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夏季青藏高原及周边上对流层水汽质量及其向平流层传输年际异常. II:向平流层的绝热和非绝热传输

唐南军 任荣彩 吴国雄 虞越越

唐南军, 任荣彩, 吴国雄, 虞越越. 夏季青藏高原及周边上对流层水汽质量及其向平流层传输年际异常. II:向平流层的绝热和非绝热传输[J]. 大气科学, 2020, 44(3): 503-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1905.18268
引用本文: 唐南军, 任荣彩, 吴国雄, 虞越越. 夏季青藏高原及周边上对流层水汽质量及其向平流层传输年际异常. II:向平流层的绝热和非绝热传输[J]. 大气科学, 2020, 44(3): 503-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1905.18268
TANG Nanjun, REN Rongcai, WU Guoxiong, YU Yueyue. Interannual Anomalies of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor Mass and Its Transport into the Stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau Area in Summer. Part II: Adiabatic and Diabatic Transport into the Stratosphere[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2020, 44(3): 503-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1905.18268
Citation: TANG Nanjun, REN Rongcai, WU Guoxiong, YU Yueyue. Interannual Anomalies of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor Mass and Its Transport into the Stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau Area in Summer. Part II: Adiabatic and Diabatic Transport into the Stratosphere[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2020, 44(3): 503-518. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1905.18268

夏季青藏高原及周边上对流层水汽质量及其向平流层传输年际异常. II:向平流层的绝热和非绝热传输

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1905.18268
基金项目: 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)项目XDA17010105,国家自然科学基金项目91437105、91837311,中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目QYZDY-SSW-DQC018

Interannual Anomalies of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor Mass and Its Transport into the Stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau Area in Summer. Part II: Adiabatic and Diabatic Transport into the Stratosphere

  • 摘要: 夏季7~8月青藏高原及周边地区上对流层水汽质量的年际异常分布为整体异常型和东西偶极异常型所主导。本文基于ERA-Interim再分析资料并利用HYSPLIT(Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory)轨迹模式,分析了两个主导分布型对应的水汽质量向平流层绝热和非绝热传输的异常特征,结果表明:青藏高原上空水汽质量整体偏多(少)时,对应南亚高压和青藏高原地区垂直向上的水汽质量非绝热输送偏强(弱),青藏高原及周边水汽质量向平流层的绝热和非绝热传输均偏强(弱)。水汽质量整体偏多与偏少年,水汽质量向平流层绝热和非绝热传输的主要区域和层次相近,只是水汽质量整体偏多年,水汽质量向平流层非绝热传输的层次略高。当青藏高原上空水汽质量呈西多/东少分布时,对应南亚高压偏西,青藏高原西北、东北侧水汽质量向中纬度平流层的绝热传输偏强,青藏高原南侧高层水汽质量向热带平流层的经向绝热传输也偏强,而青藏高原北侧水汽质量向中纬度平流层的经向绝热传输明显减弱。同时青藏高原主体上空水汽质量向平流层的非绝热传输偏强,而青藏高原南侧高层和北侧低层水汽质量向平流层的非绝热传输偏弱。水汽质量呈西少/东多分布时有相反的结果。轨迹模式模拟的结果证实了水汽质量整体偏多年,青藏高原及周边地区绝热进入平流层的轨迹频次偏多;也证实了水汽质量呈西多/东少分布时,青藏高原西北、东北和南侧绝热进入平流层的轨迹频次偏多,而青藏高原北侧绝热进入平流层的轨迹频次偏少。
  • 图  1  基于青藏高原上空水汽质量(a)整体偏多年、(b)整体偏少年、(c)西多/东少年、(d)西少/东多年合成的7~8月340~360 K层次平均的大气水汽含量相对气候平均的偏差百分比(填色)。图中实线和圆点分别为200 hPa上12520 gpm位势高度等值线和南亚高压中心所在位置,红色(蓝色)为正(负)位相显著异常年,粉色为气候平均

