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地形对华南飑线升尺度影响机制的数值模拟研究

沈新勇 王林 乔娜 尹宜舟 李焕连

沈新勇, 王林, 乔娜, 等. 2022. 地形对华南飑线升尺度影响机制的数值模拟研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(6): 1319−1331 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21045
引用本文: 沈新勇, 王林, 乔娜, 等. 2022. 地形对华南飑线升尺度影响机制的数值模拟研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(6): 1319−1331 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21045
SHEN Xinyong, WANG Lin, QIAO Na, et al. 2022. Mechanism of the Influence of Topography on the Initial Upscaling of the South China Squall Line: A Numerical Simulation Study [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(6): 1319−1331 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21045
Citation: SHEN Xinyong, WANG Lin, QIAO Na, et al. 2022. Mechanism of the Influence of Topography on the Initial Upscaling of the South China Squall Line: A Numerical Simulation Study [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(6): 1319−1331 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21045

地形对华南飑线升尺度影响机制的数值模拟研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21045
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41975054、41930967,国家重点研发计划项目2019YFC1510400,中国科学院战略性先导科技专项XDA20100304
详细信息
    作者简介:

    沈新勇,男,1964年出生,教授,主要从事中尺度气象学研究。E-mail: shenxy@nuist.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    王林,E-mail: wanglinknight@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P458.2

Mechanism of the Influence of Topography on the Initial Upscaling of the South China Squall Line: A Numerical Simulation Study

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41975054, 41930967), Nation Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2019YFC1510400), Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant XDA20100304)
  • 摘要: 本文利用NCEP/NCAR提供的1°×1°的再分析资料,应用WRF4.0中尺度数值模式对2016年4月13日华南地区的一次飑线升尺度过程进行模拟,并设计一系列的敏感性试验,详细研究了南岭对飑线升尺度增长的影响以及可能的机制。结果表明:WRF模式较好的模拟了本次飑线过山前后的变化以及其降水的分布。强对流在过山后比过山前发展要强烈,水平的尺度增长快。但不同高度的地形敏感性试验表明,适宜的地形高度对于风暴的发展更有利。地形影响了飑线的尺度和组织,地形过高会使得广东北部的对流分散。地形可以通过改变水平流场、水汽场、垂直运动以及低层的垂直风切变等来间接影响飑线中的对流单体的分布和对流单体的强度。无地形阻挡时,有利于急流的北进,水汽输送更为有利。但是,一定的地形高度对低层的垂直运动是有利的。地形较高,则会利于高层的垂直运动,低层更多的可能以绕流为主。当地形超过一定高度时,低层的辐合场也相应的减弱。
  • 图  1  2016年4月12日(a)16:00(协调世界时,下同)、(b)19:00、(c)20:00、(d)23:00、13日(e)00:00和(f)01:00实况雷达组合反射率因子(单位:dBZ)分布

    Figure  1.  Observed radar composite reflectivity (units: dBZ) from April 12 to 13, 2016: (a) 1600 UTC 12; (b) 1900 UTC 12; (c) 2000 UTC 12; (d) 2300 UTC 12; (e) 0000 UTC 13; (f) 0100 UTC 13

    图  2  WRF模式四重嵌套的模拟区域

    Figure  2.  Nesting area of WRF model

    图  3  理想试验地形高度(单位:m)及敏感性试验区域(虚线框代表南岭区域,下同):(a)ZE试验;(b)ZFE试验;(c)RE试验;(d)OFE试验

    Figure  3.  Ideal terrain (units: m) and area of sensitivity tests (dashed frame: Nanling Mountains, the same below): (a) ZE test; (b) ZFE test; (c) RE test; (d) OFE test

    图  4  2016年4月12日06:00至13日06:00(a)实况和(b)对照试验的24 h降水量(阴影,单位:mm)分布

    Figure  4.  Distributions of (a) observed and (b) simulated precipitation (shaded, units: mm) from 0600 UTC 12 to 0600 UTC 13 April 2016

