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一次暴雨中尺度涡旋发展机制诊断分析研究

焦宝峰 冉令坤 李舒文 周括

焦宝峰, 冉令坤, 李舒文, 等. 2022. 一次暴雨中尺度涡旋发展机制诊断分析研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(3): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21247
引用本文: 焦宝峰, 冉令坤, 李舒文, 等. 2022. 一次暴雨中尺度涡旋发展机制诊断分析研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(3): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21247
JIAO Baofeng, RAN Lingkun, LI Shuwen, et al. 2022. Diagnosis of the Mesoscale Vortex Development Mechanism in a Heavy Rain Event [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(3): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21247
Citation: JIAO Baofeng, RAN Lingkun, LI Shuwen, et al. 2022. Diagnosis of the Mesoscale Vortex Development Mechanism in a Heavy Rain Event [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(3): 1−13 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21247

一次暴雨中尺度涡旋发展机制诊断分析研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2202.21247
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划2018YFC1507104,中国科学院战略性先导科技专项XDA17010105,吉林省科技发展计划项目20180201035SF,新疆维吾尔自治区引进高层次人才天池计划项目(2019)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    焦宝峰,男,1993年出生,博士研究生,主要从事中尺度动力学与数值模拟研究。E-mail: jiaobaofeng@mail.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    冉令坤,E-mail: rlk@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P435

Diagnosis of the Mesoscale Vortex Development Mechanism in a Heavy Rain Event

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program (Grant 2018YFC1507104), Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant XDA17010105), Science and Technology Development Plan Project of Jilin Province (20180201035SF), Flexible Talents Introducing Project of Xinjiang (2019)
  • 摘要: 中尺度涡旋可以持续激发新对流,是造成局地持续性降水的重要系统。基于经典涡度方程的诊断无法描述热力信息对于涡旋发展的贡献。本文采用Boussinesq近似对涡度方程进行整理,将方程唯一强迫项定义为垂直速度位涡,其形式与位涡类似,利用垂直速度替换位温。进一步在垂直速度位涡倾向方程中,以气压水平梯度的形式引入热力过程的间接作用,定量描述动热力配置的贡献。以2021年6月15日发生在南疆的一次极端暴雨为例,利用高分辨率数值模拟资料,初步分析了低层动热力强迫作用向垂直涡度的传递。结果表明,垂直速度位涡的局地变化主要来自热力强迫项中低层垂直风切变与低层冷池的耦合作用,两者在降水区前侧产生大范围的正值区。该区域与垂直速度位涡的正值区重叠,促进垂直速度位涡的增长,进而维持降水前缘的正涡度,有利于产生较强的上升运动,触发新对流并造成持续性降水。
  • 图  1  模式区域设置,阴影区表示湖泊或者海洋

    Figure  1.  Computational domain used in WRF simulation. Shaded areas indicate lakes or oceans

    图  2  2021年6月15日00:00(协调世界时,下同)至16日00:00(a)观测和(b)模拟的24 h累计降水量(单位:mm)分布

    Figure  2.  Distribution of 24-h cumulative precipitation (units: mm) of (a) observation and (b) simulation from June 15 to June 16, 2021

    图  3  2021年6月15日(a)04:00、(b)04:40、(c)05:20、(d)06:00、(e)06:40、(f)07:20、(g)08:00、(h)08:40和(i)09:20模拟的1.5 km高度风场(单位:m s−1)和组合反射率水平分布(单位:dBZ

    Figure  3.  Simulated composite radar reflectivity (color shaded, units: dBZ) and wind field at 1.5 km (units: m s−1) at (a) 0400 UTC, (b) 0440 UTC, (c) 0520 UTC, (d) 0600 UTC, (e) 0640 UTC, (f) 0720 UTC, (g) 0800 UTC, (h) 0840 UTC, and (i) 0920 UTC 15 June 2021

    图  4  2021年6月15日(a、b)05:00、(c、d)06:00和(e、f)08:00模拟的1.5 km高度垂直涡度(左列,填色,单位:10−3 s−1)和水平散度(右列,填色,单位:10−3 s−1)并叠加风场(风矢量,单位:m s−1)和20分钟累计降水量(等值线,单位:mm)的水平分布

