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基于EOF迭代的自动气象站气温观测资料修复方法

沈王彬 李昕 秦正坤 张冰

沈王彬, 李昕, 秦正坤, 等. 2020. 基于EOF迭代的自动气象站气温观测资料修复方法[J]. 大气科学, 46(1): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2103.21021
引用本文: 沈王彬, 李昕, 秦正坤, 等. 2020. 基于EOF迭代的自动气象站气温观测资料修复方法[J]. 大气科学, 46(1): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2103.21021
SHEN Wangbin, LI Xin, QIN Zhengkun, et al. 2020. Restoration Method for Automatic Station Temperature Observation Data Based on EOF Iteration [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(1): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2103.21021
Citation: SHEN Wangbin, LI Xin, QIN Zhengkun, et al. 2020. Restoration Method for Automatic Station Temperature Observation Data Based on EOF Iteration [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(1): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2103.21021

基于EOF迭代的自动气象站气温观测资料修复方法

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2103.21021
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划资助项目2018YFC1507302,国家自然科学基金青年项目41805076,中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费专项2019Z006
详细信息
    作者简介:

    沈王彬,男,1995年出生,博士研究生,主要从事气象资料的质量控制与同化研究。E-mail: wangbinshen@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P413

Restoration Method for Automatic Station Temperature Observation Data Based on EOF Iteration

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2018YFC1507302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41805076), Fundamental Research Funds of the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (Grant 2019Z006)
  • 摘要: 全国目前已经建成了近7万个自动气象观测站点,然而自动气象站观测资料一直存在资料质量较低的问题,大量错误资料的存在极大影响了其在气象研究中的应用,因此对错误观测的数据进行准确的修复是一项重要工作。本文利用2019年12月1日00:00至7日23:00(北京时),共168个时次的地面自动站温度观测资料,在利用EOF(Empirical Orthogonal Function)质量控制方法识别异常观测资料的基础上,提出了一种基于迭代EOF分析方法的错误资料修复方法。通过理想修复试验的精度分析表明,新修复方法能够很好地修复错误的地面自动站观测气温,修复方法的误差约为0.48°C。而基于Cressman插值等这一类依赖单点观测信息进行修复的方法更容易受到小尺度信号干扰而引入非自然观测信息,对地面温度的修复误差可以达到1.55°C。实际的修复结果分析也证明新修复方法充分利用了EOF分析方法的时空分离作用和模态正交性特点,通过迭代方法逐步消除错误资料的影响,从而获得了与周边观测资料有更好时空连续性的修复结果。
  • 图  1  地面自动观测站点(黑色点)水平空间分布

    Figure  1.  Spatial distribution of ground automatic observation stations (black points)

    图  2  2019年12月1~7日质量控制方法剔除资料量的时间变化曲线

    Figure  2.  Hourly data count of abnormal data detected by the quality control method during December 1–7, 2019

    图  3  2019年12月1日11:00(第36时次)局部温度数值(单位:°C)。图中阴影表示地形高度(单位:m),红色为剔除站点

    Figure  3.  Spatial distribution of the observed temperature (units: °C) at 1100 BJT (Beijing time) December 1, 2019 (36th hour). The shading indicates the terrain (units: m) and the red dots represent the abnormal stations

    图  4  2019年12月4日00:00~23:00(a)用来重构的气温分布(单位:°C)以及(b)$\left| {T_{x,s}^{{t_1} - 1} - T_{x,s}^{{t_1}}} \right|$随迭代次数的变化曲线

    Figure  4.  (a) Spatial distribution of temperature (units: °C) for reconstruction and (b) variation of $\left| {T_{x,s}^{{t_1} - 1} - T_{x,s}^{{t_1}}} \right|$ with the number of iterations for station $s$ from 0000 BJT to 2300 BJT on December 4, 2019

    图  5  重构过程中观测值与重构值的差随迭代次数的变化曲线(单位:°C)。不同颜色分别代表不同的模态

    Figure  5.  Temperature differences between the observed and the reconstructed temperature varying with the number of iterations (units: °C). Different colors represent different modes

    图  6  2019年12月4日14:00(第87个时次)EOF质量控制方法识别出的错误站点(红色圆点)分布

    Figure  6.  Spatial distribution of abnormal data (red points) at 1400 BJT December 4, 2019 (87th hour)

    图  7  2019年12月4日14:00(第87个时次)观测气温、重构气温以及误差(观测减去重构)的分布(单位:°C):(a)观测气温;(b)EOF迭代法重构气温;(c)EOF迭代法重构气温的误差;(d)Cressman插值法重构得到的气温;(e) Cressman插值法重构气温的误差

    Figure  7.  Spatial distributions (units: °C) of observed and restored temperature and their difference distribution at 1400 BJT December 4, 2019 (87th hour): (a) Observed temperature; (b) restored temperature of EOF method; (c) restoration error of EOF method; (d) reconstructed temperature of Cressman interpolation method; (e) reconstruction error of Cressman interpolation method

    图  8  观测气温与EOF迭代法(黑色点)以及Cressman插值法重构气温(灰色点)散点图(单位:°C)

    Figure  8.  Scatter plots between the observed and reconstructed temperature of the EOF iteration method (black spots) and the Cressman interpolation method (gray spots), units: °C

    图  9  EOF迭代法(蓝色实线)以及Cressman插值(红色虚线)的重构误差概率密度曲线(单位:°C)

    Figure  9.  The probability density function of the reconstruction errorfor the EOF iteration method (blue solid line) and the Cressman interpolation method (red dotted line) during 1–7 December 2019 (units: °C)

    图  10  2019年12月4日14:00(第87个时次)(a)局部观测气温、(b)EOF迭代法重构气温以及(c)Cressman插值气温分布,单位:°C。图中黑色阴影表示地形高度(单位:m)

    Figure  10.  Spatial distribution of (a) observed temperature, (b) restored temperature by the EOF iteration method and (c) restored temperature by the Cressman interpolation method at 1400BJT on December 4, 2019 (87th hour), units: °C. The shading indicates the terrain (units: m)

    图  11  2019年12月4日10:00~20:00观测气温(红色)、重构后气温(蓝色)、Cressman插值后(黑色)气温以及周围站点的气温(灰色)序列(单位:°C)

    Figure  11.  Time series of (a) observed temperature and (b) restored temperature by the EOF iteration method and (c) restored temperature by the Cressman interpolation method during 1000 BJT–2000 BJT on December 4, 2019 (units: °C)

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-24
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-03

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