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物理协调大气变分客观分析模型及其在青藏高原的应用II:那曲试验区云—降水、热量和水汽的变化特征

张春燕 王东海 庞紫豪 姜晓玲 马千惠

张春燕, 王东海, 庞紫豪, 等. 2021. 物理协调大气变分客观分析模型及其在青藏高原的应用II:那曲试验区云—降水、热量和水汽的变化特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21078
引用本文: 张春燕, 王东海, 庞紫豪, 等. 2021. 物理协调大气变分客观分析模型及其在青藏高原的应用II:那曲试验区云—降水、热量和水汽的变化特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21078
ZHANG Chunyan, WANG Donghai, PANG Zihao, et al. 2021. Physically Consistent Atmospheric Variational Objective Analysis Model and Its Applications over the Tibetan Plateau. Part II: Characteristics of Cloud–Precipitation, Heat, and Moisture in the Naqu Region [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21078
Citation: ZHANG Chunyan, WANG Donghai, PANG Zihao, et al. 2021. Physically Consistent Atmospheric Variational Objective Analysis Model and Its Applications over the Tibetan Plateau. Part II: Characteristics of Cloud–Precipitation, Heat, and Moisture in the Naqu Region [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21078

物理协调大气变分客观分析模型及其在青藏高原的应用II:那曲试验区云—降水、热量和水汽的变化特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21078
基金项目: 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目2019QZKK0105,国家自然科学基金项目91837204、91437221
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张春燕,女,1994年出生,博士,主要从事云—降水动力学、气象数据分析与应用等研究。E-mail: zhangchy27@mail2.sysu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    王东海,E-mail: wangdh7@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P421

Physically Consistent Atmospheric Variational Objective Analysis Model and Its Applications over the Tibetan Plateau. Part II: Characteristics of Cloud–Precipitation, Heat, and Moisture in the Naqu Region

Funds: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) Program (Grant 2019QZKK0105), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 91837204, 91437221)
  • 摘要: 本文利用约束变分客观分析法构建的物理协调大气变分客观分析模型,通过融合地面、探空、卫星等多源观测资料和ERA-Interim再分析资料,建立了青藏高原那曲试验区5年(2013~2017年)长时间序列的热力、动力相协调的大气分析数据集,并以此分析那曲试验区大气的基本环境特征与云—降水演变和大气动力、热力的垂直结构。分析表明:(1)试验区350 hPa以上风速的季节变化非常明显,风速在冬季11月至次年2月达到最大(>50 m s−1),盛夏7~8月风速的垂直变化最弱,温度的垂直变化最强,大气高湿区在夏秋雨季位于350~550 hPa,在冬春干季升至300~400 hPa。(2)试验区6~7月上旬降水最多;春、秋、冬三季,300~400 hPa高度层作为大气上升运动和下沉运动的交界处,是云量的集中区;夏季,增多的水汽和增强的大气上升运动导致高云和总云量明显增多,中、低云减少。(3)夏季的地表潜热通量与大气总的潜热释放最强,大气净辐射冷却最弱,高原地区较强的地面感热导致试验区500 hPa以下的近地面全年存在暖平流,500 hPa以上则由于强烈的西风和辐射冷却存在冷平流。此外,试验区整层大气全年以干平流为主,但在夏季出现了较弱的湿平流。(4)视热源Q1具有明显的垂直分层特征:全年500 hPa以下大气表现为冷源,300~500 hPa和100~150 hPa表现为热源,150~300 hPa则在冬春干季表现为冷源,在夏秋雨季表现为热源,不同高度层的冷、热源的形成原因不同,其中夏季由于增强的上升运动、感热垂直输送和水汽凝结潜热以及高云的形成,因此几乎整层大气表现为热源。
  • 图  1  2014年8月那曲站地表(a)感热通量和(b)潜热通量的时间变化。实线为那曲站边界层综合观测结果,虚线为ERA-Interim再分析资料结果

    Figure  1.  Time series of surface (a) sensible heat flux and (b) latent heat flux at Naqu station in August 2014. The solid lines denote results from the boundary-layer at Naqu station, the dashed lines denote results from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data

    图  2  2013~2017年青藏高原那曲试验区物理协调大气变分客观分析模型输出的平均的(a、b)风速(单位:m s−1)、(c、d)气温(单位:°C)、(e、f)相对湿度(%):(a、c、e)高空场;(b)10 m风速;(d)2 m气温;(f)2 m相对湿度。紫色线、绿色线、红色线和蓝色线分别为02、08、14和20时(北京时,下同)的结果,黑线为日平均的结果

