高级检索

留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

京津冀地区霾成因机制研究进展与展望

缪育聪 郑亦佳 王姝 刘树华

缪育聪, 郑亦佳, 王姝, 刘树华. 京津冀地区霾成因机制研究进展与展望[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2015, 20(3): 356-368. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2015.14255
引用本文: 缪育聪, 郑亦佳, 王姝, 刘树华. 京津冀地区霾成因机制研究进展与展望[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2015, 20(3): 356-368. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2015.14255
MIAO Yucong, ZHENG Yijia, WANG Shu, LIU Shuhua. Recent Advances in, and Future Prospects of, Research on Haze Formation over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2015, 20(3): 356-368. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2015.14255
Citation: MIAO Yucong, ZHENG Yijia, WANG Shu, LIU Shuhua. Recent Advances in, and Future Prospects of, Research on Haze Formation over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2015, 20(3): 356-368. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2015.14255

京津冀地区霾成因机制研究进展与展望

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2015.14255
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41175004、41465001,公益性行业(气象)科研专项项目GYHY201106033

Recent Advances in, and Future Prospects of, Research on Haze Formation over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China

  • 摘要: 为满足当前对京津冀地区霾研究和控制的迫切要求, 本文梳理了近年来京津冀地区霾的长期变化特征、天气学特征、污染物来源等相关研究成果, 发现:从2000年以后, 京津冀地区的霾日数呈现出了下降趋势;北京细颗粒物(PM2.5)质量浓度也在总体上呈现下降的趋势, 但2013年年均质量浓度仍高达89.5 μg m-3, 约为我国空气质量标准的3倍(35 μg m-3), 京津冀空气污染的形势依然严峻;近年来京津冀地区的霾污染事件频发可以归因为不利天气条件与大量污染物人为排放的共同作用;大量的研究表明, 区域输送对京津冀地区霾事件的形成和维持有不可忽视的影响;京津冀地区的大气污染不再局限于一时一地, 针对重污染天气的预警以及应急控制应该以区域预报为基础实现区域联动;京津冀地区独特的地理环境条件加上城市群的快速发展, 形成的局地大气环流也会对局地的污染过程产生重大的影响;大气边界层内气象要素的变化对重污染发生具有显著贡献。京津冀地区的污染控制需要城市群的联动应对治理。
  • [1] Baik J J, Park S B, Kim J J. 2009. Urban flow and dispersion simulation using a CFD model coupled to a mesoscale model [J]. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 48 (8): 1667-1681.
    [2] Brook R D, Rajagopanlan S. 2010. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis [J]. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 12 (5): 291-300.
    [3] 曹军骥. 2014. PM2.5与环境 [M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 428pp. Cao Junji. 2014. PM2.5 and the Environment in China (in Chinese) [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 428pp.
    [4] Chang D, Song Y, Liu B. 2009. Visibility trends in six megacities in China 1973-2007 [J]. Atmospheric Research, 94 (2): 161-167.
    [5] Che H Z, Shi G Y, Zhang X Y, et al. 2005. Analysis of 40 years of solar radiation data from China, 1961-2000 [J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 (6): L06803.
    [6] Che H Z, Zhang X Y, Li Y, et al. 2007. Horizontal visibility trends in China 1981-2005 [J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 (24): L24706.
    [7] Che H Z, Zhang X Y, Li Y, et al. 2009. Haze trends over the capital cities of 31 provinces in China, 1981-2005 [J]. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97 (3-4): 235-242.
    [8] Chen Y, Zhao C, Zhang Q, et al. 2009. Aircraft study of mountain chimney effect of Beijing, China [J]. J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D8): D08306-D08315.
    [9] Dan M, Zhuang G S, Li X X, et al. 2004. The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing [J]. Atmos. Environ., 38 (21): 3443-3452.
    [10] Deng Z Z, Zhao C S, Ma N, et al. 2011. Size-resolution and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China Plain: The importance of aerosols size distribution in the prediction of CNN number concentration [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11: 3835-3846.
    [11] Deng J J, Du K, Wang K, et al. 2012. Long-term atmospheric visibility trend in Southeast China, 1973-2010 [J]. Atmos. Environ., 59: 11-21.