    Figure  1.  Percentage differences in the composited water vapor contents averaged from the 340 K to 360 K layers relative to climate mean (shading) based on years with (a) whole region more water vapor mass, (b) whole region less water vapor mass, (c) west more/east less water vapor mass, and (d) west less/east more water vapor mass over the Tibetan Plateau in July–August. Solid lines denote the 12520-gpm potential height isolines at 200 hPa and dots denote the South Asian High center. Red (blue) denotes the significantly abnormal positive (negative) years and pink denotes the climate mean

    图  2  基于青藏高原水汽质量整体异常型显著异常年合成的7~8月(a–c)370 K和(d–f)350 K层次上的经向绝热水汽质量通量(填色,单位:104 kg s−1)和绝热质量水汽通量矢量(箭头,单位:104 kg s−1)分布:(a、d)水汽质量整体偏多年;(b、e)水汽质量整体偏少年;(c、f)水汽质量整体偏多与整体偏少年的差值。图中打点区域表明合成或差值的绝热水汽质量通量通过了90%置信水平检验,红色(蓝色)实线为水汽质量整体偏多(偏少)年对流层顶的位置

    Figure  2.  Composited meridional flux of adiabatic water vapor mass (shadings, units: 104 kg s−1) and flux vectors of adiabatic water vapor mass (vectors, units: 104 kg s−1) at (a–c) 370 K and (d–f) 350 K layers, based on years with significant uniform abnormal modes in the Tibetan Plateau water vapor mass in July–August: (a–d) The years with whole region more water vapor mass, (b–e) years with whole region less water vapor mass, and (c, f) years with whole region more water vapor mass minus the those with whole region less. Black dots indicate the composite differences in the adiabatic water-vapor-mass fluxes significant at the 90% confidence level. The red (blue) solid lines denote the tropopause locations in years with whole region more (less) water vapor mass

    图  3  基于青藏高原水汽质量整体异常型显著异常年合成的7~8月非绝热水汽质量通量(填色,单位:104 kg s−1)沿(a–c)35°~45°N、(d–f)25°~35°N和(g–i)15°~25°N纬度带的等熵—经度剖面:水汽质量整体偏多年(第一行);水汽质量整体偏少年(第二行);水汽质量整体偏多与整体偏少年的差值(第三行)。图中打点区域表明合成的非绝热水汽质量通量或差值通过了90%置信水平检验,红色(蓝色)实线为水汽质量整体偏多(偏少)年对流层顶的位置

    Figure  3.  Composited diabatic water-vapor-mass flux (shadings, units: 104 kg s−1) averaged over the (a–c) 35°–45°N, (d–f) 25°–35°N, and (g–i) 15°–25°N latitude belts, based on years with significant uniform abnormal mode in the Tibetan Plateau water vapor mass in July–August: The years with the whole region more water vapor mass (first line), years with whole region less water vapor mass (second line), and years with whole region more water vapor mass minus those with whole region less (third line). Black dots indicate the composite fluxes or differences significant at the 90% confidence level. Red (blue) solid lines denote the tropopause locations in years with whole region more (less) water vapor mass

    图  4  基于整体异常型EOF时间系数回归的7~8月(a、c)370~390 K层次和(b、d)340~360 K层次水汽质量向平流层的传输强度(填色,单位:kg s−1):(a–b)绝热传输;(c–d)非绝热传输。打点区域表示为水汽质量向平流层的传输强度回归值通过了90%置信水平检验的区域;红色(蓝色)实线为水汽质量整体偏多年(偏少)年等熵面与对流层顶的交线,(a、c)中由内向外依次为与380 K和370 K等熵面与对流层顶的交线,(b、d)中由南向北依次为与340 K、350 K和360 K等熵面与对流层顶的交线

