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短期大规模人口流动对上海市城市热岛效应的影响

黄群芳 陆玉麒

黄群芳, 陆玉麒. 短期大规模人口流动对上海市城市热岛效应的影响[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(6): 708-716. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.17041
引用本文: 黄群芳, 陆玉麒. 短期大规模人口流动对上海市城市热岛效应的影响[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2017, 22(6): 708-716. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.17041
Qunfang HUANG, Yuqi LU. Effects of Short-Term Massive Human Migration during the Chinese New Year on the Urban Heat Island Effect in Shanghai[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(6): 708-716. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.17041
Citation: Qunfang HUANG, Yuqi LU. Effects of Short-Term Massive Human Migration during the Chinese New Year on the Urban Heat Island Effect in Shanghai[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research, 2017, 22(6): 708-716. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.17041

短期大规模人口流动对上海市城市热岛效应的影响

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2017.17041
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金重点项目 41430635

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄群芳, 女, 1979年出生, 博士研究生, 主要从事城市与区域发展研究。E-mail:flyingfangzi@163.com

    通讯作者:

    陆玉麒, E-mail:luyuqi@njnu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P461+.8

Effects of Short-Term Massive Human Migration during the Chinese New Year on the Urban Heat Island Effect in Shanghai

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41430635

  • 摘要: 城市热岛效应是一种非常重要的局地气候现象,随着全球变暖和城市化快速发展,城市热岛效应受到越来越多的关注和研究。以往的研究表明人口聚集和人口数量对城市热岛效应和区域城市气候会产生显著的影响。但是,人口短期的快速迁移流动对城市气候是否存在影响以及影响的程度多大尚不清楚。本文利用世界上每年最大规模的人类迁徙——春节人口流动来探讨人口短期快速流动对国际化大都市上海城市热岛效应的影响。研究结果表明,2000~2015年上海市春节周日最高温、日均温和日最低温城市热岛强度分别为0.35℃、0.90℃和1.53℃,相对于背景场(春节前2~4周和春节后2~4周的平均值),分别低了0.16℃、0.11℃和0.15℃,相对变化分别为31.4%、10.9%和8.9%。由此可见,人口短期快速迁移流动是影响热岛效应和城市气候一个重要因素,但是人口流动对城市热岛效应的影响是复杂的,其效应与气候背景、天气状况、城市规模、城市人口流动特征及分布甚至城市烟花爆竹燃放(通过影响气溶胶、云量及废热影响城市热岛效应)等因素交织在一起,未来仍需开展进一步的深入研究。
  • 图  1  上海市2015年(a)总人口密度和(b)外来人口密度分布

    Figure  1.  (a) The population density and (b) floating population density in Shanghai in 2015

    图  2  上海市土地利用类型分布和气象站位置

    Figure  2.  Distribution of land use type and location of the meteorological stations in Shanghai

    图  3  上海市2000~2015年平均的春节周及前后4周的城市热岛强度:(a)最高温城市热岛强度(ΔUHIImax);(b)均温城市热岛强度(ΔUHIImean);(c)最低温城市热岛强度(ΔUHIImin)。中间灰色为春节周,用+1周来表示,春节前后一周分别表示为-1周和+2周,以此类推

    Figure  3.  Weekly means of (a) ΔUHIImax, (b) ΔUHIImean, and (c) ΔUHIImin during weeks -4 to +5 averaged over the period of 2000-2015. The CNY week is denoted by week +1, and 1 week before and 1 week after the CNY week are denoted by week -1 and week +2, and so on. The background period is defined as week -4 to week -2 and week +3 to week +5

    图  4  上海市2000~2015年期间春节周与背景场城市热岛强度差值(背景场-春节周)的年际变化:(a)ΔUHIImax;(b)ΔUHIImean;(c)ΔUHIImin

    Figure  4.  Interannual variability and linear trends of difference between the CNY week averages and the background averages (the background averages minus the CNY week averages) for the period of 2000-2015 in Shanghai: (a) ΔUHIImax; (b) ΔUHIImean; (c) ΔUHIImin

    图  5  上海市2000~2015年期间外来人口数量及其比重的年际变化

    Figure  5.  Interannual variability of Shanghai's migrant population and its percentage in the total population for the period of 2000-2015

