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基于高时间分辨率快电场变化资料的北京地区地闪回击统计特征

黎勋 郄秀书 刘昆 王宇 王东方 刘明远 孙竹玲 张鸿波

黎勋, 郄秀书, 刘昆, 王宇, 王东方, 刘明远, 孙竹玲, 张鸿波. 基于高时间分辨率快电场变化资料的北京地区地闪回击统计特征[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(2): 231-241. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16007
引用本文: 黎勋, 郄秀书, 刘昆, 王宇, 王东方, 刘明远, 孙竹玲, 张鸿波. 基于高时间分辨率快电场变化资料的北京地区地闪回击统计特征[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(2): 231-241. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16007
Xun LI, Xiushu QIE, Kun LIU, Yu WANG, Dongfang WANG, Mingyuan LIU, Zhuling SUN, Hongbo ZHANG. Characteristics of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Return Strokes in Beijing Based on High Temporal Resolution Data of Fast Electric Field Change[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(2): 231-241. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16007
Citation: Xun LI, Xiushu QIE, Kun LIU, Yu WANG, Dongfang WANG, Mingyuan LIU, Zhuling SUN, Hongbo ZHANG. Characteristics of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Return Strokes in Beijing Based on High Temporal Resolution Data of Fast Electric Field Change[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(2): 231-241. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16007

基于高时间分辨率快电场变化资料的北京地区地闪回击统计特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16007
基金项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973项目) 2014CB441401

国家自然科学基金 41305005

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黎勋, 女, 1990年出生, 硕士, 主要从事雷电科学与防护技术研究。E-mail:lixun@mail.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    刘昆, E-mail:liukun@cuit.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P427.32+1

Characteristics of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Return Strokes in Beijing Based on High Temporal Resolution Data of Fast Electric Field Change

Funds: 

National Basic Research Program of China 973 Program 2014CB441401

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41305005

  • 摘要: 利用2014年北京闪电网观测到的4站及以上同步高时间分辨率闪电快电场变化资料,对北京地区5次雷暴过程中304次正地闪和1467次负地闪的回击特征进行了统计分析,主要包括:回击次数、10%~90%上升时间、下降时间、半峰值宽度、回击间隔、回击峰值电场强度、回击间隔和回击序数的关系等。结果表明,正、负地闪中单回击地闪所占比例分别为91.1%和24.2%,单次负地闪的平均回击次数为3.8次,观测到的最大回击数可达20次。304次正地闪首次回击的10%~90%上升时间、下降时间和半峰值宽度的算术平均值分别为4.2 μs、14.5 μs和6.2 μs;29次正地闪继后回击对应值分别为3.6 μs、12.6 μs和5.7 μs;1467次负首次回击的对应值分别为2.4 μs、23.9 μs和5.3 μs;4109次负继后回击的对应值分别为1.7 μs、19.5 μs和3.4 μs。正、负地闪回击间隔的几何平均值分别为106 ms和59 ms。负地闪回击间隔呈对数正态分布,平均回击间隔随着回击序数的增加有逐渐减小的趋势。最后,还对70次正回击、421次负首次回击和789次负继后回击峰值电场进行了统计,将其归一化到100 km的平均值分别为11.2 V/m、7.2 V/m和5.0 V/m。平均来看,负地闪首次回击峰值电场比继后回击峰值电场大1.4倍,但是有23.5%的继后回击峰值电场大于其对应的首次回击。
  • 图  1  快电场波形特征参数的定义

    Figure  1.  Definition of characteristic parameters of fast electric field waveform

    图  2  (a)正地闪、(b)负地闪回击次数分布

    Figure  2.  Stroke multiplication distribution of CG lightning: (a) Positive CG flashes; (b) negative CG flashes

    图  3  (a)正地闪、(b)负地闪10%~90%上升时间分布

    Figure  3.  Distribution of 10%−90% risetime for return stroke waveform: (a) Positive CG flashes; (b) negative CG flashes

    图  4  (a)正地闪、(b)负地闪下降时间分布

    Figure  4.  Falling time distribution of return stroke waveform: (a) Positive CG flashes; (b) negative CG flashes

    图  5  (a)正地闪、(b)负地闪回击间隔分布

    Figure  5.  Interstroke interval distribution: (a) Positive CG flashes; (b) negative CG flashes

    图  6  随回击序数变化的负地闪平均回击间隔

    Figure  6.  Stroke order versus geometric mean interstroke intervals for negative CG flashes

    图  7  (a)正地闪、(b)负地闪归一化到100 km的回击初始峰值电场分布

    Figure  7.  Distribution of the peak electric field normalized to 100 km: (a) Positive CG flashes; (b) negative CG flashes

    图  8  随回击序数变化归一化到100 km的平均初始峰值电场

    Figure  8.  The geometric mean of initial stroke peak electric field normalized to 100 km for different stroke orders

