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基于拉格朗日方法的中国东部雨季水汽输送垂直特征

施逸 江志红 李肇新

施逸, 江志红, 李肇新. 2022. 基于拉格朗日方法的中国东部雨季水汽输送垂直特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(2): 380−392 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.20236
引用本文: 施逸, 江志红, 李肇新. 2022. 基于拉格朗日方法的中国东部雨季水汽输送垂直特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(2): 380−392 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.20236
SHI Yi, JIANG Zhihong, LI Laurent. 2022. Vertical Characteristics of Water Vapor Transport during the Rainy Season in Eastern China Based on the Lagrangian Method [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(2): 380−392 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.20236
Citation: SHI Yi, JIANG Zhihong, LI Laurent. 2022. Vertical Characteristics of Water Vapor Transport during the Rainy Season in Eastern China Based on the Lagrangian Method [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(2): 380−392 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.20236

基于拉格朗日方法的中国东部雨季水汽输送垂直特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2105.20236
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2017YFA0603804,国家自然科学基金项目41675081,江苏省气象局青年基金项目KQ202121,江苏省气象科学研究所北极阁基金项目BJG201905
详细信息
    作者简介:

    施逸,男,1990年出生,博士研究生,主要从事区域气候模拟和水汽输送方面的研究。E-mail: sy11235@126.com

    通讯作者:

    江志红,E-mail: zhjiang@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P466

Vertical Characteristics of Water Vapor Transport during the Rainy Season in Eastern China Based on the Lagrangian Method

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2017YFA0603804), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41675081), Jiangsu Meteorological Bureau Youth Fund (Grant KQ202121), BEIJIGE Foundation of Jiangsu Institute of Meteorological Sciences (Grant BJG201905)
  • 摘要: 利用基于拉格朗日轨迹追踪模式(HYSPLIT),结合区域源汇归属法,追踪1961~2010年中国东部地区雨带推进过程中各雨季后向轨迹,定量确定各雨季不同垂直层上的水汽输送路径与水汽贡献。结果表明在南海夏季风爆发前的华南前汛期,低层最主要水汽通道为太平洋通道,轨迹占比达到52.3%,中高层最主要的水汽通道为印度洋通道,占比超过37%;水汽主要源自低层的西太平洋和中国东部地区,水汽贡献均在20%以上。南海季风爆发后的华南前汛期,低层到高层最强水汽通道均为印度洋通道,特别是中层,轨迹数量达到了65.6%;印度洋源地的贡献明显增加,中高层水汽主要源自印度洋,低层最主要的水汽源地为中国东部和南海。江淮梅雨时低层最主要通道为太平洋通道,中高层最主要通道为印度洋通道,相比华南前汛期,在中高层印度洋通道减弱,而西风通道增强。华北雨季中,低层最主要水汽通道为太平洋通道,而中高层最主要的水汽通道为欧亚大陆中纬西风通道。江淮梅雨和华北雨季中,最主要的源地为中低层的中国东部地区和西太平洋地区,特别是华北雨季中,来自中国东部局地低层的水汽达到了43.1%,表明低层局地蒸发对华北雨季降水起到至关重要的作用。
  • 图  1  中国东部雨季水汽源地分布的区域划分(中国东部、南海、印度洋、西太平洋和欧亚大陆)以及华南(20°~26°N,106°~120°E)、江淮(28°~34°N,110°~123°E)与华北(35°~43°N,110°~120°E)的站点分布。华南地区70个站点,江淮流域99个站点,华北地区78个站点

    Figure  1.  The division of the geographical sectors (East China, South China Sea, Indian Ocean, West Pacific Ocean, and Eurasia) was used to explain the trajectories and moisture contributions. The locations of the three rectangular target domains in South China region (20°–26°N, 106°–120°E), Yangtze–Huaihe River basin region (28°–34°N, 110°–123°E), and North China region (35°–43°N, 110°–120°E) from the south to north direction. The dots indicate the locations of the following observational stations in these three regions: 70 stations in the South China region, 99 stations in the Yangtze–Huaihe River basin region, and 78 stations in the North China region