    [12] Ding Y H, Liu Y J. 2013. Analysis of long-term variations of fog and haze in China in recent 50 years and their relations with atmospheric humidity [J]. Science China: Earth Sciences, 57 (1): 36-46.
    [13] 董芬, 王喜全, 王自发, 等. 2013. 北京地区大气污染分布的“南北两重天”现象 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 18 (1): 63-70. Dong Fen, Wang Xiquan, Wang Zifa, et al. 2013. A study of the north-south differences of the air quality in Beijing [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 18 (1): 63-70.
    [14] 窦晶晶, 王迎春, 苗世光. 2014. 北京城区近地面比湿和风场时空分布特征 [J]. 应用气象学报, 25 (5): 559-569. Dou Jingjing, Wang Yingchun, Miao Shiguang. 2014. Fine spatial and temporal characteristics of humidity and wind in Beijing urban area [J]. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science (in Chinese), 25 (5): 559-569.
    [15] Duan F K, He K B, Ma Y L, et al. 2006. Concentration and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China: 2001-2002 [J]. Science of the Total Environment, 355 (1-3): 264-275.
    [16] Flocas H, Kelessis A, Helmis C, et al. 2009. Synoptic and local scale atmospheric circulation associated with air pollution episodes in an urban Mediterranean area [J]. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 95 (3-4): 265-277.
    [17] 符传博, 丹利. 2014. 重污染下我国中东部地区1960-2010年霾日数的时空变化特征 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 19 (2): 219-226. Fu Chuanbo, Dan Li. 2014. Spatiotemporal characteristics of haze days under heavy pollution over central and eastern China during 1960-2010 [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 19 (2): 219-226.
    [18] Fu G Q, Xu W Y, Rong R F, et al. 2014. The distribution and trends of fog and haze in the North China Plain over the past 30 years [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 16123-16149.
    [19] 高歌. 2008. 1961-2005年中国霾日气候特征及其变化分析 [J]. 地理学报, 63 (7): 761-768. Gao Ge. 2008. The climatic characteristics and change of haze days over China during 1961-2005 [J]. Acta Geographica Sinica (in Chinese), 63 (7): 761-768.
    [20] 高怡, 张美根. 2014. 2013年1月华北地区重雾霾过程及其成因的模拟分析 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 19 (2): 140-152. Gao Yi, Zhang Meigen. 2014. Numerical simulation of a heavy fog-haze episode over the North China Plain in January 2013 [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 19 (2): 140-152.
    [21] 韩霄, 张美根. 2014. 2013年1月华北平原重霾成因模拟分析 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 19 (2): 127-139. Han Xiao, Zhang Meigen. 2014. Model analysis of haze formation over the North China Plain in January 2013 [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 19 (2): 127-139.
    [22] He K B, Yang F M, Ma Y L, et al. 2001. The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China [J]. Atmospheric Environment, 35: 4959-4970.
    [23] 贺克斌, 杨复沫, 段凤魁, 等. 2011. 大气颗粒物与区域复合污染 [M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 452pp. He Kebin, Yang Fumo, Duan Fengkui, et al. 2011. Atmospheric Particulates and Regional Complex Air Pollution (in Chinese) [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 452pp.
    [24] Huang R J, Zhang Y L, Bozzetti C, et al. 2014. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China [J]. Nature, 514: 218-222.
    [25] IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis [M]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 996pp.
    [26] Ji D S, Wang Y S, Wang L L, et al. 2012. Analysis of heavy pollution episodes in selected cities of northern China [J]. Atmos. Environ., 50: 338-348.
    [27] Kaiser D P. 2000. Decreasing cloudiness over China: An updated analysis examining additional variables [J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 (15): 2193- 2196.
    [28] Kaiser D P, Qian Y. 2002. Decreasing trends in sunshine duration over China for 1954-1998: Indication of increased haze pollution? [J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (21): 38-1-38-4.
    [29] Li J, Wang Z F, Huang H L, et al. 2013. Assessing the effects of the trans-boundary aerosol transport between various city clusters on regional haze episodes in spring over East China [J]. Tellus B, 65: 20052.
    [30] 廖晓农, 张小玲, 王迎春, 等. 2014. 北京地区冬夏季持续性雾霾发生的环境气象条件对比分析 [J]. 环境科学, 35 (6): 2031-2044. Liao Xiaonong, Zhang Xiaoling, Wang Yingchun, et al. 2014. Comparative analysis on meteorological condition for persistent haze cases in summer and winter in Beijing [J]. Environment Science (in Chinese), 35 (6): 2031-2044.
