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梅雨期长江中下游地区湿位涡的特征及其与青藏高原的联系

由丽蓉 姜继兰 陈笑晨 马婷婷 刘屹岷 吴国雄

由丽蓉, 姜继兰, 陈笑晨, 等. 2022. 梅雨期长江中下游地区湿位涡的特征及其与青藏高原的联系[J]. 大气科学, 46(6): 1505−1522 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21266
引用本文: 由丽蓉, 姜继兰, 陈笑晨, 等. 2022. 梅雨期长江中下游地区湿位涡的特征及其与青藏高原的联系[J]. 大气科学, 46(6): 1505−1522 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21266
YOU Lirong, JIANG Jilan, CHEN Xiaochen, et al. 2022. Characteristics of Moist Potential Vorticity over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River during the Meiyu Season and Its Relationship with the Tibetan Plateau [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(6): 1505−1522 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21266
Citation: YOU Lirong, JIANG Jilan, CHEN Xiaochen, et al. 2022. Characteristics of Moist Potential Vorticity over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River during the Meiyu Season and Its Relationship with the Tibetan Plateau [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(6): 1505−1522 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21266

梅雨期长江中下游地区湿位涡的特征及其与青藏高原的联系

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2207.21266
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41730963、91937302
详细信息
    作者简介:

    由丽蓉,女,1995年出生,硕士研究生,主要从事梅雨异常机理研究。E-mail: youlirong@lasg.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    马婷婷,E-mail: matingting@lasg.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P466

Characteristics of Moist Potential Vorticity over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River during the Meiyu Season and Its Relationship with the Tibetan Plateau

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41730963, 91937302)
  • 摘要: 本文基于欧洲中期天气预报中心(European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 简称ECMWF)提供的ERA-Interim再分析数据集和FGOALS-f3-L海气耦合模式,分析了1980~2017年梅雨期长江中下游地区对流层大气湿位涡(MPV)的分布特征及其与青藏高原的联系。研究发现,梅雨期湿等熵面在长江中下游地区呈自下而上向北倾斜的分布特征,湿位涡正压项(MPV1)和斜压项(MPV2)的大值带均沿倾斜的湿等熵面分布在梅雨区上空,且随雨带的北移而北移。对流层中层MPV1和MPV2大值带均分布在梅雨雨带的北侧,而对流层低层MPV2负值带与梅雨雨带近乎重合。这主要是由于入梅前后MPV2的分布结构满足倾斜涡度发展的必要条件,有利于暖湿空气沿湿等熵面上滑,从而导致暖湿空气的垂直涡度显著增强,造成梅雨降水。进一步分析发现MPV2负值带西起青藏高原向东经过江淮地区一直延伸到西北太平洋地区。数值试验结果表明青藏高原大地形条件对MPV2负值带的形成有重要影响,当去掉高原地形时,长江中下游地区的MPV2负值带显著减弱甚至消失。
  • 图  1  1980~2017年850 hPa (a–c)湿位涡正压项(MPV1,填色,单位:PVU)和(d–f)湿位涡斜压项(MPV2,填色,单位:PVU)及降水量(等值线,单位:mm d−1)在(a、d)入梅前第三天、(b、e)入梅当天和(c、f)入梅后第3天的分布。红色方框表示长江中下游梅雨区(28°~34°N,112°~123°E),下同

    Figure  1.  Distributions of (a–c) MPV1 (shaded, units: PVU) and (d–f) MPV2 (shaded, units: PVU) at 850 hPa and precipitation (contours, units: mm d−1) on (a, d) the 3rd day before Meiyu onset, (b, e) the Meiyu onset day, and (c, f) the 3rd day after Meiyu onset during the period of 1980–2017. The red box indicates the Meiyu area in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin (28°–34°N, 112°–123°E), the same below

    图  2  1980~2017年梅雨期前后112°~123°E平均的850 hPa MPV2(填色,单位:PVU)和降水量(等值线,单位:mm d−1)的时间—纬度剖面。黑色虚线表示长江中下游梅雨区域(28°~34°N),红色虚线表示出梅日

    Figure  2.  Time–latitude cross-section of MPV2 at 850 hPa (shaded, units: PVU) and precipitation (contours, units: mm d−1), averaged over 112°–123°E around the Meiyu season during the period of 1980–2017. The black dotted lines indicate the Meiyu area in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin (28°–34°N), and the red line indicates the date of the Meiyu retreat

    图  3  图1,但为500 hPa(a–c)MPV1(填色,单位:PVU)和(d–f)MPV2(填色,单位:PVU)及降水量(等值线,单位:mm d−1)的分布

    Figure  3.  As in Fig. 1, but for distributions of (a–c) MPV1 (shaded, units: PVU) and (d–f) MPV2 (shaded, units: PVU) at 500 hPa and precipitation (contours, units: mm d−1)

    图  4  1980~2017年入梅前第6天至入梅后第3天中国东部(112°~123°E)MPV1(填色,单位:PVU)、相当位温(灰色等值线,单位:K)、经向和垂直方向的MPV1平流(绿色等值线,单位:10−5 PVU s−1)和风场 [矢量,v单位:m s−1ω单位:(−1/50)Pa s−1] 的垂直剖面(红色竖虚线表示梅雨区纬度范围28°~34°N,下同)