    图  2  季风爆发前的华南前汛期低层(左,1500 m以下)、中层(中,1500~5000 m)、高层(右,5000 m及以上)的(a–c)主要水汽通道的轨迹特征,(d–f)水汽源地的贡献率(CDF,单位:10−5)分布,(g–i)水汽通量(矢量)和水汽通量值(阴影)空间分布(单位:kg m−1 s−1)。图a–c中,POC、SCSC、IOC、EAC、ECC表示西太平洋水汽通道、南海水汽通道、印度洋水汽通道、欧亚大陆西风带水汽通道、中国东部水汽通道,轨迹的颜色表示比湿(单位:g/kg),轨迹的粗细表示轨迹数量,通道右侧第一个数字为通道的轨迹数量在雨季内所有轨迹的占比,第二个数字表示通道轨迹数量在该层轨迹中的占比。图d–i中的矩形框为华南前汛期研究区域

    Figure  2.  (a–c) Trajectories characteristics of moisture transport channels, (d–f) water vapor contribution density function (CDF, units: 10−5), (g–i) the climatology of vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor transport (vectors, units: kg m−1 s−1) and the amount of the water vapor transport (shadings, units: kg m−1 s−1) at (a) the lower (left, under 1500 m), (b) middle (middle, 1500–5000 m), and (c) upper levels (right, higher than 5000 m) during pre-flood season in the pre-monsoon in South China (SC). In Figs. a–c, POC, SCSC, IOC, EAC, ECC represent moisture transport channels were identified from the West Pacific Ocean, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Eurasian westerly region, and eastern China, respectively. Colors on the pathways indicate the average specific humidity (units: g/kg) of air parcels along the trajectories. The thickness of the pathways represents the percentage of the trajectories, which have also been marked with numbers, the first number represents the proportion for the trajectories in the rainy season and the second number represents the proportion for the trajectories in the level. In Figs. d–i, the rectangles represent the target region in SC

    图  3  同图2,但为季风爆发后的华南前汛期结果

    Figure  3.  As in Fig. 2, but for the pre-flood season after the onset of the monsoon in South China

    图  4  同图2,但为江淮梅雨阶段的结果。图d–i中的矩形框为江淮梅雨研究区域

    Figure  4.  As in Fig. 2, but for Meiyu period in the Yangtze–Huaihe River basin. In Figs. d–i, the rectangles represent the target region in Yangtze–Huaihe River basin

    图  5  同图2,但为华北雨季的结果。图d–i中的方形框为华北雨季研究区域

    Figure  5.  As in Fig. 2, but for the rainy season in North China. In Figs. d–i, the squares represent the target region in North China

    表  1  中国东部四个雨季各层关键的水汽通道以及关键水汽源地。POS、SCSS、IOS、EAS、ECS表示西太平洋水汽源地、南海水汽源地、印度洋水汽源地、欧亚大陆西风带水汽源地、中国东部水汽源地

    Table  1.   The main moisture transport channels and main moisture sources during four period of rainy season in East China. POS, SCSS, IOS, EAS, ECS represent moisture sources were identified from the West Pacific Ocean, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Eurasian westerly region, and eastern China, respectively

    水汽通道水汽源地
    雨季高层中层低层高层中层低层
    季风爆发前的华南前汛期IOC(9.2%)IOC(14.3%)
    POC(11.0%)
    POC(19.9%IOS(2.6%)SCSS(10.8%)POS(24.2%
    ECS(23.1%
    季风爆发后的华南前汛期IOC(17.7%IOC(23.4%IOC(12.8%)
    POC(12.0%)
    IOS(8.8%)IOS(12.7%)ECS(16.8%)
    SCSS(15.3%)
    江淮梅雨IOC(13.8%)IOC(18.0%POC(14.1%)ECS(5.2%)ECS(10.5%)ECS(28.7%
    POS(18.6%)
    华北雨季EAC(9.4%)EAC(14.7%)POC(17.1%ECS(2.6%)ECS(12.0%)ECS(43.1%
    POS(21.6%
    注:水汽通道中括号里的数字表示该通道轨迹数量占比,其中轨迹占比超过15%的通道用粗体表示。水汽源地中括号里的数字表示该层次该源地的水汽贡献率,其中贡献率超过20%的源地用粗体表示。
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-27
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-28
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-16

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