    Figure  2.  (a, b) Wind speed (units: m s−1), (c, d) temperature (units: °C), and (e, f) relative humidity derived from the physically consistent atmospheric variational objective analysis model averaged in the Tibetan Plateau-Naqu analysis region during 2013–2017: (a, c, e) Upper-level fields; (b) 10-m wind speed, (d) 2-m temperature; (f) 2-m relative humidity. The purple, green, red, and blue lines denote the results at 0200 BJT (Beijing time), 0800 BJT, 1400 BJT, and 2000 BJT, respectively, the black lines correspond to the result of the daily average

    图  3  2013~2017年青藏高原那曲试验区(a)CERES观测和(b)ERA5再分析资料平均的总云量(黑线)、低云量(紫线)、中云量(蓝线)和高云量(红线),(c)ERA5再分析资料云量的高度—时间剖面

    Figure  3.  Total cloud fraction (black line), low cloud fraction (purple line), mid cloud fraction (blue line), and high cloud fraction (red line) obtained from (a) CERES (Clouds and the Earth’ s Radiant Energy System) and (b) ERA5-reanalysis data averaged in the Tibetan Plateau-Naqu analysis region during 2013–2017. (c) Time–pressure cross section of cloud fraction obtained from ERA5-reanalysis data averaged in the Tibetan Plateau-Naqu analysis region during 2013–2017

    图  4  2013~2017年青藏高原那曲试验区物理协调大气变分客观分析模型输出的平均的(a)地面降水率(实线)和蒸发率(点线),(b)地表感热通量(实线)和潜热通量(点线),(c)整层大气总潜热加热(点线)、净辐射加热(虚线)、总热量平流(细实线)和局地热量收支变化(粗实线),(d)整层大气总水汽平流(实线)和局地水汽收支变化(点线)

    Figure  4.  Heat and moisture budgets derived from the physically consistent atmospheric variational objective analysis model averaged in the Tibetan Plateau-Naqu analysis region during 2013–2017: (a) Surface rain rate (solid line) and evaporation rate (dotted line); (b) surface sensible (solid line) and latent (dotted line) heat fluxes; (c) column-integrated latent heating (dotted line), net radiative heating (dashed line), total heat advection (thin solid line), and local heat storage (thick solid line); (d) column-integrated total moisture advection (solid line) and local moisture storage (dotted line)

    图  5  2013~2017年青藏高原那曲试验区物理协调大气变分客观分析模型输出的平均的垂直速度(单位:hPa h−1):(a)时间—高度剖面,黑色线为地面降水率(单位:mm d−1);(b)春(紫色线)、夏(绿色线)、秋(红色线)、冬(蓝色线)四季及年平均(黑线)的垂直廓线

    Figure  5.  Vertical velocity (units: hPa h−1) derived from the physically coordinated atmospheric analysis model in the Tibetan Plateau-Naqu analysis region during 2013–2017: (a) Time–pressure cross section, the black line represents the surface rainfall rate (units: mm d−1); (b) profiles for spring (purple line), summer (green line), autumn (red line), winter (blue line), and annual mean (black line)

    图  6  图5,但为水平温度平流(单位:K d−1)的(a)时间—高度剖面和(b)垂直廓线

    Figure  6.  As in Fig. 5, but for (a) time–pressure cross section and (b) profiles for horizontal temperature advection (units: K d−1)

    图  7  图5,但为水平水汽平流(单位:g kg−1 d−1)的(a)时间—高度剖面和(b)垂直廓线

    Figure  7.  As in Fig. 5, but for (a) time–pressure cross section and (b) profiles for horizontal moisture advection (units: g kg−1 d−1)

    图  8  图5,但为视热源Q1(单位:K d−1)和视水汽汇Q2(单位:K d−1)的(a、c)时间—高度剖面和(b、d)垂直廓线

    Figure  8.  As in Fig. 5, but for (a, c) time–pressure cross section and (b, d) profiles for apparent heat source Q1 (units: K d−1) and apparent moisture sink Q2 (units: K d−1)

    图  9  2013~2017年青藏高原那曲试验区物理协调大气变分客观分析模型输出的平均的整层大气垂直积分后的Q1(黑色粗线)、Q2(黑色细线)和Q1Q2Qrad(灰色线)

    Figure  9.  Column-integrated Q1 (bold black line), Q2 (thin black line), and Q1Q2Qrad (gray line) derived from the physically coordinated atmospheric analysis model in the Tibetan Plateau-Naqu analysis region during 2013–2017. Qrad represents the net column-integrated radiative heating

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-08
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