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大气冰核对雷暴云电过程影响的数值模拟

师正 管啸林 林晓彤 谭涌波 郭秀峰 汪海潮

师正, 管啸林, 林晓彤, 等. 2023. 大气冰核对雷暴云电过程影响的数值模拟[J]. 大气科学, 47(1): 20−33 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101
引用本文: 师正, 管啸林, 林晓彤, 等. 2023. 大气冰核对雷暴云电过程影响的数值模拟[J]. 大气科学, 47(1): 20−33 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101
SHI Zheng, GUAN Xiaolin, LIN Xiaotong, et al. 2023. Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Ice Nuclei on the Electrification Process of Thunderstorms [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 47(1): 20−33 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101
Citation: SHI Zheng, GUAN Xiaolin, LIN Xiaotong, et al. 2023. Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Ice Nuclei on the Electrification Process of Thunderstorms [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 47(1): 20−33 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101

大气冰核对雷暴云电过程影响的数值模拟

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2110.21101
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41805002、42205078,灾害天气国家重点实验室开放课题2021LAW-B05,南京信息工程大学人才启动项目2016r042
详细信息
    作者简介:

    师正,男,1986年出生,副教授,主要从事大气电学、雷电物理学研究。E-mail: gyshiz@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P421

Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Ice Nuclei on the Electrification Process of Thunderstorms

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41805002, 42205078), Open Grants of the State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather (Grant 2021LASW-B05), Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of NUIST (Grant 2016r042)
  • 摘要: 利用已有的二维雷暴云起、放电模式模拟了一次雷暴天气,并通过敏感性试验研究了冰核浓度变化对雷暴云动力、微物理及电过程的影响。结果表明:随着大气冰核浓度的增加,雷暴云发展提前,上升气流速度和下沉气流速度均呈现降低的趋势。大气冰核浓度提升有利于异质核化过程增强,冰晶在高温区大量生成,而同质核化过程被抑制,因此冰晶整体含量降低,引起低温区中霰粒含量降低和高温区中霰粒尺度降低。在非感应起电过程中,正极性非感应起电率逐渐减小,负极性非感应起电率逐渐增大。由于液态水含量随大气冰核浓度的增加逐渐降低,高温度冰晶携带电荷的极性由负转变为正的时间有所提前。在感应起电过程中,由于霰粒尺度减小及云滴的快速消耗,感应起电率极值逐渐降低。冰晶优先在高温区生成而带负电,不同大气冰核浓度下的雷暴云空间电荷结构在雷暴云发展初期均呈现负的偶极性电荷结构。在雷暴云旺盛期,随着冰核浓度增加,空间电荷结构由三极性转变为复杂四极性。在雷暴云消散阶段不同个例均呈现偶极性电荷结构,且随着冰核浓度的增加电荷密度值逐渐减小。
  • 图  1  探空个例的(a)环境温度、湿度层结和(b)垂直风廓线。图a中实(虚)线代表环境(露点)温度;图b中实(虚)线代表水平(垂直)风速

    Figure  1.  (a) Environment temperature and humidity stratification and (b) vertical wind profile for a sounding example. In Fig. a. the solid (dashed) line represents the environment (dew point) temperature. In Fig. b, the solid (dashed) line represents horizontal (vertical) wind speed

    图  2  C个例(气溶胶浓度为100 cm−3)、M个例(气溶胶浓度为500 cm−3)、P个例(气溶胶浓度为1000 cm−3)的最大上升气流和下沉气流速度随时间的变化

    Figure  2.  Time evolutions of maximum and minimum vertical velocities in C case (aerosol concentration: 100 cm−3) , M case (aerosol concentration: 500 cm−3), P case (aerosol concentration: 1000 cm−3)

    图  3  冰晶粒子最大混合比(单位:g kg−1)随时间的变化分布:(a)C个例;(b)M个例;(c)P个例。棕色实线代表等温线

    Figure  3.  Distributions of the maximum mixing ratio (units: g kg−1) of ice crystals with time: (a) C case; (b) M case; (c) P case. The brown solid line represents the isotherm

