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华南暖区暴雨事件的筛选与分类研究

刘瑞鑫 孙建华 陈鲍发

刘瑞鑫, 孙建华, 陈鲍发. 华南暖区暴雨事件的筛选与分类研究[J]. 大气科学, 2019, 43(1): 119-130. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1803.17245
引用本文: 刘瑞鑫, 孙建华, 陈鲍发. 华南暖区暴雨事件的筛选与分类研究[J]. 大气科学, 2019, 43(1): 119-130. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1803.17245
Ruixin LIU, Jianhua SUN, Baofa CHEN. Selection and Classification of Warm-Sector Heavy Rainfall Events over South China[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2019, 43(1): 119-130. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1803.17245
Citation: Ruixin LIU, Jianhua SUN, Baofa CHEN. Selection and Classification of Warm-Sector Heavy Rainfall Events over South China[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2019, 43(1): 119-130. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1803.17245

华南暖区暴雨事件的筛选与分类研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1803.17245
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41675045

国家自然科学基金项目 41575080

灾害天气国家重点实验室基金项目 2016LASW-B05

江西省重点研发计划项目 20171BBG70005

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘瑞鑫, 女, 1990年出生, 博士研究生, 主要从事中尺度天气分析和模拟研究。E-mail:liuruixin.123@163.com

    通讯作者:

    孙建华, E-mail:sjh@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P445

Selection and Classification of Warm-Sector Heavy Rainfall Events over South China

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41675045

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41575080

Fund of National Key Laboratory of Disaster Weather 2016LASW-B05

Key Research Program of Jiangxi Province 20171BBG70005

  • 摘要: 利用逐小时降水资料,采用客观方法对1982~2015年华南地区暖区暴雨进行了筛选和分类研究。主要结果如下:华南区域暖区暴雨事件共计177例,暖区暴雨占筛选的暴雨事件的16.86%,表明暖区暴雨是华南非常重要的降水过程。暖区暴雨主要出现在4~7月,6月份最多,平均持续11.58 h。暖区暴雨事件发生位置主要集中在广东、广西的沿海地区和粤北山区,有四个降雨中心。产生华南暖区暴雨的天气形势主要有四类,切变线型、低涡型、南风型和回流型,不同类型的暖区暴雨对华南地区的内陆和沿海的作用不同,且南风影响下的暖区暴雨发生频率较高,影响较大,是一类较为重要的暖区暴雨。
  • 图  1  华南124个站点(黑点)和地形高度(阴影,单位:m)分布。SW、YK、LH、JL代表十万山、云开山、莲花山、九连山

    Figure  1.  Distribution of stations (black dots) and topography (shadings, units: m) in South China. SW, YK, LH, JL represent the Shiwan Mountain, the Yunkai Mountain, the Lianhua Mountain, the Jiulian Mountain, respectively

    图  2  两例暖区暴雨事件沿代表站点(115.85°E)的经向剖面:(a)2011年6月16日08时(北京时,下同),无锋面系统类型;(b)2012年6月22日08时,有锋面系统类型。黑色实线:θse(单位:K);彩色阴影:温度平流场(单位:10–5 K s–1);黑色箭头:风场(单位:m s–1);绿色柱:前6 h累计雨区的配置(单位:mm);灰色阴影:地形

    Figure  2.  Meridional–vertical cross sections along the longitude (115.85°E) of representative station for two warm-sector heavy rainfall events: (a) 0800 BJT (Beijing time) 16 June 2011, the type without frontal system; (b) 0800 BJT 22 June 2012, the type with frontal system. Black solid lines: potential pseudo-equivalent temperature (θse, units: K); color shadings: temperature advection (units: 10–5 K s–1); vectors: wind (units: m s–1); green bars: 6-hour accumulative precipitation (units: mm) before the study time; grey shadings: terrain

    图  3  1982~2015年挑选出的华南强降水事件(浅蓝色柱+深蓝色柱)和暖区暴雨时间(深蓝色柱)统计。粉色实线表示暖区暴雨占强降水事件的比例

    Figure  3.  Severe heavy rainfall events (light blue and dark blue bars) and warm-sector heavy rainfall events (dark blue bars) over South China during 1982–2015. The pink solid line shows the proportion of warm-sector heavy rainfall events in total severe heavy rainfall events

    图  4  1982~2015年暖区暴雨过程(a)年变化分布、(b)月变化分布。蓝色柱为代表站点位于广东省的个例数,绿色柱为代表站位于广西壮族自治区的个例数

    Figure  4.  (a) Interannual variation and (b) monthly change of warm-sector heavy rainfall events during 1982–2015. Blue and green bars show the results at representative stations in Guangdong Province and Guangxi Autonomous region, respectively