    Figure  4.  Horizontal distributions of vertical vorticity (left column, shaded, units: s−1) and horizontal divergence (right, shaded, units: s−1) superposed with wind field (vectors, units: m s−1) and 20-min cumulative precipitation (contour lines, units: mm) at 1.5 km at (a, b) 0500 UTC, (c, d) 0600 UTC, and (e, f) 0800 UTC on June 15, 2021

    图  5  2021年6月15日(a)05:00和(b)08:00模拟的1.5 km高度垂直速度位涡(填色,单位:10−6 s−2)叠加水平风场(风矢量,单位:m s−1)和20分钟累计降水(等值线,单位:mm)的水平分布

    Figure  5.  Horizontal distributions of vertical velocity potential vorticity (shaded, units: 10−6 s−2) superposed with wind field (vectors, units: m s−1) and 20-min cumulative precipitation (contour lines, units: mm) at 1.5 km at (a) 0500 UTC and (b) 0800 UTC on June 15, 2021

    图  6  2021年6月15日05:00(左列)和08:00(右列)模拟的1.5 km高度垂直速度位涡强迫项(单位:10−8 s−3)叠加水平风场(风矢量,单位:m s−1)的水平分布:(a、b)平流项;(c、d)动力强迫项;(e、f)热力强迫项

    Figure  6.  Horizontal distribution of vertical velocity potential vorticity term (units: 10−8 s−3) superposed with wind field (vectors, units: m s−1) at 1.5 km at 0500 UTC (left column) and 0800 UTC (right column) on June 15, 2021: (a, b) Advective term; (c, d) dynamic term; (e, f) thermodynamic term

    图  7  同图6但为(a、b)热力强迫项G1及其分量(c、d)G11和(e、f)G12

    Figure  7.  Same as Fig. 6, but for (a, b) the thermodynamic term G1 and its components (c, d) G11 and (e, f) G12

    图  8  2021年6月15日05:00沿79.35°E(a)垂直涡度(单位:10−3 s−1)、(b)垂直速度(单位:m s−1)、(c)垂直速度位涡(单位:10−6 s−2),和(d)热力强迫项G1(单位:10−8 s−3)的经向—垂直分布。其中绿色实线表示20分钟累计降水量(单位:mm),黑色阴影表示地形(单位:km)

    Figure  8.  Meridional cross sections of (a) vertical vorticity (units: 10−3 s−1), (b) vertical velocity (units: m s−1), (c) vertical velocity potential vorticity (units: 10−6 s−2), and (d) thermodynamic term G1 (units: 10−8 s−3) along 79.35°E at 0500 UTC on June 15, 2021. The green line denotes precipitation in 20 min (units: mm) and the black shading denotes terrain (units: km)

    图  9  2021年6月15日05:00沿79.35°E的(a)热力强迫项分量G11(单位:10−8 s−3)、(b)热力强迫项分量G12(单位:10−8 s−3)、(c)经向速度(单位:m s−1)、(d)纬向速度(单位:m s−1)、(e)纬向气压梯度(单位:10−3 Pa m−1)和(f)经向气压梯度(单位:10−3 Pa m−1)的垂直剖面。其中绿色实线表示20分钟累计降水量(单位:mm),黑色阴影表示地形(单位:km)

    Figure  9.  Meridional cross sections of (a) thermodynamic term component G11 (units: 10−8 s−3), (b) thermodynamic term component G12 (units: 10−8 s−3), (c) meridional wind component (units: m s−1), (d) zonal wind component (units: m s−1), (e) zonal pressure gradient (units: 10−3 Pa m−1), and (f) meridional pressure gradient (units: 10−3 Pa m−1) along 79.35°E at 0500 UTC on June 15, 2021. The green line denotes precipitation in 20 min (unit: mm) and the black shading denotes terrain (units: km)

    图  10  2021年6月15日05:00模拟的1.5 km高度(a)温度(单位:K)和(b)气压(单位:hPa)叠加水平风场(风矢量,单位:m s−1)和20分钟累计降水量(等值线,单位:mm)的水平分布

    Figure  10.  Horizontal distributions of (a) temperature (shaded, units: K) and (b) pressure (shaded, units: hPa) superposed with wind field (vectors, units: m s−1) and 20-min cumulative precipitation (contour lines, units: mm) at 1.5 km at 0500 UTC on June 15, 2021

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-20
  • 录用日期:  2022-04-11
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