The Manas River valley, which is the typical inland river formed from glaciermelted water in the Central Asia, was chosen as the sample. The trend and periodic fluctuation of climate change during the past five decades was analyzed, and the phenophase change and the response to climate change of locally main woody plants was illustrated. The results showed that the climate in Manas River valley generally trended to be warm and humid in the recent five decades. The degree of temperature rise was larger in the noncrop growing season than that in crop growing season, while the increment of precipitation was larger in crop growing season. The annual temperature exhibited a circular alternation from higher period to lower period under the scale of ten years, and the number of points of abrupt climate change increased, which indicated the complexity and uncertainty in the shortperiod climate fluctuation existing in this region. The inclination rate between the deciduous end and growing season in the main woody plants, for example Lombardy poplar, willows, Xinjiang poplar, and elm, is positive, which indicated phenological phenomena of woody plant occurred early. The regression coefficients between woody plants and climate factors were established to indicate that woody plant kept the same change trend with the temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours.