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山东夏季两次极端雨强暴雨的滴谱特征研究

王俊 姚展予 侯淑梅 王洪 张秋晨 龚佃利

王俊, 姚展予, 侯淑梅, 等. 2022. 山东夏季两次极端雨强暴雨的滴谱特征研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(X): 1−16 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104
引用本文: 王俊, 姚展予, 侯淑梅, 等. 2022. 山东夏季两次极端雨强暴雨的滴谱特征研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(X): 1−16 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104
WANG Jun, YAO Zhanyu, HOU Shumei, et al. 2022. The Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution in Two Rainstorms with Extreme Rainfall Rates in Summer in Shandong Province [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(X): 1−16 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104
Citation: WANG Jun, YAO Zhanyu, HOU Shumei, et al. 2022. The Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution in Two Rainstorms with Extreme Rainfall Rates in Summer in Shandong Province [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(X): 1−16 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104

山东夏季两次极端雨强暴雨的滴谱特征研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2201.21104
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2018YFC1507901,山东省气象局课题2012SDQX12
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王俊,男,1966年出生,正研级高级工程师,研究方向为云降水物理与人工影响天气。E-mail: wangjun818@sohu.com

    通讯作者:

    姚展予, E-mail: yaozy@cma.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P401

The Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution in Two Rainstorms with Extreme Rainfall Rates in Summer in Shandong Province

Funds: National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2018YFC1507903), Shandong Meteorological Bureau Program (Grant 2012SDQX12)
  • 摘要: 利用Thies激光雨滴谱仪观测的两次极端雨强暴雨的雨滴谱资料,结合CINRADA/SA多普勒雷达观测资料,分析了极端雨强对流降水雨滴谱和积分参数特征、以及地面雨滴谱的形成机制,主要结论为:(1)两次过程都是受副热带高压外围西南气流与西风槽共同影响,具有高温高湿的特点,有利于强降水的产生。(2)强对流降水(雨强R>20 mm h−1)雨滴谱参数lgNwD0与雨强R关系显示,2015年8月3日参数D0随着R增大很快增大,线性拟合线的斜率较大,lgNw随着R增大逐渐减小,线性拟合线的斜率为负值;2017年7月26日D0和lgNwR都是正相关,但D0和lgNw随着R增大较缓慢地增大,线性拟合线的斜率较小。强对流降水雨滴浓度NT与雨强R之间的关系可以用幂函数拟合,8月3日有较大系数和较小指数,7月26日有较小系数和较大指数。(3)不同雨强的对流降水平均雨滴谱分布显示,8月3日随着雨强增大(R>50 mm h−1),直径1~3 mm中小粒子数密度相差不大,直径3~6 mm大雨滴的粒子数密度明显增大,对流降水ZR关系有较大指数(1.61);7月26日随着雨强增大各直径档的粒子数密度基本同时增大,对流降水ZR关系有较小指数(1.25)。综合各种参数与雨强关系和平均雨滴谱分布特征判断,8月3日强对流降水雨滴谱属于典型的尺寸控制雨滴谱特征,而7月26日对流降水属于浓度—直径混合控制的雨滴谱特征。(4)雨滴谱归一化Gamma函数参数NwD0分布显示,两次对流降水都具有典型大陆性对流降水雨滴谱特征,对流降水主要属于冰相对流降水雨滴谱,但8月3日过程有较多雨滴谱属于冰相—暖雨混合对流降水雨滴谱特征。
  • 图  1  2015年8月3日(a)17:41(北京时,下同)、(b)19:43、(c)20:30济南(36°48'10"N,116°46'51"E)新一代多普勒雷达组合反射率(单位:dBZ),(d)济南雨滴谱仪站点(36°41'N,117°32'E)雷达反射率因子(单位:dBZ)高度—时间剖面

    Figure  1.  Composite reflectivity (units: dBZ) of new generation Doppler radar at Jinan (36°48'10"N, 116°46'51"E) at (a) 1741 BJT (Beijing time), (b) 1943 BJT, (c) 2030 BJT, and (d) height–time profile of radar reflectivity (units: dBZ) for disdrometer at Jinan station (36°41'N, 117°32'E) on 3 August 2015

    图  2  2017年7月26日(a)19:28、(b)20:15、(c)21:50临沂(35°15'00"N, 118°25'12"E)新一代多普勒雷达组合反射率(单位:dBZ),(d)蒙阴雨滴谱仪站点(35°42'N,117°56'E)雷达反射率因子(单位:dBZ)高度—时间剖面

    Figure  2.  Composite reflectivity (units: dBZ) of new generation Doppler radar at Linyi (35°15'00"N, 118°25'12"E) at (a) 1928 BJT,(b) 2015 BJT,(c) 2150 BJT, (d) height–time profile of radar reflectivity (units: dBZ) for disdrometer at Mengyin station (35°42'N, 117°56'E) on 26 July 2017

    图  3  2015年08月03日济南(a)雨滴谱N(D)(单位:m−3 mm−1),(b)雨滴数浓度NT(黑色线,单位:m−3)、反射率因子Z(蓝色线,单位:dBZ)和雨强R(红色线,单位:mm h−1),(c)归一化Gamma谱参数lgNw(绿色线)和D0(黑色线,单位:mm)的时间序列

