The summer surface air temperatures over Eurasia have exhibited significant warming trends in recent decades. Based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5) data, this study investigates the characteristics of the changes in summer surface temperatures over different Eurasian regions during 1979–2019, reveals the similarities and differences among various regions, and explains the contributing factors by adopting a climate feedback response analysis method. As the highest terrain in the world, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has experienced a remarkable warming trend in the past several decades. The lower-elevation regions surrounding the TP, such as North Africa, Southern Europe, Mongolia, and Northeast Asia, also show obvious warming features. Meanwhile, the surface temperature does not change significantly in South Asia to the south of the TP. The decreased summer surface albedo due to melting snow enables more incoming shortwave radiation to reach the surface, amplifying surface warming over the TP. Warming over North Africa and Southern Europe is mainly attributed to the increase in shortwave radiation due to reduced aerosols. Meanwhile, the increase in downward longwave radiation caused by increased atmospheric temperature significantly contributes to warming over North Africa, Southern Europe, and Mongolia. Moreover, the reduction in clouds is the main factor contributing to surface warming over Northeast Asia. In South Asia, warming induced by increased atmospheric water vapor and decreased surface sensible flux is offset by cooling because of increases in clouds and aerosols, leading to small long-term changes in the regional summer surface temperature.