    图  5  图1,但为模式模拟雷达组合反射率因子

    Figure  5.  Same as Fig. 1, but for simulated combined radar reflectivity

    图  6  (a, b)ZE试验、(a1, b1)ZFE试验、(a2, b2)RE试验和(a3, b3)OFE试验模拟的2016年4月12日17:00(第一行)和21:00(第二行)的雷达回波(阴影,单位:dBZ

    Figure  6.  Simulated radar reflectivity (shaded, units: dBZ) respectively by (a, b) ZE test, (a1, b1) ZFE test, (a2, b2) RE test, and (a3, b3) OFE test at 1700 UTC (top line) and 2100 UTC (bottom line) 12 April 2016

    图  7  2016年4月12日18:00(a, e)ZE试验、(b, f)ZFE试验、(c, g)RE试验和(d, h)OFE试验模拟的850 hPa风场(第一行,单位:m s−1)和散度场(第二行,单位:10−5 s−1)。(a–d)中阴影区为风速大于12 m s−1的急流区

    Figure  7.  Simulated 850 hPa wind field (top line, units: m s−1) and divergence field (bottom line, units: 10−5 s−1) by (a, e) ZE test, (b, f) ZFE test, (c, g) RE test, and (d, h) OFE test at 1800 UTC 12 April 2016. Shadows in (a–d) for the jet with wind speed more than 12 m s−1

    图  8  2016年4月12日18:00模拟的敏感性试验与对照试验在850 hPa高度上散度场的差值(阴影,单位:10−5 s−1):(a)ZE减去RE试验结果;(b)ZFE减去RE试验结果;(c)OFE减去RE试验结果。黑色椭圆形框代表飑线的位置

    Figure  8.  Difference in the divergence between simulated 850 hPa sensitivity tests and the control test(shaded, units: 10−5 s−1) at 1800 UTC on April 12, 2016: (a) ZE minus RE; (b) ZFE minus RE; (c) OFE minus RE;The black oval represent the position of the squall lines

    图  9  2016年4月12日17:00(a)ZE试验、(b)ZFE试验、(c)RE试验和(d)OFE试验模拟的850 hPa水汽通量(箭头和阴影,单位:g hPa−1 cm−1 s−1

    Figure  9.  Simulated 850 hPa water vapor flux (arrows and shaded, units: g hPa−1 cm−1 s−1) at 1700 UTC 12 April 2016: (a) ZE test; (b) ZFE test; (c) RE test; (d) OFE test

    图  10  图9,但为水汽通量散度(阴影,单位:10−6 g hPa−1 cm−2 s−1

    Figure  10.  Same as Fig. 9, but for water vapor flux divergence (shaded, units: 10−6 g hPa−1 cm−2 s−1)

    图  11  2016年4月12日18:00模式模拟的假相位温线(θse,等值线,间隔:4 K)和垂直运动速度(阴影,单位:m s−1)过图3c中直线AB的垂直剖面(垂直速度扩大20倍):(a)ZE试验;(b)ZFE试验;(c)RE试验;(d)OFE试验

    Figure  11.  Simulated pseudo-equivalent potential temperature θse (isoline, interval: 4 K) and vertical velocity (shadings, units: m s−1) along AB straight line at 1800 UTC April 12, 2016 (vertical wind speed enlarged 20 times): (a) ZE test; (b) ZFE test; (c) RE test; (d) OFE test

    图  12  2016年4月12日19:00 模拟的雷达组合反射率(阴影,单位:dBZ)和0.5~3 km垂直风切变(风羽,单位:m s−1)分布:(a)ZE试验;(b)ZFE试验;(c)RE试验;(d)OFE 试验。椭圆D1和椭圆D2表示β中尺度飑线的位置

    Figure  12.  Distributions of simulated combined radar reflectivity (shaded, units: dBZ) and 0.5–3 km vertical wind shear (barbs, units: m s−1) at 1900 UTC April 12, 2016: (a) ZE test; (b) ZFE test; (c) RE test; (d) OFE test. The oval d1 and the oval d2 represent the position of meso-β-scale squal lines

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-14
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-30
  • 刊出日期:  2022-11-24

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