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华北中部夏季气溶胶垂直分布及其与云凝结核和云滴转化关系的飞机观测研究

李义宇 郭学良 金莲姬 李培仁 孙鸿娉 赵德龙 马新成

李义宇, 郭学良, 金莲姬, 等. 2022. 华北中部夏季气溶胶垂直分布及其与云凝结核和云滴转化关系的飞机观测研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 845−858 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20255
引用本文: 李义宇, 郭学良, 金莲姬, 等. 2022. 华北中部夏季气溶胶垂直分布及其与云凝结核和云滴转化关系的飞机观测研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 845−858 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20255
LI Yiyu, GUO Xueliang, JIN Lianji, et al. 2022. Aircraft Measurements of Summer Vertical Distributions of Aerosols and Transitions to Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Cloud Droplets in Central Northern China [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 845−858 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20255
Citation: LI Yiyu, GUO Xueliang, JIN Lianji, et al. 2022. Aircraft Measurements of Summer Vertical Distributions of Aerosols and Transitions to Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Cloud Droplets in Central Northern China [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 845−858 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20255

华北中部夏季气溶胶垂直分布及其与云凝结核和云滴转化关系的飞机观测研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20255
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2019YFC1510301,国家自然科学基金项目41575133
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李义宇,男,1986年出生,硕士研究生,主要从事云物理降水研究。E-mail: 294554707@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    郭学良,E-mail: guoxl@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P412.24

Aircraft Measurements of Summer Vertical Distributions of Aerosols and Transitions to Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Cloud Droplets in Central Northern China

Funds: National Key Research and Development Plan (Grant 2019YFC1510301), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41575133)
  • 摘要: 气溶胶的时空分布及其核化成云的转化过程是云降水物理研究的重点,也是气候变化中气溶胶间接效应关注的热点问题。利用2013~2014年期间在华北中部山西地区开展的9架次夏季晴天和积云天气情况下的气溶胶、云凝结核(CCN)及云滴数浓度观测资料,分析研究了气溶胶的垂直分布、谱分布、来源特征及其与云凝结核、云滴数浓度的转化关系。研究结果表明,大气边界层逆温层结对气溶胶、CCN垂直分布有重要影响,不同天气条件下气溶胶谱型在低层差异较大而高层基本一致;垂直方向上CCN数浓度与气溶胶数浓度有较好的相关性,过饱和度0.3%条件下CCN比率(云凝结核/凝结核)与气溶胶有效直径呈线性关系;积云云下气溶胶与云滴的线性拟合方程为y=1.3x−616.3,拟合相关系数为0.96,气溶胶转化为云滴的比率可达到47%。在过饱和度0.3%条件下,云下CCN与云滴的线性拟合方程为y=1.6x−473.8,拟合相关系数也为0.96,CCN转化为云滴的比率可达到69%。
  • 图  1  2013~2014年间在华北飞行区域示意图(矩形区域为飞行区域)

    Figure  1.  Experimental area for aircraft measurements in northern China from 2013 to 2014. The rectangular area denotes the aircraft flight region

    图  2  2013年8月3日(绿色)、4日(红色)和12日(蓝色)边界层逆温条件下气溶胶(a)数浓度Na(单位:cm−3)与(b)有效直径ED(单位:μm)的垂直分布及(c)温度、湿度廓线(实线为温度,虚线为相对湿度)

    Figure  2.  Vertical distributions of (a) number concentration (Na, units: cm−3), (b) effective diameter (ED, units: μm), and (c) profiles of temperature (solid lines) and relative humidity (dashed lines) with atmospheric inversion condition on 3 (green), 4 (red), and 12 (blue) August 2013

    图  3  2013年8月30日(青色)、2014年8月11日(蓝色)和12日(粉色)边界层无逆温条件下(a)Na 与(b)ED的垂直分布及(c)温度、湿度廓线

    Figure  3.  Vertical distributions of (a) number concentration (Na, units: cm−3), (b) effective diameter (ED, units: μm), and (c) profiles of temperature (solid lines) and relative humidity (dashed lines) without atmospheric inversion condition on 30 August 2013 (cyan), 11 August 2014 (blue), and 12 August 2014 (pink)

    图  4  (a)有边界层逆温和(b)无边界层逆温情况下CCN数浓度(过饱和度为0.3%)垂直分布

    Figure  4.  Averaged vertical distributions of the CCN number concentration at 0.3% supersaturation (a) with atmospheric inversion condition and (b) without atmospheric inversion condition

    图  5  2013年8月(a)3日、(b)4日、(c)12日、(d)30日以及2014年8月(e)11日、(f)12日观测期间太原不同高度72小时后向轨迹 红、蓝、绿、青色实线分别代表500 m、1200 m、2200 m、2700 m高度的后向轨迹。

    Figure  5.  Backward trajectories of air masses in Taiyuan station on (a) 3 August, (b) 4 August, (c) 12 August, (d) 30 August 2013, (e) 11 August 2014 and (f) 12 August 2014 The red, blue, green, and cyan solid lines represent the backward trajectories at 500 m, 1200 m, 2200 m, and 2700 m height, respectively.