    [31] Lin M, Tao J, Chan C Y, et al. 2012. Regression analyses between recent air quality and visibility changes in megacities at four haze regions in China [J]. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12: 1049-1061.
    [32] Liu S H, Liu Z X, Li J, et al. 2009. Numerical simulation for the coupling effect of local atmospheric circulations over the area of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province [J]. Science in China (Ser. D: Earth Sciences), 52 (3): 382-392.
    [33] Liu X G, Li J, Qu Y, et al. 2013. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: A case study in the megacity Beijing, China [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 4501-4514.
    [34] Liu Z R, Hu B, Liu Q, et al. 2014. Source apportionment of urban fine particle number concentration during summertime in Beijing [J]. Atmos. Environ., 96: 359-369.
    [35] Lo J C F, Lau A K H, Fung J C H, et al. 2006. Investigation of enhanced cross-city transport and trapping of air pollutants by coastal and urban land-sea breeze circulations [J]. J. Geophys. Res., 111: D14104.
    [36] 孟燕军, 程丛兰. 2002. 影响北京大气污染物变化的地面天气形势分析 [J]. 气象, 28 (4): 42-47. Meng Yanjun, Cheng Conglan. 2002. Impact of surface synoptic situations on air pollution in Beijing area [J]. Meteorological Monthly (in Chinese), 28 (4): 42-47.
    [37] Miao Y C, Liu S H, Chen B C, et al. 2013. Simulating urban flow and dispersion in Beijing by coupling a CFD model with the WRF model [J]. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 30 (6): 1663-1678.
    [38] Miao Y C, Liu S H, Zheng Y J, et al. 2015a. Numerical study the effects of topography and urbanization on the local atmospheric circulations over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China [J]. Advances in Meteorology, 2015: Article ID 397070, doi: 10.1155/2015/397070.
    [39] Miao Y C, Liu S H, Zheng Y J, et al. 2015b. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China [J]. J. Environ. Sci., 30: 9-20.
    [40] 彭珍, 胡非. 2006. 北京城市化进程对边界层风场结构影响的研究 [J]. 地球物理学报, 49 (6): 1608-1615. Peng Zhen, Hu Fei. 2006. A study of the influence of urbanization of Beijing on the boundary wind structure [J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 49 (6): 1608-1615.
    [41] Qian Y, Leung L R, Chan S J, et al. 2003. Regional climate effects of aerosols over China: Modeling and observation [J]. Tellus B, 55 (4): 914-634.
    [42] Qian Y, Kaiser D P, Leung L R, et al. 2006. More frequent cloud-free sky and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000 [J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (1): L01812.
    [43] Quan J N, Zhang Q, He H, et al. 2011. Analysis of the formation of fog and haze in North China Plain (NCP) [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11: 8205-8214.
    [44] Quan J N, Gao Y, Zhang Q, et al. 2013. Evolution of planetary boundary layer under different weather condition, and its impact on aerosol concentrations [J]. Particuology, 11 (1): 34-40.
    [45] Quan J N, Tie X X, Zhang Q, et al. 2014. Characteristics of heavy aerosol pollution during the 2012-2013 winter in Beijing, China [J]. Atmos. Envrion., 88: 83-89.
    [46] 任阵海, 万本太, 虞统, 等. 2004. 不同尺度大气系统对污染边界层的影响及其水平流场输送 [J]. 环境科学研究, 17 (1): 7-13. Ren Zhenhai, Wan Bentai, Yu Tong, et al. 2004. Influence of weather system of different scales on pollution boundary layer and the transport in horizontal current field [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences (in Chinese), 17 (1): 7-13.
    [47] San Martini F M, Hasenkopf C A, Roberts D C. 2015. Statistical analysis of PM2.5 observations from diplomatic facilities in China [J]. Atmos. Environ., 110: 174-185.
    [48] 寿亦萱, 张大林. 2012. 城市热岛效应的研究进展与展望 [J]. 气象学报, 70 (3): 338-353. Shou Yixuan, Zhang Dalin. 2012. Recent advances in understanding urban heat island effects with some future prospects [J]. Acta Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 70 (3): 338-353.