    Figure  4.  Vertical cross section of MPV1 (shaded, units: PVU), equivalent potential temperature (gray contours, units: K), meridional and vertical MPV1 advection (green contours, units: 10 −5 PVU s−1), and wind [vector, v units: m s−1, ω units: (−1/50) Pa s−1] over eastern China (112°–123°E) from the 6th day before the Meiyu onset to the 3rd day after the Meiyu onset during the period of 1980–2017. The red dotted lines indicate the Meiyu area in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin (28°–34°N), the same below

    图  5  图4,但为MPV2(填色,单位:PVU)和相当位温(等值线,单位:K)的分布

    Figure  5.  As in Fig. 4, but for the distributions of MPV2 (shaded, units: PVU) and equivalent potential temperature (contours, units: K)

    图  6  1980~2017年500 hPa相当位温(等值线,单位:K)及其(a–c)经向和(d–f)纬向梯度(填色,单位:10−5 K m−1)在(a,d)入梅前第3天、(b,e)入梅当天和(c,f)入梅后第3天的分布

    Figure  6.  Distributions of equivalent potential temperature (contours, units: K) and its (a–c) meridional and (d–f) zonal gradient (shaded, units: 10−5 K m−1) at 500 hPa on (a, d) the 3rd day before the Meiyu onset, (b, e) the Meiyu onset day, and (c, f) the 3rd day after the Meiyu onset during the period of 1980–2017

    图  7  1980~2017年(a–c)500 hPa和(d–f)850 hPa $ \partial {\theta }_{e}/\partial y $(填色,单位:10−5 K m−1)和降水量(等值线,单位:mm d−1)在(a,d)入梅前第3天、(b,e)入梅当天和(c,f)入梅后第3天的分布

    Figure  7.  Distributions of $ \partial {\theta }_{e}/\partial y $ (shaded, units: 10−5 K m−1 at (a–c) 500 hPa and (d–f) 850 hPa and precipitation (contours, units: mm d−1) on (a, d) the 3rd day before the Meiyu onset, (b, e) the Meiyu onset day, and (c, f) the 3rd day after the Meiyu onset during the period of 1980–2017

    图  8  图7,但为$ \partial u/\partial p $(填色,单位:10−5 m s−1 Pa−1)和降水量(等值线,单位:mm d−1)的分布

    Figure  8.  As in Fig. 7, but for $ \partial u/\partial p $ (shaded, units: 10−5 m s−1 Pa−1) and precipitation (contours, units: mm d−1)

    图  9  FGOALS-f3-L模式输出的6月500 hPa MPV2(填色,单位:PVU)和降水量(等值线,单位:mm d−1)在(a)控制试验和(b)无高原试验中的分布,(c)为二者的差异[(a)-(b)]

    Figure  9.  Distributions of the June MPV2 (shaded, units: PVU) at 500 hPa and precipitation (contours, units: mm d−1) in (a) the control run and (b) the no Tibetan–Iranian Plateau run obtained from FGOALS-f3-L. (c) is the difference between (a) and (b) [(a)-(b)]

    图  10  图9,但为112°~123°E平均的MPV2的垂直分布

    Figure  10.  As in Fig. 9, but for the vertical cross section of MPV2 averaged over 112°–123°E

    图  11  FGOALS-f3-L模式输出的500 hPa $ \partial {\theta }_{e}/\partial y $ (填色,单位:10−5 K m−1)在(a)控制试验和(b)无高原试验中的分布,(c)为二者的差异 [(a)-(b)]。(d)、(e)和(f)同(a)、(b)和(c),但为$ \partial u/\partial p $(填色,单位:10−5 m s−1 Pa−1)的分布

    Figure  11.  Distributions of $ \partial {\theta }_{e}/\partial y $ (shaded, units: 10−5 K m−1) at 500 hPa in (a) the control run and (b) the no Tibetan–Iranian Plateau run obtained from FGOALS-f3-L. (c) is the difference between (a) and (b) [(a)-(b)]. (d)–(f) are identical to (a)–(c) but for $ \partial u/\partial p $ (shaded, units: 10−5 m s−1 Pa−1)

    表  1  1980~2017年入梅、出梅日期

    Table  1.   Dates of the onset and retreat of the Meiyu season from 1980 to 2017

    年份入梅日出梅日年份入梅日出梅日
    198006-0607-21199906-0707-19
    198106-2207-01200006-2007-01
    198206-1207-20200106-0306-27
    198306-1007-19200206-1907-08
    198406-0707-07200306-2007-12
    198506-2207-08200406-1407-15
    198606-2007-15200506-2606-29
    198706-2807-29200606-2207-12
    198806-1006-30200706-1907-28
    198906-0807-11200806-0707-24
    199006-1407-03200906-2607-08
    199106-0207-14201006-2007-24
    199206-1307-21201106-0607-20
    199306-1407-09201206-2207-15
    199406-0706-28201306-2007-08
    199506-1207-10201406-2507-17
    199606-0207-22201506-1407-26
    199706-2407-16201606-1907-17
    199806-1807-05201706-2207-11
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-31
  • 录用日期:  2022-09-02
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