    图  6  2013年7月31日、8月3日、8月4日不同高度气溶胶粒子谱分布:(a)1200 m;(b)1500 m;(c)1800 m;(d)2500 m;(e)3100 m;(f)3700 m。图中ND分别表示粒子的数浓度和直径

    Figure  6.  Aerosol particle size distributions at (a) 1200 m, (b) 1500 m, (c) 1800 m, (d) 2500 m, (e) 3100 m, and (f) 3700 m on July 31, August 3, August 4, 2013. N, D represent number concentration and diameter of particle, respectively.

    图  7  不同高度平均气溶胶谱分布

    Figure  7.  Averaged aerosol particle size distributions at different heights

    图  8  (a) 2013年8月3日, (b) 2013年8月4日, (c) 2013年8月12日, (d) 2013年8月30日和(e) 2014年8月12日飞机探测过程中CCN数浓度与气溶胶数浓度的相关性

    Figure  8.  Linear regressions between the CCN number concentration and Na in flights of (a) 3 August, 2013, (b) 4 August, 2013, (c) 12 August, 2013 (d) 30 August, 2013 and (e) 12 August, 2014

    图  9  2013年8月3日飞行探测过程中CCN占CN的比例(CCN/CN)与ED的关系

    Figure  9.  Relationship between the CCN to CN ratio (CCN/CN) and ED during the flight on 3 August 2013

    图  10  2013年8月3日飞行探测过程(a)1500m以下以及(b)3000~4000 m高度CCN/CN与ED的关系

    Figure  10.  Relationships between the CCN/CN and ED at different heights during the flight on 3 August 2013: (a) 0–1500 m, (b) 3000–4000 m

    图  11  云外及云下CCN活化谱

    Figure  11.  CCN spectra were observed below cloud bases and the environment.

    图  12  云底之下200 m高度层Na与云底之上100 m高度层云滴数浓度Nc的关系

    Figure  12.  Relationship between Na and Nc (cloud droplet number concentration) near the cumulus cloud base

    图  13  过饱和度0.3%条件下云底之下200 m高度层CCN数浓度与云底之上100 m高度层Nc的关系

    Figure  13.  Relationship between the CCN number concentration (0.3% supersaturation) and Nc near the cumulus cloud base

    表  1  不同高度气溶胶数浓度Na统计特征

    Table  1.   Statistical summary of number concentration (Na) at different heights in each flight

    边界层状况日期Na/cm−3
    地面至1500 m1500~3000 m3000 m以上
    平均值最大值平均值最大值平均值最大值
    逆温2013年8月3日29264257647972331538
    2013年8月4日309944166031324558947
    2013年8月12日35425541117326639301626
    逆温三日平均3189473880716536061037
    无逆温2013年8月30日6897856901271142490
    2014年8月11日152217255121110544761
    2014年8月12日23183158143120267051116
    无逆温三日平均150918898771469463789
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同高度气溶胶有效直径(ED)统计特征

    Table  2.   Statistical summary of effective diameter (ED) at different heights in each flight

    边界层状况日期ED/μm
    地面至1500 m1500~3000 m3000 m以上
    平均值最大值平均值最大值平均值最大值
    逆温2013年8月3日0.40.450.430.760.690.86
    2013年8月4日0.390.460.440.740.450.88
    2013年8月12日0.30.350.380.620.450.93
    逆温三日平均0.360.420.420.710.530.89
    无逆温2013年8月30日0.430.530.340.50.290.46
    2014年8月11日0.570.710.40.680.350.47
    2014年8月12日0.350.450.30.350.310.39
    无逆温三日平均0.390.460.440.740.450.88
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同高度CCN数浓度(NCCN;过饱和度为0.3%)统计特征

    Table  3.   Statistical summary of the CCN number concentration (NCCN)at 0.3% supersaturation at different heights in each case

    边界层状况日期NCCN /cm−3
    地面至1500 m1500~3000 m3000 m以上
    平均值最大值平均值最大值平均值最大值
    逆温2013年8月3日16822161425537387467
    2013年8月4日20462771390699368400
    2013年8月12日2249303810152121670819
    逆温三日平均199226566101119475562
    无逆温2013年8月30日515722403573124383
    2014年8月12日1866293110001198596789
    无逆温两日平均11901826701885360586
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  垂直探测过程中不同日期气溶胶数浓度与CCN数浓度的决定系数及气溶胶有效直径的统计特征

    Table  4.   Statistical properties for the correlation coefficient values between the CCN number concentration, Na, and ED

    日期决定系数R2平均有效直径/μm
    2013年8月3日0.910.51
    2013年8月4日0.960.45
    2013年8月12日0.80.37
    2013年8月30日0.820.35
    2014年8月12日0.890.32
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  CCN活化谱拟合参数值

    Table  5.   Parameters of CCN Spectrum

    日期位置拟合参数R2类型
    CK
    2014年7月15日空中云外19702.10.99过渡型
    2014年7月19日空中云底之下200 m6790.610.84清洁大陆型
    2008年10月17日地面203930.86大陆型
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-30
  • 录用日期:  2021-09-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-08
  • 刊出日期:  2022-07-19

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