    表  1  5次雷暴中正地闪的比例

    Table  1.   Ratios of positive cloud-to-ground (CG) to total flashes in five thunderstorms

    雷暴时间 地闪数 正地闪比例
    2014-06-13 408 33.6%
    2014-07-30 218 12.8%
    2014-08-03 114 30.7%
    2014-08-28 963 10.1%
    2014-09-19 68 10.3%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同地区正、负地闪回击次数的结果对比

    Table  2.   Multiplicity for positive and negative CG flashes in different regions

    地区 样本数 单回击比例 最大回击数 平均回击次数 来源
    负地闪 美国佛罗里达 76 17% 18 4.6 Rakov and Uman (1990)
    瑞典 137 18% 10 3.4 Cooray and Pérez (1994)
    德国 81 2.4 Heidler and Hopf (1998)
    中国内陆高原 50 39.80% 14 3.76 郄秀书等 (2001)
    巴西 233 20% 16 3.8 Saba et al.(2006)
    中国广州 570 28% 14 张义军等 (2013)
    美国佛罗里达 220 30.50% 16 4.5 Zhu et al.(2014)
    中国合肥 1085 24.30% 17 3.3 Zhu et al.(2015)
    中国北京 1467 24.20% 20 3.8 本文
    正地闪 中国兰州 112 90.30% 2 郄秀书和郭昌明 (1990)
    中国北京 179 82.90% 5
    德国 45 73.30% 4 Heidler and Hopf (1998)
    中国那曲 45 91% 4 赵阳等 (2004)
    巴西 39 72% 3 1.33 Saba et al.(2010)
    中国大兴安岭 185 94.60% 3 1.1 Qie et al.(2013)
    中国北京 304 91.10% 4 1.1 本文
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  正、负地闪回击半峰值宽度

    Table  3.   Full width at half maxmum (FWHM) for strokes in positive and negative CG flashes

    回击类型 样本数 算术平均值/μs 几何平均值/μs 方差/μs 最小值/μs 最大值/μs
    正地闪 负地闪 正地闪 负地闪 正地闪 负地闪 正地闪 负地闪 正地闪 负地闪 正地闪 负地闪
    首次回击 304 1467 6.2 5.3 4.8 3.7 4.4 20.3 0.8 0.6 23.1 585
    继后回击 29 4109 5.7 3.4 4.5 2.8 4.2 3.2 1.4 0.2 16.6 135
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同地区正、负地闪回击间隔的对比

    Table  4.   Interstroke intervals of positive and negative CG flashes in different regions

    地区 样本数 算术平均值/ms 几何平均值/ms 方差/ms 最小值/ms 最大值/ms 来源
    负地闪 瑞典 568 65 48 2.5 376 Cooray and Pérez (1994)
    德国 414 87 60 96 Heidler and Hopf (1998)
    中国内陆高原 238 64.3 46.6 4.8 328.5 郄秀书等 (2001)
    巴西 608 83 61 2 782 Saba et al.(2006)
    美国佛罗里达 780 80 53 0.1 552 Zhu et al.(2014)
    中国合肥 2525 80 62 Zhu et al.(2015)
    中国北京 4109 88 59 99 0.4 792 本文
    正地闪 瑞典 29 92 64 68 290 Cooray and Pérez (1994)
    德国 16 120 101 97 Heidler and Hopf (1998)
    巴西 13 168 117 131 20 406 Saba et al.(2010)
    中国北京 29 160 106 162 17 787 本文
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同地区正、负地闪归一化到100 km的回击初始峰值电场大小对比

    Table  5.   The peak electric fields of positive and negative CG flashes normalized to 100 km in different regions

    地区 样本数 算术平均值/V m-1 几何平均值/V m-1 方差/V m-1 来源 地区 首次回击 继后回击 来源
    样本数 算术平均值/ 几何平均值/ 方差/V m-1 样本数 算术平均值/V m-1 几何平均值/V m-1 方差/V m-1
    正地闪 中国兰州 14.8 郄秀书和郭昌明 (1990) 负地闪 美国佛罗里达 75 9.9 6.8 163 5.7 4.5 Tiller et al.(1976)
    丹麦 46 15.7 6.7 Cooray et al.(2004) 美国恩斯维尔 51 6.7 3.8 83 5.0 2.2 Lin et al.(1979)
    中国北京 117 13.7 8.7 张阳等 (2010) 美国奥卡拉 29 5.8 2.5 59 4.3 1.5
    巴西 66 17.0 13.4 12.3 Schumann et al.(2013) 美国佛罗里达 112 6.2 3.4 237 3.9 2.2 Master et al.(1984)
    中国北京 70 11.2 9.9 5.0 本文 中国北京 421 7.2 6.2 4.1 789 5.0 4.2 3.4 本文
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-01-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2016-05-31
  • 刊出日期:  2017-03-20

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