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登陆台风影响下离地300 m高度内的强风特征

常蕊 朱蓉 赵大军

常蕊, 朱蓉, 赵大军. 2022. 登陆台风影响下离地300 m高度内的强风特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(5): 1071−1086 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21071
引用本文: 常蕊, 朱蓉, 赵大军. 2022. 登陆台风影响下离地300 m高度内的强风特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(5): 1071−1086 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21071
CHANG Rui, ZHU Rong, ZHAO Dajun. 2022. Strong Wind Characteristics of the Lower Boundary Layer (0–300 m) during the Landfall of a Typhoon [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(5): 1071−1086 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21071
Citation: CHANG Rui, ZHU Rong, ZHAO Dajun. 2022. Strong Wind Characteristics of the Lower Boundary Layer (0–300 m) during the Landfall of a Typhoon [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(5): 1071−1086 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21071

登陆台风影响下离地300 m高度内的强风特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2108.21071
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2018YFB1501101,华风集团基础型创新研究项目CY-J2020002
详细信息
    作者简介:

    常蕊,女,1982年出生,博士、正高级工程师,主要从事风能太阳能资源评估及气候变化研究。E-mail: changrui@cma.gov.cn

    通讯作者:

    朱蓉,E-mail: rongzhu@cma.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P49

Strong Wind Characteristics of the Lower Boundary Layer (0–300 m) during the Landfall of a Typhoon

Funds: National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2018YFB1501101), Huafeng Meteorological Media Group Essential Research Project (Grant CY-J2020002)
  • 摘要: 利用台风山竹(1822)和利奇马(1909)登陆期间固定式风廓线雷达、WindCubeV2激光雷达和测风塔的梯度观测数据,结合台风山竹(1822)登陆前后精细化风场模拟资料,分析了登陆台风不同影响象限内,离地300 m高度内的强风参数及其随距离、海拔高度及下垫面的变化特征。结果表明:(1)距离台风中心200 km水平范围内,最大风速所在高度及风切变指数沿台风半径向外增加,且陆地强风切变指数普遍高于0.12,而海洋下垫面拖曳作用弱,风切变较小,仅在岛屿群附近存在超出国标设计阈值的高切变区域。(2)台风移动方向的右前象限内强风切变指数稳定维持在0.17左右,且对海拔高度不敏感,左后象限存在类似于急流的风廓线,而左前象限内强风的垂直变化在空间上具有较强的非线性特征,边界层低层强风结构较复杂。(3)阵风因子和湍流强度随平均风速增大、离地高度升高呈现减小趋势。(4)过程最大风向变差角沿台风半径向外减小,且在空间上具有显著的非对称性,其中右后象限的风向变差角最大,半小时风向变化超过30°,且大多发生在台风登陆前或登陆时。研究成果可为我国近海及沿海风电场的微尺度风场模拟及台风风险防御提供帮助。
  • 图  1  (a)2018年9月台风山竹(1822)、(b)2019年8月台风利奇马(1909)的移动路径(黑色实线)以及固定式风廓线雷达(蓝色三角)位置。图b中绿色星、黑色十字和紫色方块分别代表测风塔、WindCubeV2激光雷达和温岭东海塘风电场位置

    Figure  1.  Tracks (black line) of typhoon (a) Mangkhut (1822) in September 2018 and (b) typhoon Lekima (1909) in August 2019 and locations (blue triangles) of the wind profiler radars. In Fig. b, the green stars, black cross, and purple block denote the locations of masts, WindCubeV2 lidar, and Donghaitang wind farm, respectively

    图  2  台风移动路径象限客观分析法,四角星为探测点所在位置(xS, yS),右下圆点为当前时刻台风所在位置(x0, y0),左上圆点为下一时刻台风所在位置(x1, y1)。θ为(x0, y0)和(x1, y1)连线与(x0, y0)和(xS, yS)连线的顺时针夹角,θ1为正北方向与(x0, y0)和(x1, y1)连线的顺时针夹角,θS为正北方向与(x0, y0)和(xS, yS)连线的顺时针夹角