    图  5  1982~2015年挑选出的华南暖区暴雨的时间统计:(a)事件的起始时间;(b)持续时间。纵坐标为发生的次数(单位:次)

    Figure  5.  Statistical characteristics for (a) the start times and (b) durations of the selected warm-sector heavy rainfall events in South China during 1982–2015. y-axis indicates numbers of warm-sector heavy rainfall events

    图  6  1982~2015年华南暖区暴雨过程在代表站点的(a)发生次数,(b)单站过程最大降水量(单位:mm)分布。阴影表示地形(单位:m),QZ、YJ、EP、LM、SW为钦州站、阳江站、恩平站、龙门站、汕尾站

    Figure  6.  (a) Occurrence frequency and (b) locations of maximum precipitation (units: mm) at selected warm-sector heavy rainfall stations in South China. Shadings indicate terrain (units: m). QZ, YJ, EP, LM, SW represent Qinzhou station, Yangjiang station, Enping station, Longmen station, Shanwei station, respectively

    图  7  华南4类暖区暴雨(粉色圆点代表降水位置)空间滤波后涡度(阴影,单位:10−5 s−1)和风场(箭头,单位:m s−1)分布:(a)切变线型暖区暴雨(2004年7月20日),粗棕色线为切变线;(b)低涡型暖区暴雨(2008年6月7日);(c)南风型暖区暴雨(2013年4月29日);(d)回流型暖区暴雨(2014年5月8日)

    Figure  7.  Distributions of spatially filtered vorticity (shadings, units: 10−5 s−1) and wind field (vectors, units: m s−1) for four types of warm-sector heavy rainfall (the pink dots represent precipitation locations): (a) The shear line type of warm-sector rainfall (20 July 2004), the thick brown line shows the shear line; (b) the low vortex type of warm-sector rainfall (7 June 2008); (c) the southerly wind type of warm-sector rainfall (29 April 2013); (d) the backflow type of warm-sector rainfall (8 May 2014)

    图  8  华南4类暖区暴雨事件月变化特征。蓝色为切变线型、浅蓝色为低涡型、绿色为南风型、黄色为回流型暖区暴雨

    Figure  8.  Monthly variation of four types of warm-sector rainfall events in South China. Blue bars indicate the shear line type, light blue bars indicate the low vortex type, green bars indicate the southerly wind type, yellow bars indicate the backflow type

    图  9  华南4类暖区暴雨事件地区分布特征

    Figure  9.  Geographic distribution features of four types of warm-sector rainfall events in South China. GDC, GDL, GXC, and GXL represent Guangdong coastal region, Guangdong inland, Guangxi coastal region, and Guangxi inland, respectively

    图  10  华南4类暖区暴雨(a)起始时间、(b)持续时间的变化特征

    Figure  10.  (a) Start times and (b) durations of the four types of warm-sector rainfall events in South China

    表  1  1982~2015年华南强降水事件和暖区暴雨事件

    Table  1.   Severe heavy rainfall events and warm-sector heavy rainfall events over South China during 1982–2015

    年份 强降水事件/个 暖区事件/个 所占百分比
    1982 24 5 20.8%
    1983 33 4 12.1%
    1984 26 1 3.8%
    1985 21 2 9.5%
    1986 36 1 2.8%
    1987 32 4 12.5%
    1988 25 2 8%
    1989 19 2 10.5%
    1990 20 3 15%
    1991 17 7 41.2%
    1992 27 3 11.1%
    1993 38 11 28.9%
    1994 38 2 5.3%
    1995 23 5 21.7%
    1996 35 6 17.1%
    1997 43 12 27.9%
    1998 43 12 27.9%
    1999 27 4 14.8%
    2000 31 5 16.1%
    2001 36 10 27.8%
    2002 33 3 9.1%
    2003 31 6 19.4%
    2004 32 8 25%
    2005 34 9 26.5%
    2006 31 6 19.4%
    2007 36 2 5.6%
    2008 34 7 20.6%
    2009 26 3 11.5%
    2010 36 5 13.9%
    2011 21 6 28.6%
    2012 33 6 18.2%
    2013 32 6 18.8%
    2014 32 4 12.5%
    2015 45 5 11.1%
    总计 1050 177 16.86%
    注:所占百分比是指暖区事件占强降水事件的百分比。
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-09-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2018-03-23
  • 刊出日期:  2019-01-15

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