    [49] Song Y, Tang X Y, Xie S D, et al. 2007. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing in 2004 [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146 (1-2): 124-130.
    [50] 苏福庆, 高庆先, 张志刚, 等. 2004a. 北京边界层外来污染物输送通道 [J]. 环境科学研究, 17 (1): 26-40. Su Fuqing, Gao Qingxian, Zhang Zhigang, et al. 2004a. Transport pathways of pollutants from outside in atmospheric boundary layer [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences (in Chinese), 17 (1): 26-40.
    [51] 苏福庆, 杨明珍, 钟继红, 等. 2004b. 华北地区天气型对区域大气污染的影响 [J]. 环境科学研究, 17 (3): 16-20. Su Fuqing, Yang Mingzhen, Zhong Jihong, et al. 2004b. The Effects of synoptic type on regional atmospheric contamination in North China [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences (in Chinese), 17 (3): 16-20.
    [52] Sun B, Groisman P Y, Bradley R S, et al. 2000. Temporal changes in the observed relationship between cloud cover and surface air temperature [J]. J. Climate, 13: 4341-4357.
    [53] 孙彧, 马振峰, 牛涛, 等. 2013. 最近40 年中国雾日数和霾日数的气候变化特征 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 18 (3): 397-406. Sun Yu, Ma Zhenfeng, Niu Tao, et al. 2013. Characteristics of climate change with respect to fog days and haze days in China in the past 40 years [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 18 (3): 397-406.
    [54] Sun Y, Song T, Tang G Q, et al. 2013. The vertical distribution of PM2.5 and boundary-layer structure during summer haze in Beijing [J]. Atmos. Environ., 74: 413-421.
    [55] Sun Y L, Zhuang G S, Wang Y, et al. 2004. The air-borne particulate pollution in Beijing—Concentration, composition, distribution and sources [J]. Atmos. Environ., 38: 5991-6004.
    [56] Tao M H, Chen L F, Su L, et al. 2012. Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain [J]. J. Geophys. Res., 117 (D12): D12203.
    [57] Vukovich F M. 1995. Regional scale boundary layer ozone variations in the eastern United States and their association with meteorological variations [J]. Atmos. Environ., 29 (17): 2259-2273.
    [58] Wang H L, Zhuang Y H, Wang Y, et al. 2008. Long-term monitoring and source apportionment of PM2.5/PM10 in Beijing, China [J]. J. Environ. Sci., 20: 1323-1327.
    [59] 王莉莉, 王跃思, 王迎红, 等. 2010. 北京夏末秋初不同天气形势对大气污染物浓度的影响 [J]. 中国环境科学, 30 (7): 924-930. Wang Lili, Wang Yuesi, Wang Yinghong, et al. Relationship between different synoptic weather patterns and concentrations of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing during summer and autumn [J]. China Environment Science (in Chinese), 30 (7): 924-930.
    [60] Wang S X, Xing J, Chatani S, et al. 2011. Verification of anthropogenic emissions of China by satellite and ground observations [J]. Atmos. Environ., 45 (35): 6347-6358.
    [61] 王喜全, 齐彦斌, 王自发, 等. 2007. 造成北京PM10重污染的二类典型天气形势 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 12 (1): 81-86. Wang Xiquan, Qi Yanbin, Wang Zifa, et al. 2007. The influence of synoptic pattern on PM10 heavy air pollution in Beijing [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 12 (1): 81-86.
    [62] 王跃, 王莉莉, 赵广娜, 等. 2014. 北京冬季PM2.5重污染时段不同尺度环流形势及边界层结构分析 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 19 (2): 173-184. Wang Yue, Wang Lili, Zhao Guangna, et al. 2014. Analysis of different-scales circulation patterns and boundary layer structure of PM2.5 heavy pollutions in Beijing during winter [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 19 (2): 173-184.
    [63] 王跃思, 姚利, 王莉莉, 等. 2014. 2013年元月我国中东部地区强霾污染成因分析 [J]. 中国科学: 地球科学, 44 (1): 15-26. Wang Yuesi, Yao Li, Wang Lili, et al. 2014. Mechanism for the formation of the January 2013 heavy haze pollution episode over central and eastern China [J]. Science China: Earth Sciences, 57 (1): 14-25.
