaufort scale 5, (b) reach the Beaufort scales6 to 7, (c) reach the Beaufort scales 8 to 9, (d) reach or exceed the Beaufort scale 10 and their distances to the TC center as well as the directions; (e) sketch map of directions determined by the TC center and TC moving direction ("O" represents for TC center, " OA" points the positive way of x direction and also TC moving direction, " OB"points the positive way of y direction, ∠ AOB=90°)

    图  3  地面观测站点发生(a)5级及以下、(b)6~7级、(c)8~9级和(d)10级及以上风力的频数随距TC中心距离和TC强度的分布

    Figure  3.  Relationships between frequency distributions of surface observation sites where wind speed (a) are below or equal to Beaufort scale 5, (b) reach the Beaufort scales 6 to 7, (c) reach the Beaufort scales 8 to 9, (d) reach or exceed the Beaufort scale 10 and their distances to the TC center as well as the TC intensity

    图  5  各级别风力地面观测站点海拔分布盒须图

    Figure  5.  Box plot of altitude of surface sites with different Beaufort scales of winds

    图  6  2008~2014年登陆我国大陆地区的TC登陆点及路径

    Figure  6.  TC Landing locations and tracks in mainland China during 2008–2014

    图  7  全部(左列)、登陆时强度为台风及以上级别(中间列)和登陆时强度为台风以下级别(右列)的Ⅰ类TC登陆期间华南地区平均地面风速分布及演变

    Figure  7.  Distributions and evolutions of average surface wind speed in South China during the landing period for all the type Ⅰ TCs (left column), for type Ⅰ TCs with intensity reaching or exceeding the typhoon intensity (middle column), and for type Ⅰ TCs with intensity weaker than typhoon intensity (right column)

    图  8  全部(第一行)、登陆时强度为台风及以上级别(第二行)和登陆时强度为台风以下级别(第三行)的Ⅱ类TC登陆期间华东地区平均地面风速分布及演变

    Figure  8.  Distributions and evolutions of average surface wind speed in East China during the landing period for all the type Ⅱ TCs (the first line), for type Ⅱ TCs with intensity reaching or exceeding the typhoon intensity (the second line), and for type Ⅱ TCs with intensity weaker than typhoon intensity (the third line)

    图  9  TC登陆前后12h距离TC中心300km站点(圆点)的大风频数分布:(a)6~7级;(b)8~9级;(c)10级及以上

    Figure  9.  Frequency distributions of winds (a) at Beaufort scales 6 to 7, (b)at Beaufort scales 8 to 9, (c)at or above the Beaufort scale 10 respectively based on observations from sites (dots) within 300km from the TC center during the period from 12 h before to12h after the landing of TCs

    图  10  TC登陆期间广东上川岛站和茂名站风速的演变:(a)1003号“灿都”;(b)1311号“尤特”

    Figure  10.  Wind speed evolutions at sites Shangchuandao and Maoming in Guangdong Province during the landing periods of typhoons (a) "Chanthu (1003)" and (b) "Utor (1311)"

    图  11  TC登陆期间福建九仙山站和安溪站风速演变图:(a)0808号“凤凰”;(b)1011号“凡亚比”

    Figure  11.  Wind speed evolutions at sites Jiuxianshan and Anxi in Fujian Province during the landing periods of typhoons (a) "Fung-wong (0808)" and (b) "Fanapi (1011)"

    表  1  2008~2014年登陆我国大陆地区的51个热带气旋登陆期间距中心500 km范围内地面观测站风力分级及样本数

    Table  1.   Classifications and the sample numbers of wind from surface observational sites within500kmfrom TC centers of 51 TCs making landfall in mainlandChinain 2008–2014

    风力等级 1~5级 6级 7级 8级 9级 10级 11级 ≥12级
    风速/m s−1 ≤10.8 (10.8, 13.9] (13.9, 17.2] (17.2, 20.8] (20.8, 24.5] (24.5, 28.5] (28.5, 32.6] >32.6
    样本数 991217 9479 4124 1681 546 225 79 39
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  Ⅰ、Ⅱ类TC频数统计

    Table  2.   Statistics of frequency of typeⅠ and type Ⅱ TCs

    按登陆时TC强度分类
    类别 总数 台风及以上个数(占比) 台风以下个数(占比)
    Ⅰ类 28 11(39%) 17(61%)
    Ⅱ类 19 8(43%) 11(57%)
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-09-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2017-08-30
  • 刊出日期:  2018-01-15

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