    Figure  3.  Temporal evolutions of (a) raindrop size distribution N(D) (units: m−3 mm−1), (b) raindrop number concentration NT (black line, units: m−3), reflectivity factor Z (blue line, units: dBZ), and rain rate R (red line, units: mm h−1), (c) normalized Gamma spectral parameters lgNw (green line) and D0 (black line, units: mm) at Jinan on 3 August 2015

    图  4  2017年7月26日蒙阴(a)雨滴谱N(D)(单位:m−3 mm−1),(b)雨滴数浓度NT(黑色线,单位:m−3)、反射率因子Z(蓝色线,单位:dBZ)和雨强R(红色线,单位:mm h−1),(c)归一化Gamma谱参数lgNw(绿色线)和D0(黑色线,单位:mm)的时间序列

    Figure  4.  Temporal evolutions of (a) raindrop size distribution N(D) (units: m−3 mm−1), (b) raindrop number concentration NT (black line, units: m−3), reflectivity factor Z (blue line, units: dBZ), and rain rate R (red line, units: mm h−1), (c) normalized Gamma spectral parameters lgNw (green line) and D0 (black line, units: mm) at Mengyin on 26 July 2017

    图  5  (a)2015年8月3日济南、(b)2017年7月26日蒙阴雨滴谱仪观测的雨滴浓度NT与雨强R的散点图和拟合线

    Figure  5.  Scatter plots and fitting results of rain concentration NT versus rain rate R retrieved from raindrop size distributions (a) at Jinan on 3 August 2015 and (b) at Mengyin on 26 July 2017

    图  6  (a、b)2015年8月3日济南、(c、d)2017年7月26日蒙阴雨滴谱仪观测的参数(a、c)D0、(b、d)lgNw与雨强R的散点图和拟合线

    Figure  6.  Scatter plots and fitting results of (a, c) the median volume diameter D0, (b, d) the intercept parameter lgNw versus rain rate R retrieved from raindrop size distributions (a, b) at Jinan on 3 August 2015, (c, d) at Mengyin on 26 July 2017

    图  7  (a)2015年8月3日济南、(b)2017年7月26日蒙阴雨滴谱计算的雷达反射率因子Z与雨强R的散点图和拟合线。实线是强对流降水(R>20.0 mm h−1)拟合方程,点划线是个例一层状降水S2和个例二层状降水拟合方程,虚线是新一代多普勒雷达对流降水ZR关系

    Figure  7.  Scatter plots and fitting results of radar reflectivity factor Z versus rain rate R retrieved from raindrop size distributions (a) at Jinan on 3 August 2015 and (b) at Mengyin on 26 July 2017. The solid line represents the fitting equation of strong convective precipitation, the dotted line represents the fitting equation of case 1 stratiform precipitation S2 and case 2 stratiform precipitation, the dotted line represents the new generation Doppler radar convective precipitation ZR relationship

    图  8  (a)2015年8月3日济南、(b)2017年7月26日蒙阴不同降水类型的雨强平均雨滴谱

    Figure  8.  Average raindrop size distributions for different rain rate categories (a) at Jinan on 3 August 2015 and (b) at Mengyin on 26 July 2017

    图  9  (a)2015年8月3日济南、(b)2017年7月26日蒙阴的lgNwD0散点图和对流—层状降水分离线(黑实线)。绿色矩形框自上而下分别是海洋性和大陆性对流分布(Bringi et al, 2003),虚线是层状降水平均分布,点划线是对流与层状云降水之间的分离线(Bringi et al, 2009

    Figure  9.  Scatter plots of lgNw versus D0 and the convection–stratiform separation (black solid line) line (a) at Jinan on 3 August 2015 and (b) at Mengyin on 26 July 2017. The two green rectangles correspond to the maritime and continental convective clusters reported by Bringi et al. (2003), the dashed line represents the average of stratiform, the dotted-dashed line represents the stratiform–convective separation line proposed by Bringi et al. (2009)

    表  1  2015年8月3日济南8类雨滴谱的雨强、样本数、参数lgNwD0以及平均雨强

    Table  1.   Rain intensity R, number of samples, parameters lgNw and D0, mean rain intensity retrieved from 8 categories of raindrop size distributions at Jinan on 3 August 2015

    雨滴谱
    类型
    雨强R/
    mm h−1
    样本数/
    min
    lgNw/m−3
    mm−1
    D0/
    mm
    平均雨强/
    mm h−1
    T4<R≤9.993.491.697.2
    S12<R≤10243.291.887.3
    S20.5<R≤151202.332.865.5
    110<R≤50313.442.3426.3
    250<R≤100243.522.9875.6
    3100<R≤200183.174.05135.9
    4200<R≤30023.304.28244.3
    5R>30023.234.90384.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2017年7月26日蒙阴6类雨滴谱的雨强、样本数、参数lgNwD0以及平均雨强

    Table  2.   Rain intensity R, number of samples, parameters lgNw and D0, mean rain intensity retrieved from 6 categories of raindrop size distributions at Mengyin on 26 July 2017

    雨滴谱
    类型
    R/
    mm h−1
    样本数/
    min
    lgNw/m−3
    mm−1
    D0/
    mm
    平均雨强/
    mm h−1
    S0.5<R≤9.0702.032.672.7
    110<R≤50213.192.6930.6
    250<R≤100163.333.0673.2
    3100<R≤200153.683.00143.9
    4200<R≤30033.823.32271.9
    5R>30013.783.67390.6
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-23
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-16
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