    表  1  上海市各气象站台基本信息

    Table  1.   Basic information of meteorological stations in Shanghai

    站名 纬度 经度 海拔/m 站点类型 位置
    徐家汇 31.20°N 121.43°E 4.6 国家一般气象站 城市地区
    闵行 31.10°N 121.37°E 5.5 国家一般气象站 城郊区
    宝山 31.40°N 121.45°E 5.5 国家基本气象站 城郊区
    浦东 31.23°N 121.53°E 4.4 国家一般气象站 城郊区
    松江 31.03°N 121.23°E 4.2 国家一般气象站 城郊区
    嘉定 31.37°N 121.25°E 4.4 国家一般气象站 城郊区
    青浦 31.13°N 121.12°E 4.0 国家一般气象站 乡村地区
    金山 30.73°N 121.35°E 5.2 国家一般气象站 乡村地区
    奉贤 30.88°N 121.50°E 4.6 国家一般气象站 乡村地区
    南汇 31.05°N 121.78°E 5.0 国家一般气象站 乡村地区
    崇明 31.67°N 121.50°E 4.5 国家一般气象站 乡村地区
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2000~2015年研究时段的日期选择

    Table  2.   Dates of the Chinese New Year (CNY), CNY weeks, 28 days before the CNY days (day −28), and 34 days after the CNY days (day +35) during 2000−2015

    年份 春节日期 春节周起止日期 研究起止日期
    2000 2000-02-05 2000-02-04~02-10 2000-01-07~03-09
    2001 2001-01-24 2001-01-23~01-29 2000-12-26~2001-02-26
    2002 2002-02-12 2002-02-11~02-17 2002-01-14~03-17
    2003 2003-02-01 2003-01-31~02-06 2003-01-03~03-06
    2004 2004-01-22 2004-01-21~01-27 2003-12-24~2004-02-24
    2005 2005-02-09 2005-02-08~02-14 2005-01-11~03-14
    2006 2006-01-29 2006-01-28~02-03 2005-12-31~2006-03-03
    2007 2007-02-18 2007-02-17~02-23 2007-01-20~03-23
    2008 2008-02-07 2008-02-06~02-12 2008-01-09~03-11
    2009 2009-01-26 2009-01-25~01-31 2008-12-28~2009-02-28
    2010 2010-02-14 2010-02-13~02-19 2010-01-16~03-19
    2011 2011-02-03 2011-02-02~02-08 2011-01-05~03-08
    2012 2012-01-23 2012-01-22~01-28 2011-12-25~2012-02-25
    2013 2013-02-10 2013-02-09~02-15 2013-01-12~03-15
    2014 2014-01-31 2014-01-30~02-05 2014-01-02~03-05
    2015 2015-02-19 2015-02-18~02-24 2015-01-21~03-24
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  上海市城乡站2000~2015年研究时段内的风速、降水、相对湿度和总云量

    Table  3.   The averaged daily wind speed, precipitation, relative humidity, and cloud cover at urban and rural stations during 2000-2015

    风速/m s-1 日降水量/mm 相对湿度 总云量
    均值 标准差 均值 标准差 均值 标准差 均值 标准差
    徐家汇 1.42 0.72 2.53 5.79 70.1% 13.7% 59.1% 38.7%
    乡村站均值 2.73 1.07 2.44 5.53 76.2% 11.5% 62.9% 36.4%
    崇明 3.00 1.24 2.22 5.39 76.2% 12.0% 61.6% 37.8%
    金山 2.72 1.09 2.64 6.20 77.2% 12.0% 63.5% 37.9%
    奉贤 2.67 1.17 2.44 5.79 77.7% 11.5% 62.6% 37.7%
    青浦 2.48 1.09 2.44 5.60 72.8% 12.2% 62.2% 38.0%
    南汇 2.80 1.26 2.46 5.77 77.1% 11.6% 64.4% 37.5%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  上海市2000~2015年多年平均春节周和背景场的日最高温度热岛强度、日均温度热岛强度和日最低温度热岛强度值及其差值(背景场-春节周)

    Table  4.   Statistics of ΔUHIImax, ΔUHIImean, ΔUHIImin during the CNY week (week +1) and the background period averaged over 2000-2015

    城市热岛强度 城市热岛强度变化
    春节周/℃ 背景场/℃ 春节周与背景场差值/℃ 相对变化
    ΔUHIImax 0.35 0.51 0.16 31.4%
    ΔUHIImean 0.90 1.01 0.11 10.9%
    ΔUHIImin 1.53 1.68 0.15 8.9%
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-03-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2017-09-15
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