    图  4  不同冰核浓度个例(C个例、M个例、P个例)中最大核化率(单位:g kg−1 s−1)随高度的变化:(a)异质核化;(b)同质核化

    Figure  4.  Variations of the maximum ice nucleation rate (units: g kg−1 s−1) with height in different ice nucleus concentration cases (C case, M case, and P case): (a) Heterogeneous nucleation process; (b) homogeneous nucleation process

    图  5  不同冰核浓度个例(C个例、M个例、P个例)中冰晶最大数浓度(单位:kg−1)随高度的变化

    Figure  5.  Variations of the maximum ice crystal particle concentration (units: kg−1) with height in different ice nucleus concentration cases (C case, M case, and P case)

    图  6  不同冰核浓度个例[C个例(左)、M个例(中)、P个例(右)]中(a–c)云滴、(d–f)雨滴及(g–i)霰粒最大混合比(单位:g kg−1)随时间的分布。橘色实线代表等温线

    Figure  6.  Distributions of the maximum mixing ratio (units: g kg−1) of (a–c) cloud droplet, (d–f) rain, and (g–i) graupel with time in different ice nucleus concentration cases [C case (left), M case (middle), and P case (right)]. The orange solid line represents the isotherm

    图  7  不同冰核浓度个例(C个例、M个例、P个例)中(a)云滴、(b)雨滴及(c)霰粒最大数浓度(单位:kg−1)随高度的变化

    Figure  7.  Variations of the maximum number concentration (units: kg−1) for (a) cloud droplet, (b) rain, and (c) graupel with height in different ice nucleus concentration cases (C case, M case, and P case)

    图  8  (a)C个例、(b)M个例、(c)P个例的最大非感应起电率(单位:pC m−3 s−1)随时间的变化。黑色实线代表等温线

    Figure  8.  The time variations of the maximum non-inductive charging rate (units: pC m−3 s−1) for (a) C case, (b) M case, and (c) P case. The black solid line represents the isotherm

    图  9  (a、d)C个例、(b、e)M个例、(c、f)P个例的中感应起电率(单位:pC m−3 s−1)极值随时间的变化:(a–c)正感应起电率;(d–f)负感应起电率。黑色实线代表等温线

    Figure  9.  The time variations of the maximum inductive charging rates (units: pC m−3 s−1) for (a, d) C case, (b, e) M case, and (c, f) P case: (a–c) The positive inductive charging rates; (d–f) the negative inductive charging rates. The black solid line represents the isotherm

    图  10  C个例(左)、M个例(中)、P个例(右)中雷暴云发展(a–c)22 min、(d–f)45 min、(g–i)65 min的风场(箭头,单位:m s−1)和空间电荷量(阴影,单位:nC m−3)结构分布。黑色粗线代表雷暴云的轮廓;红色实线代表等温线

    Figure  10.  Wind (arrows, units: m s−1) and structures of charge (shadings, units: nC m−3) of thunderstorm at (a–c) 22 min, (d–f) 45 min, (g–i) 65 min for C case (left), M case (middle), and P case (right). Thick black lines show the contour of thunderclouds; the red solid line represents the isotherm

    图  11  C个例(左)、M个例(中)、P个例(右)(a–c)22 min、(d–f)45 min、(g–i)65 min水成物粒子电荷量(单位:nC m−3)垂直分布

    Figure  11.  Vertical distributions of the charge (units: nC m−3) of hydrate particles at (a–c) 22 min, (d–f) 45 min, (g–i) 65 min for C case (left), M case (middle), and P case (right)

    图  12  (a)C个例、(b)M个例、(c)P个例的雷暴云电荷量(单位:pC m−3 s−1)结构随时间的变化分布。红色实线代表等温线

    Figure  12.  Distributions of the charge (units: pC m−3 s−1) structure of thunderstorms with time for (a) C case, (b) M case, and (c) P case. The red solid line represents the isotherm

    表  1  同质核化参数

    Table  1.   The parameter for the homogeneous freezing process

    ici
    0−3020.684
    1−425.921
    2−25.9779
    3−0.868451
    4−1.66203×10−2
    5−1.71736×10−4
    6−7.46953×10−7
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-17
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-05
  • 刊出日期:  2023-01-18

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