    [64] 王自发, 李杰, 王哲, 等. 2014. 2013年1月我国中东部强霾污染的数值模拟和防控对策 [J]. 中国科学: 地球科学, 44 (1): 3-14. Wang Zifa, Li Jie, Wang Zhe, et al. 2014. Modeling study of regional severe hazes over Mid-Eastern China in January 2013 and its implications on pollution prevent and control [J]. Science China: Earth Sciences, 57 (1): 3-13.
    [65] 吴兑. 2006. 再论都市霾与雾的区别 [J]. 气象, 32 (4): 9-15. Wu Dui. 2006. More discussions on the differences between haze and fog in city [J]. Meteorological Monthly (in Chinese), 32 (4): 9-15.
    [66] Wu D, Bi X, Deng X, et al. 2007. Effect of atmospheric haze on the deterioration of visibility over the Pearl River Delta [J]. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 21 (2): 215-223.
    [67] 吴兑, 吴晓京, 李菲, 等. 2010. 1951-2005年中国大陆霾的时空变化 [J]. 气象学报, 68 (5): 680-688. Wu Dui, Wu Xiaojing, Li Fei, et al. 2010. Temporal and spatial variation of haze during 1951-2005 in Chinese mainland [J]. Acta Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 68 (5): 680-688.
    [68] 吴兑, 廖碧婷, 吴蒙, 等. 2014. 环首都圈霾和雾的长期变化特征与典型个例的近地层输送条件 [J]. 环境科学学报, 34 (1): 1-11. Wu Dui, Liao Biting, Wu Meng, et al. 2014. The long-term trend of haze and fog days and the surface layer transport conditions under haze weather in North China [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae (in Chinese), 34 (1): 1-11.
    [69] Wu J, Fu C B, Zhang L Y, et al. 2012. Trends of visibility on sunny days in China in the recent 50 years [J]. Atmos. Environ., 55: 339-346.
    [70] Wu M, Wu D, Fan Q, et al. 2013. Observational studies of the meteorological characteristics associated with poor air quality over the Pearl River Delta in China [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 10755-10766.
    [71] 谢付莹, 王自发, 王喜全. 2010. 2008年奥运会期间北京地区PM10污染天气形势和气象条件特征研究 [J]. 气候与环境研究, 15 (5): 584-594. Xie Fuying, Wang Zifa, Wang Xiquan. 2010. A study of the characteristics of the synoptic situations and meteorological conditions in PM10 air pollution episodes of Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games period [J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese), 15 (5): 584-594.
    [72] 徐祥德, 汤绪. 2002. 城市化环境气象学引论 [M]. 北京: 气象出版社, 284pp. Xu Xiangde, Tang Xu. 2002. Introduction of Urbanized Environmental Meteorology (in Chinese) [M]. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 284pp.
    [73] 徐祥德, 周秀骥, 施晓晖. 2005. 城市群落大气污染源影响的空间结构及尺度特征 [J]. 中国科学(D辑: 地球科学), 35 (S1): 1-19. Xu Xiangde, Zhou Xiuji, Shi Xiaohui. 2005. The spatial structure and scale of the air pollution source's impact of the city cluster over Beijing [J]. Science in China (Ser. D: Earth Sciences) (in Chinese), 35 (S1): 1-19.
    [74] 徐阳阳, 刘树华, 胡非, 等. 2009. 北京城市化发展对大气边界层特性的影响 [J]. 大气科学, 33 (4): 859-867. Xu Yangyang, Liu Shuhua, Hu Fei, et al. 2009. Influence of Beijing urbanization on characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 33 (4): 859-867.
    [75] Yu L D, Wang G F, Zhang R J, et al. 2013. Characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in an urban environment in Beijing [J]. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13: 574-583.
    [76] 张碧辉, 刘树华, Liu H P, 等. 2012. MYJ和YSU方案对WRF边界层气象要素模拟的影响 [J]. 地球物理学报, 55 (7): 2239-2248. Zhang Bihui, Liu Shuhua, Liu H P, et al. 2012. The effect of MYJ and YSU schemes on the simulation of boundary layer meteorological factors of WRF [J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 55 (7): 2239- 2248.
    [77] Zhang Q, Meng J, Quan J, et al. 2012a. Impact of aerosol composition on cloud condensation nuclei activity [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 3783-3790.