    Figure  2.  Quadrant analysis benchmarked on the track of the typhoon. The blue star, the blue dots in the lower right and upper left denote the observation point (xS, yS), the current position of the typhoon (x0, y0), and the position of the typhoon in the next moment (x1, y1), respectively. θ denotes the clockwise angle between the line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1) and the line from (x0, y0) to (xS, yS). θ1 denotes the clockwise angle between the north line and the line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1). θS denotes the clockwise angle between the north line and the line from (x0, y0) to (xS, yS)

    图  3  2019年台风利奇马(1909)影响期间东海塘风电场风机观测的风速(灰色曲线)、风向(散点)。黑色曲线是17台风机观测风速的平均值

    Figure  3.  Wind speed (grey curved lines) and wind direction (dots) observed from the wind turbines in Donghaitang wind farm during Typhoon Lekima (1909) in 2019. The black line indicates the mean wind speed of the 17 wind turbines

    图  4  2018年台风山竹(1822)登陆前后(a)海陵岛、(b)珠海风廓线雷达探测离地700 m高度内的风廓线

    Figure  4.  Observed wind profiles in the lower level (below 700 m over terrain) from wind profiler radars located in (a) Hailingdao and (b) Zhuhai during typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018

    图  5  2019年台风利奇马(1909)登陆(a)前、(b)中、(c)后浙江省平阳县WindCubeV2激光雷达观测的离地300 m高度内的风廓线

    Figure  5.  Observed wind profiles in the lower level (below 300 m over terrain) from WindCubeV2 lidar located in Pingyang County of Zhejiang Province (a) before, (b) during, and (c) after the landfall of typhoon Lekima (1909) in 2019

    图  6  2019年台风利奇马(1909)登陆前后1663#、6602#测风塔观测的10 m高度风速

    Figure  6.  Wind speeds at 10-m height observed from 1663#, 6602# masts during the landfall of typhoon Lekima (1909) in 2019

    图  7  2019年台风利奇马(1909)登陆前后测风塔10 m高度的强风(≥17.2 m s−1)样本对应的(a)阵风因子、(b)湍流强度的垂直变化。实线为平均值,虚线为95%置信水平线

    Figure  7.  Observed (a) gust factor and (b) turbulence intensity profiles of strong winds (≥17.2 m s−1) at 10-m height from two masts during the landfall of typhoon Lekima (1909) in 2019. The solid and dashed lines denote the mean value and 95% confidence level, respectively

    图  8  2019年台风利奇马(1909)登陆前后1663#测风塔观测的10 m高度处强风(a)阵风因子、(b)湍流强度随风速的变化,减小趋势均超过95%置信水平的显著性检验

    Figure  8.  Variations of (a) gust factor and (b) turbulence intensity of strong winds (≥17.2 m s−1) at 10-m height with wind speed observed at 1663# mast during the landfall of typhoon Lekima (1909) in 2019. The decreasing trends are significant at the 95% confidence level

    图  9  模拟的、观测的2018年台风山竹(1822)的(a)移动路径,(b)台风中心最大风速和最低气压。图b黑色柱子为台风登陆点,观测资料来源于中国气象局热带气旋最佳路径数据集

    Figure  9.  Simulated and observed (a) typhoon tracks and (b) maximum wind speeds and minimum air pressures at the center of typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018. In Fig. b, the black bar denotes the landing point. The observation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration tropical cyclone database

    图  10  模拟的、风廓线雷达探测的2018年台风山竹(1822)影响期间离地300 m高度内(a)海陵岛和(b)珠海的u/u100廓线。uu100分别表示各高度层的平均风速、100 m高度处的平均风速

    Figure  10.  Simulated and observed wind profiles in the lower level (below 300 m over terrain) in (a) Hailingdao and (b) Zhuhai during typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018. u, u100 represent mean wind speed at different height level, mean wind speed at 100-m height, respectively

    图  11  2018年台风山竹(1822)(a)登陆前(9月16日15时)、(b)登陆时(9月16日17时)和(c)登陆后(9月16日19:30)低于500 m的最大风速所在高度。最大风速是指格点位置处各高度层水平风速的最大值

