The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) made adjustments to the application code of the atmospheric sciences discipline in 2020 and established 15 application code. Eco-meteorology is one of the newly established secondary application code. With the support of the special strategic research project and the scientific community, the Keyword Working Group organized experts to determine the research direction and keywords through multiple rounds of discussion. This paper interprets the four research directions and keywords of the ecometeorology discipline. The overall framework of ecometeorology was highlighted, and the characteristics and internal relations of four research directions (atmospheric processes of microorganisms, ecological effects of atmospheric changes, impact of ecosystems on the atmosphere, ecometeorology monitoring, and simulation) were clarified. The connotation and extension of each research direction and its keywords were given, along with how frequently they appeared in the last five years’ worth of literature (2017–2021). Considerations and suggestions were put forward in selecting research directions and keywords. Through the interpretation of research direction and key words, this paper helps fund applicants to choose appropriate research directions and keywords and improve the accurate assignment of communication review experts.