    Figure  4.  Regression analysis of the intensity of water-vapor-mass transport (shadings, units: kg s−1) from the troposphere to the stratosphere in the (a, c) 370–390 K layers and (b, d) 340–360 K layers on the time coefficients of the uniform abnormal empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes in July–August: (a–b) Adiabatic transport and (c–d) diabatic transport. Black dots indicate the regressed intensity of water-vapor-mass transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere significant at the 90% confidence level. The red (blue) solid lines denote the interfaces between the isentropic surfaces and the tropopause in years with whole region more (less) water vapor mass. In (a, c), the solid lines from the inside to outside indicate the interfaces between the 380-K and 370-K isentropes and the tropopause, respectively. In (b, d), the solid lines from south to north indicate the interfaces between the 340-K, 350-K, 360-K isentropes and the tropopause, respectively

    图  5  图2,但为(a、d)水汽质量西多/东少年、(b、e)为水汽质量西少/东多年以及(c、f)为两者差值

    Figure  5.  Same as Fig. 2, but for (a, d) the years with west more/east less water vapor mass, (b, e) the years with west less/east more water vapor mass, and (c, f) their differences

    图  6  图3,但为水汽质量西多/东少年(第一行)、水汽质量西少/东多年(第二行)以及两者差值(第三行)

    Figure  6.  Same as Fig. 3, but for the years with west more/east less water vapor mass (first line), the years with west less/east more water vapor mass (second line), and their differences (third line)

    图  7  图4,但为东西偶极异常型EOF时间系数回归的水汽质量向平流层的传输强度

    Figure  7.  As in Fig. 4, but for the intensity of the water-vapor-mass transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere regressed on the time coefficients of the east–west dipole abnormal EOF mode

    图  8  HYSPLIT模式轨迹试验中340~390 K层次绝热进入平流层的轨迹频次相对释放轨迹频次的百分比(阴影):(a)水汽质量整体偏多试验;(b)水汽质量整体偏少试验;(c)水汽质量整体偏多与整体偏少试验的轨迹频次偏差百分比;(d)水汽质量西多/东少试验;(e)水汽质量西少/东多试验;(f)水汽质量西多/东少与西少/东多试验的轨迹频次偏差百分比。不同颜色的实心圆代表不同的层次,表示该层在各层中进入平流层的轨迹次数最多

    Figure  8.  Percentages of the frequency of trajectories entering the stratosphere adiabatically in the 340–390-K layers relative to the frequency of the trajectories obtained (shadings) in HYSPLIT model trajectory experiments, including: (a) Whole region more water vapor mass, (b) whole region less water vapor mass, (d) west more/east less water vapor mass, (e) west less/east more water vapor mass, and percentage differences in the frequency of trajectories (shadings) between (c) the experiments with whole region more and less water vapor mass, and between (f) the experiments with west more/ east less water vapor mass and the west less/ east more water vapor mass. The colored dots denote the layers in which the frequency of trajectories entering the stratosphere are highest

    图  9  针对水汽质量整体偏多试验中青藏高原地区340~380 K层次释放并绝热进入平流层的部分示踪物的前向轨迹路径的(a、b)水平和(c、d)垂直分布:(a、c)第一类轨迹;(b、d)第二类轨迹。(a、b)中,填色表示时间(单位:d)。(c、d)中横坐标为时间(单位:d),不同颜色的实线表示各个示踪物的轨迹。黑色圆点为示踪物释放位置,蓝色圆点为示踪物由对流层进入平流层的位置

    Figure  9.  The (a, b) horizontal and (c, d) vertical distributions of forward trajectory paths of some tracers released in the 340–380 K layers over the Tibetan Plateau that enter the stratosphere adiabatically, based on the experiment with whole region more water vapor mass: (a, c) The first trajectory pathway, and (b, d) the second trajectory pathway. In (a) and (b), shading denotes the time (units: d). In (c) and (d), the abscissa denotes the time (units: d) and the different colors denote the trajectory paths of the traces. Black dots denote the locations of the tracers released, and blue dots denote the locations where the tracers enter the stratosphere

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