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安徽省雾、霾、晴空天气的气象条件对比分析

石春娥 邓学良 余金龙 张浩 杨元建

石春娥, 邓学良, 余金龙, 张浩, 杨元建. 安徽省雾、霾、晴空天气的气象条件对比分析[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(2): 242-252. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16045
引用本文: 石春娥, 邓学良, 余金龙, 张浩, 杨元建. 安徽省雾、霾、晴空天气的气象条件对比分析[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(2): 242-252. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16045
Chun'e SHI, Xueliang DENG, Jinlong YU, Hao ZHANG, Yuanjian YANG. Comparisons of Meteorological Conditions on Fog, Haze, and Clear Days in Anhui Province, China[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(2): 242-252. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16045
Citation: Chun'e SHI, Xueliang DENG, Jinlong YU, Hao ZHANG, Yuanjian YANG. Comparisons of Meteorological Conditions on Fog, Haze, and Clear Days in Anhui Province, China[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(2): 242-252. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16045

安徽省雾、霾、晴空天气的气象条件对比分析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2016.16045
基金项目: 

公益性行业(气象)科研专项 GYHY201206011

安徽省自然科学基金 1608085MD84

大气边界层物理和大气化学国家重点实验室开放课题 Grant LAPC-KF-2011-05

华东区域气象科技协同创新基金 QYHZ201401

详细信息
    作者简介:

    石春娥, 女, 1970年出生, 博士, 研究员, 主要从事区域大气物理化学研究。E-mail:shichune@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P427.1

Comparisons of Meteorological Conditions on Fog, Haze, and Clear Days in Anhui Province, China

Funds: 

Special Fund for Meteorological Research in the Public Interest of China GYHY201206011

Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation 1608085MD84

Special fund of the State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry Grant LAPC-KF-2011-05

East China Regional Meteorological Center joint project of science and technology innovation QYHZ201401

  • 摘要: 使用2008~2012年逐日地面观测资料,揭示了安徽不同地区雾、霾、晴空天气气象条件的差异,指出不同地区要根据本地特点建立雾、霾预报指标和预报方法。3类天气差异最大的地面气象要素是能见度和相对湿度。根据3种天气前一日和当日能见度和相对湿度分布特征,全省站点可以分为3类:1)从雾、霾到晴空,能见度递增、相对湿度递减,且差异显著,如合肥站;2)雾、霾天的能见度和相对湿度均很接近,但与晴空天差别较大,如阜阳站;3)能见度在雾、霾天无明显差别,但相对湿度在雾、霾天差异显著,如安庆站。地级市测站雾后即霾的可能性较大(大于50%),县城测站雾后即霾的可能性较低(低于25%)。垂直方向,雾时相对湿度随高度下降很快,850 hPa中位值已降到20%(安庆)和45%(阜阳)以下,霾时相对湿度随高度下降缓慢,850 hPa中位值仍在60%左右;另外,霾天边界层中上部风切变较小,雾天和晴空天边界层中上部都存在较大的风切变。
  • 图  1  安徽省人工气象站位置和分区结果(实心圆为重点城市位置,三角形为各代表性测站位置,空心圆为其他测站位置)

    Figure  1.  Map of meteorological stations and sub-regions in Anhui Province based on visibility. Solid circles represent important cities, triangles indicate representative sites of each sub-region, and circles represent other sites

    图  2  2008~2012年合肥、阜阳和安庆雾、霾、晴空天前一日20:00能见度、相对湿度分布的箱线图(上下两个横线分别表示最大值和最小值;长方形中的星号表示中值,横线表示均值;长方形的下、上边分别为第一、三四分位值)

    Figure  2.  Box-plots of ground level visibility and relative humidity at 2000 LST on preceding days of fog, haze, and clear days in Hefei, Fuyang, and Anqing during 2008-2012 (the upper-: maximum; the lower-: minimum; -within the rectangles: mean; * within the rectangles: median; the upper and lower borders of the rectangels: the 25th and 75th percentiles)

    图  3  2008~2012年合肥、阜阳和安庆雾、霾、晴空天14:00能见度和相对湿度统计结果(说明同图 2

    Figure  3.  Box-plots of ground level visibility and relative humidity at 1400 LST on days of fog, haze, and clear in Hefei, Fuyang, and Anqing during 2008-2012

    图  4  2008~2012年安庆(a)雾、(b)霾、(c)晴空日08:00不同高度相对湿度箱线图

    Figure  4.  Box-plots of relative humidity at different levels at 0800 LST on days of fog, haze, and clear in Anqing during 2008-2012

    图  5  图 4,但为阜阳

    Figure  5.  Same as Fig. 4, but for Fuyang

    图  6  (a)安庆和(b)阜阳雾、霾、晴空日08:00 925~850 hPa风向角改变的频率分布

    Figure  6.  Frequency distributions of wind direction change between 925 hPa and 850 hPa at 0800 LST on fog, haze, and clear days during 2008-2012: (a) Anqing; (b) Fuyang

    表  1  分区及统计结果

    Table  1.   Results of clustering and statistical analysis

    子区名称 r COD 区域平均霾日数/d 区域平均能见度/km
    平均值 最大值 平均值 最小值
    淮北北部 0.70 0.74(蒙城县) 0.19 0.18(蒙城县) 84.0 14.6
    沿淮东部 0.69 0.76(蚌埠) 0.22 0.18(定远县) 175.2 12.8
    江淮之间 0.67 0.72(巢湖) 0.23 0.19(和县) 157.5 13.2
    大别山区 0.68 0.73(怀宁县) 0.15 0.14(太湖县) 89.0 12.7
    沿江江南 0.72 0.77(宁国县) 0.22 0.21(芜湖县) 150.9 12.8
    江南南部 0.70 0.73(绩溪县) 0.16 0.15(黟县) 18.0 16.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  重点城市和各代表性站点2008~2012年雾、霾、晴空天的总天数

    Table  2.   Total numbers of fog, haze, and clear days at each representative station during 2008-2012

    站点 天数/d
    晴空
    阜阳 98 201 513
    合肥 90 681 159
    安庆 45 184 625
    蚌埠 103 479 162
    巢湖 35 110 773
    蒙城县 121 25 743
    怀宁县 78 115 516
    宁国县 236 117 317
    绩溪县 35 26 683
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2008~2012年安庆和阜阳雾、霾、晴空天08:00不同高度相对湿度中位值和均值

    Table  3.   Median and mean values of relative humidity at different height at 0800 LST on fog, haze, and clear days in Anqing and Fuyang during 2008-2012

    站点 天气类型 600 hPa相对湿度 700 hPa相对湿度 850 hPa相对湿度 925 hPa相对湿度 1000 hPa相对湿度
    中位值 均值 中位值 均值 中位值 均值 中位值 均值 中位值 均值
    安庆 2.6% 8.6% 4.3% 8.0% 19.5% 28.1% 56.5% 53.3% 92.0% 92.1%
    12.4% 18.6% 23.0% 34.1% 58.7% 53.3% 69.7% 62.9% 83.3% 82.2%
    15.2% 27.1% 19.7% 32.9% 35.7% 40.5% 51.9% 48.4% 70.9% 67.6%
    阜阳 11.0% 19.2% 22.5% 34.3% 42.4% 46.8% 71.8% 64.5% 91.0% 89.6%
    23.2% 33.7% 39.7% 43.1% 60.3% 56.4% 71.6% 66.0% 86.0% 84.1%
    9.3% 20.0% 11.1% 21.2% 17.7% 25.0% 26.0% 31.6% 48.4% 48.8%
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-03-01
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