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近40年北京地区夏季降水日变化及不同持续时间降水事件的特征

赵玮 郝翠 曹洁 周璇 卢俐

赵玮, 郝翠, 曹洁, 等. 2022. 近40年北京地区夏季降水日变化及不同持续时间降水事件的特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(5): 1167−1176 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22028
引用本文: 赵玮, 郝翠, 曹洁, 等. 2022. 近40年北京地区夏季降水日变化及不同持续时间降水事件的特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(5): 1167−1176 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22028
ZHAO Wei, HAO Cui, CAO Jie, et al. 2022. Diurnal Variation Characteristics of Summer Precipitation and Precipitation Events with Different Durations in Beijing in the Past 40 Years [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(5): 1167−1176 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22028
Citation: ZHAO Wei, HAO Cui, CAO Jie, et al. 2022. Diurnal Variation Characteristics of Summer Precipitation and Precipitation Events with Different Durations in Beijing in the Past 40 Years [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(5): 1167−1176 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22028

近40年北京地区夏季降水日变化及不同持续时间降水事件的特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2204.22028
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41875074、91937301,北京市气象局科技项目BMBKJ202001005
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵玮,女,1983年出生,高级工程师,主要从事北京地区灾害天气研究。E-mail: zhaowei308@sina.com

    通讯作者:

    曹洁,E-mail: 003542@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P426

Diurnal Variation Characteristics of Summer Precipitation and Precipitation Events with Different Durations in Beijing in the Past 40 Years

Funds: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41875074, 91937301), Scientific Program by Beijing Meteorological Administration (Grant BMBKJ202001005)
  • 摘要: 利用北京地区20个国家站1980~2020年的长期逐时降水资料,分析了北京夏季降水的基本气候特征和日变化时空分布特征。结果表明:(1)北京地区夏季40年平均降水量分布具有西北山区小,平原大,山区向平原过渡区的迎风坡最大的特点;降水频率则相反,平原降水频率整体小于山区;降水强度整体表现为西北弱,东部强,城区与南部居中的特点。北京夏季降水的强度和极端性较强,致灾风险高。(2)北京夏季平均降水量日变化主体呈单峰型,降水频次为双峰型,降水强度为多峰型,三者同时在22时(北京时,下同)达到最大,在12时最小。(3)降水的峰值时间随月份依次后推,6月最早,7月次之,8月最晚;峰值雨量7月最大,8月次之,6月最小。(4)降水量、降水频率和降水强度的日峰值空间分布具有较强的一致性,西北山区四站出现在20时以前,其余16站出现在20时及以后。使用K均值聚类算法将20站划分为两个区域,结果显示两个区域的降水量、降水频率和强度的日变化具有完全不同的分布特点。(5)近40年北京地区的降水结构在不断调整,短持续时间降水主导期和长持续时间降水主导期交替出现。2000年以前以小于6小时的短持续性降水为主,近15年大于6小时的长持续性降水明显增多。
  • 图  1  1980~2020年北京地区20个国家站位置分布图(阴影为地形高度)

    Figure  1.  Location distribution of 20 national observation stations in Beijing from 1980 to 2020 . Shading denotes the topographic height

    图  2  1980~2020年北京地区20站(圆点)夏季(a)平均降水量(单位:mm)、(b)平均降水频率、(c)平均日降水强度(单位: mm d−1)、(d)日最大降水量(单位:mm)空间分布(阴影为地形高度)

    Figure  2.  Spatial distribution of (a) the average precipitation amount (units: mm), (b) average precipitation frequency, (c) average daily precipitation intensity (units: mm d−1), and (d) maximum daily precipitation amount (units: mm) at 20 stations (dots) in Beijing in the summer from 1980 to 2020. Shading denotes the topographic height

    图  3  1980~2020年北京夏季区域平均(a)降水量PA、(b)降水频率PF、(c)降水强度PI的日变化特征(时间均为北京时)

    Figure  3.  Diurnal variations of summer precipitation amount (PA), precipitation frequency (PF), and precipitation intensity (PI) regionally averaged in Beijing from 1980 to 2020 (BJT: Beijing time)

    图  4  1980~2020年北京地区6~8月平均降水量日变化特征

    Figure  4.  Diurnal variations of the regionally averaged precipitation amount from June to August in Beijing from 1980 to 2020

    图  5  1980~2020年北京地区20站夏季(a)降水量日峰值PPA(圆点为时间)、(b)降水频次日峰值PPF、(c)降水强度日峰值PPI空间分布及(d)两个区域划分

    Figure  5.  (a) Spatial distribution of the occurrence time of summer peak precipitation amount (dots) in Beijing from 1980 to 2020; (b) same as in (a) but for peak precipitation frequency; (c) same as in (a) but for peak precipitation intensity; (d) the two regions: R1 and R2

    图  6  1980~2020年夏季(a–c)区域1和(d–f)区域2的(a,d)区域平均降水量PA、(b,e)降水频次PF、(c,f)降水强度PI的日变化特征

    Figure  6.  Diurnal variations of the regionally averaged summer (a, d) precipitation amount, (b, e) precipitation frequency, and (c, f) precipitation intensity over (a–c) R1 and (d–f) R2 from 1980 to 2020

    图  7  1980~2020年夏季不同持续性降水的累计降水量逐年演变图

    Figure  7.  Annual evolution of the accumulative precipitation with different durations in summer from 1980 to 2020

    图  8  1980~2020年夏季不同持续时间降水量占总降水量百分比图

    Figure  8.  Percentage of precipitation with different durations in summer from 1980 to 2020

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-31
  • 录用日期:  2022-07-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-07-13
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-22

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