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南海暖季天气系统与中尺度对流过程研究进展

王东海 曾智琳 张春燕 杨帅 梁必骐

王东海, 曾智琳, 张春燕, 等. 2022. 南海暖季天气系统与中尺度对流过程研究进展[J]. 大气科学, 46(2): 419−439 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21041
引用本文: 王东海, 曾智琳, 张春燕, 等. 2022. 南海暖季天气系统与中尺度对流过程研究进展[J]. 大气科学, 46(2): 419−439 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21041
WANG Donghai, ZENG Zhilin, ZHANG Chunyan, et al. 2022. Advances in Synoptic Systems and Mesoscale Convective Processes during the Warm Season over the South China Sea [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(2): 419−439 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21041
Citation: WANG Donghai, ZENG Zhilin, ZHANG Chunyan, et al. 2022. Advances in Synoptic Systems and Mesoscale Convective Processes during the Warm Season over the South China Sea [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(2): 419−439 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21041

南海暖季天气系统与中尺度对流过程研究进展

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21041
基金项目: 广东省基础与应用基础研究重大项目2020B0301030004,国家重点研发计划项目2019YFC1510400,国家自然科学基金项目——国际(地区)合作与交流项目41861164027,国家自然科学基金项目41775097
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王东海,男,1965年出生,教授,主要从事中小尺度天气动力学、热带对流系统、数值天气预报、数值模拟和气象资料同化及分析应用方面研究。E-mail: wangdh7@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    曾智琳,E-mail: zengzhlin@mail2.sysu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P444

Advances in Synoptic Systems and Mesoscale Convective Processes during the Warm Season over the South China Sea

Funds: Guangdong Major Project of Basic and Applied Basic Research (Grant 2020B0301030004), National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2019YFC1510400), National Natural Science Foundation of China—International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchanges (Grant 41861164027), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41775097)
  • 摘要: 本文总结了近几十年来暖季(5~10月)南海热带天气系统及中尺度对流过程的相关研究进展。聚焦暖季南海中尺度对流过程,概述性回顾了与南海中尺度对流过程相关的热带大气环流和夏季风的基本特征,影响南海中尺度对流发生、发展的重要天气系统,并着重归纳了南海中尺度对流系统的活动规律、结构特征与形成机理。在此基础上,探讨了当前及未来南海中尺度对流过程研究面临的机遇与挑战,并指明了未来该领域的研究方向。
  • 图  1  20世纪70~80年代多年平均的暖季(以7月份为例)南海及附近地区(a)850 hPa与(b)100 hPa平均流场[改自梁必骐(1991)]

    Figure  1.  Averaged streams at (a) 850 hPa and (b) 100 hPa in the warm season (take July as an example) over the South China Sea and its vicinity during 1970s–1980s [modified from Liang (1991)]

    图  2  1979~2013年逐月的南海热带辐合带(ITCZ)向外长波辐射值(单位:W m−2)的纬度—时间演变,经度范围取110°~120°E平均[引自黄小燕等(2017)]

    Figure  2.  Latitude–time cross section for the outgoing longwave radiation (units: W m−2) of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) with one-month interval over the South China Sea from 1979 to 2013, the average longitude range is from 110°E to 120°E [cited from Huang et al. (2017)]

    图  3  1949~2018年西北太平洋和南海台风生成源地密度分布(等值线,单位:个π−1 R−2R=250 km)与2018年台风生成位置[引自柳龙生等(2019)]

    Figure  3.  Density distribution (isolines, units: incident π−1 R−2, R=250 km) of typhoon formation over the western North Pacific and South China Sea from 1949 to 2018 and formation positions (red typhoon symbol) of typhoons in 2018 [cited from Liu et al. (2019)]

    图  4  2005年8月19~20日华南季风低压的三维结构概略模型[引自蒋建莹等(2007)]

    Figure  4.  Schematic of the three-dimensional monsoon depression over South China on 19–20 August 2005 [cited from Jiang et al. (2007)]

    图  5  2018年8月30~31日与南海季风低压相关的华南极端降水事件的多尺度概念模型[引自曾智琳等(2020)]

    Figure  5.  Multiscale schematic diagram for the extreme rainfall event associated with the monsoon depression over South China during 30–31 August 2018 [cited from Zeng et al. (2020)]

    图  6  2014~2018年华南与南海地区(a)春季、(b)夏季、(c)秋季和(d)冬季的雷达回波顶高度[引自杜爽等(2020)]

    Figure  6.  Top height of radar echo for (a) spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn, and (d) winter over South China and the South China Sea during 2014–2018 [cited from Du et al. (2020)]

    图  7  (a)华南(黑色矩形)区域、南海区域及其附近区域地形。2014~2018年(b)华南陆地对流性降水、(c)华南陆地层状性降水、(d)南海海洋对流性降水、(e)南海海洋层状性降水不同季节回波顶高度的概率密度函数(PDF)分布[引自杜爽等(2020)]

    Figure  7.  (a) Topography (units: m) of South China landmass (the black frame), the South China Sea, and their vicinities. Probability density functions (PDF) of convective precipitation over the (b) South China landmass, (d) South China Sea and stratiform precipitation over the (c) South China landmass, (e) South China Sea during 2014–2018 [cited from Du et al. (2020)]

    图  8  1998~2013年北半球夏季季节内振荡(BSISO)(a)不活跃阶段(对流抑制阶段)、(c)活跃阶段雨带区域(中南半岛、南海与菲律宾)对流结构与微物理特征的概念模型,(b)BSISO不活跃阶段、(d)BSISO活跃阶段对流性降水区域内距离地面6 km以上30 dBZ以上反射率因子发生频率的日变化[引自Xu and Rutledge(2018)]

    Figure  8.  Conceptual model of convective structures and microphysical properties across the BSISO rainband region (i.e., Indonesia, the South China Sea, and the Philippines) during (a) inactive and (c) active BSISO (Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation) periods, diurnal variations on the 30 dBZ occurrence frequency above 6 km in convective precipitation areas during (b) inactive and (d) active BSISO periods during 1998–2013 [cited from Xu and Rutledge (2018)]

    图  9  1998~2013年BSISO周期的(a、c)非活跃期(5~7位相)和(b、d)活跃期(1~3位相)平均(a、b)降水量(彩色阴影,单位:mm d−1)、850 hPa风场(箭头,单位:mm s−1),(c、d)闪电密度(单位:fl km−2 a−1)[引自Xu and Rutledge(2018)]

    Figure  9.  Mean (a, b) rainfall (shadings, units: mm d−1), 850-hPa winds (arrows, units: mm s−1)), (c, d) lightning flash density (units: fl km−2 a−1) during (a, c) inactive (Phases 1–3) and (b, d) active (Phases 5–7) BSISO periods during 1998–2013 [cited from Xu and Rutledge (2018)]

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-09
  • 录用日期:  2021-07-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-27
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