    [78] Zhang X Y, Wang Y Q, Niu T, et al. 2012b. Atmospheric aerosol compositions in China: Spatial/temporal variability, chemical signature, regional haze distribution and comparisons with global aerosols [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 779-799.
    [79] 张人禾, 李强, 张若楠. 2014. 2013年1月中国东部持续性强雾霾天气产生的气象条件分析 [J]. 中国科学: 地球科学, 44 (1): 27-36. Zhang Renhe, Li Qiang, Zhang Ruonan. 2014. Meteorological conditions for the persistent severe fog and haze event over eastern China in January 2013 [J]. Science China: Earth Sciences, 57 (1): 26-35.
    [80] Zhang R J, Jing J, Tao J, et al. 2013. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing: Seasonal perspective [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 7053-7074.
    [81] Zhang W, Guo J H, Sun Y L, et al. 2007. Source apportionment for urban PM10 and PM2.5 in the Beijing area [J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52 (5): 608-615.
    [82] 张小曳, 孙俊英, 王亚强, 等. 2013. 我国雾—霾成因及其治理的思考 [J]. 科学通报, 58 (13): 1178-1187. Zhang Xiaoye, Sun Junying, Wang Yaqiang, et al. 2013. Factors contributing to haze and fog in China [J]. Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 58 (13): 1178-1187.
    [83] 张鑫, 蔡旭晖, 柴发合. 2006. 北京市秋季大气边界层结构与特征分析 [J]. 北京大学学报(自然科学版), 42 (2): 220-225. Zhang Xin, Cai Xuhui, Chai Fahe. 2006. The analysis of the autumn atmospheric layer structure and characteristics of Beijing [J]. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (in Chinese), 42 (2): 220-225.
    [84] 张志刚, 高庆先, 韩雪琴, 等. 2004. 中国华北区域城市间污染物输送研究 [J]. 环境科学研究, 17 (1): 14-20. Zhang Zhigang, Gao Qingxian, Han Xueqin, et al. 2004. The study of pollutant transport between the cities in North China [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences (in Chinese), 17 (1): 14-20.
    [85] Zhao P S, Zhang X L, Xu X F, et al. 2011. Long-term visibility trends and characteristics in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, China [J]. Atmospheric Research, 101 (3): 711-718.
    [86] 赵普生, 张小玲, 徐晓峰. 2011. 利用日均及14时气象数据进行霾日判定的比较分析 [J]. 环境科学学报, 31 (4): 704-708. Zhao Pusheng, Zhang Xiaoling, Xu Xiaofeng. 2011. Comparison between two methods of distinguishing haze days with daily mean and 14 o’clock meteorological data [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae (in Chinese), 31 (4): 704-708.
    [87] Zhao X J, Zhang X L, Xu X F, et al. 2009. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient PM2.5 concentration in urban and rural environments in Beijing [J]. Atmos. Environ., 43 (18): 2893-2900.
    [88] Zhao P S, Dong F, He D, et al. 2013a. Characteristics of concentrations and chemical compositions for PM2.5 in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, China [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 4631-4644.
    [89] Zhao X J, Zhao P S, Xu J, et al. 2013b. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 5685-8696.
    [90] Zheng M, Salmon L G, Schauer J J, et al. 2005. Seasonal trends in PM2.5 source contributions in Beijing, China [J]. Atmos. Environ., 39 (22): 3967-3976.
    [91] 中国气象局. 2003. 地面气象观测规范 [M]. 北京: 气象出版社, 151pp. China Meteorological Administration. 2003. Standard of the Surface Observation about Meteorology (in Chinese) [M]. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 151pp.
    [92] Zhou J M, Zhang R J, Cao J J, et al. 2012. Carbonaceous and ionic components of atmospheric fine particles in Beijing and their impact on atmospheric visibility [J]. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12: 492-502.
    [93] 周宁芳, 李峰, 饶晓琴, 等. 2008. 2006年冬半年我国霾天气特征分析 [J]. 气象, 34 (6): 81-88. Zhou Ningfang, Li Feng, Rao Xiaoqin, et al. 2008. Study on haze weather in China during winter-time of 2006 [J]. Meteorological Monthly (in Chinese), 34 (6): 81-88.
  • 加载中
计量
  • 文章访问数:  2862
  • HTML全文浏览量:  20
  • PDF下载量:  3813
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2014-11-28

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回