    Figure  11.  The heights (lower than 500 m) of maximum wind speed (a) before (1500 BJT 16 September), (b) during (1700 BJT 16 September), and (c) after (1930 BJT 16 September) the landfall of typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018. The maximum wind speed denotes the maximum value of the horizontal wind speeds in the different heights

    图  12  2018年台风山竹(1822)登陆时区域平均的典型风廓线。蓝色线、绿色线和橘色线分别代表图11b中蓝色、绿色和橘色区域内平均风廓线。实线为平均值,虚线为95%置信水平线

    Figure  12.  Typical wind profiles of winds averaged over the blue, green, and orange areas in Fig. 11b during the landfall of typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018. The solid and dashed lines denote the mean value and 95% confidence level, respectively

    图  13  2018年台风山竹(1822)登陆时T-RAPS模式第3层嵌套网格区域内(a)离地300 m高度内的风切变指数和(b)10 m高度瞬时风速。白色圆点代表台风中心位置,图b中白色十字代表风切变指数大于0.21的区域

    Figure  13.  Simulated (a) wind shear index in the lower level (below 300 m over terrain) and (b) 10-m wind speed over domain 3 of the T-RAPS model during the landfall of typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018. The white dot denotes the center of the typhoon. In Fig. b, the white crosses denote the area with a wind shear index greater than 0.21

    图  14  2018年台风山竹(1822)登陆时不同象限离地300 m高度内的强风(表3中强风阈值)风切变指数与(a)格点距台风中心的距离、(b)格点海拔高度的关系

    Figure  14.  Relationships of the four-quadrant strong wind (strong wind thresholds in Table 3) shear index in the lower layer (below 300 m over terrain) with (a) the distances from the grid points to the center of the typhoon and (b) the altitudes of the grid points during the landfall of typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018

    图  15  2018年台风山竹(1822)影响期间T-RAPS模式第3层嵌套网格区域内(a)半小时最大风向变差角及其(b)发生时间的空间分布,白色圆点代表台风中心位置

    Figure  15.  (a) Maximum wind direction variation in half an hour and (b) their occurrence time over domain 3 of the T-RAPS model during typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018. The white dot denotes the center of the typhoon

    表  1  2018年台风山竹(1822)影响期间T-RAPS模式的数值模拟试验设计

    Table  1.   Numerical simulation settings used in T-RAPS model during Typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018

    数值模式主要设置项参数设置
    初猜场和侧边界FNL再分析资料
    起报时间2018年9月16日02:00(北京时)
    积分时长72 h
    分辨率/km1862
    格点数量311×251271×271211×211
    移动嵌套
    移动嵌套网格中心BABJ台风业务实况定位资料
    垂直分辨率50
    模式层顶/hPa10
    积分步长/s60206
    积云动力参数化方案KF (new Eta)不使用不使用
    云微物理参数化方案WSM6
    边界层参数化方案YSU
    表层方案Revised MM5 M-O
    辐射参数化方案RRTMG/RRTMG
    陆面过程参数化方案Unified Noah land-surface
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2019年8月台风利奇马(1909)登陆前后测风塔与台风中心的距离、移动方向的夹角

    Table  2.   Distances and angles between the two masts and typhoon center, moving direction during Lekima (1909) in August 2019

    10日00时10日01时10日02时10日03时

    测风塔
    与台风中心
    的距离/km
    与台风移动
    方向的夹角
    与台风中心
    的距离/km
    与台风移动
    方向的夹角
    与台风中心
    的距离/km
    与台风移动
    方向的夹角
    与台风中心
    的距离/km
    与台风移动
    方向的夹角
    6602#117877318°52
    1663#11921°9228°7952°6751°
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2018年台风山竹(1822)影响期间不同象限的强风样本分类表

    Table  3.   Classification criteria of strong winds over four different quadrants during typhoon Mangkhut (1822) in 2018

    格点位置与台风移动
    方向的夹角/(°)
    10 m高度
    风速/m s−1

    下垫面覆盖类型
    右前陆地强风20~80≥28.4陆地
    右后陆地强风140~150≥28.4陆地
    左后海洋强风220~230≥34.4海洋
    左前陆地强风300~330≥28.4陆地
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-24
  • 录用日期:  2021-08-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-27
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-22

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