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## 2007 Vol. 24, No. 1

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2007, 24(1): 1-14. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0001-5
[Abstract](1675) [PDF 4863KB](1710)
Abstract:
Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the period of 1957--2001, the climatological seasonal transition features of large-scale vertically integrated moisture transport (VIMT) in the Asian-Australian monsoon region are investigated in this paper. The basic features of the seasonal transition of VIMT from winter to summer are the establishment of the summertime great moisture river" pattern (named the GMR pattern) and its eastward expansion, associated with a series of climatological events which occurred in some key periods", which include the occurrence of the notable southerly VIMT over the Indochina Peninsula in mid March, the activity of the low VIMT vortex around Sri Lanka in late April, and the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon in mid May, among others. However, during the transition from summer to winter, the characteristics are mainly exhibited by the establishment of the easterly VIMT belt located in the tropical area, accompanied by some events occurring in key periods". Further analyses disclose a great difference between the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions when viewed from the meridional migration of the westerly VIMT during the seasonal change process, according to which the Asian monsoon region can be easily divided into two parts along the western side of the Indochina Peninsula and it may also denote different formation mechanisms between the two regions.
2007, 24(1): 15-23. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0015-z
[Abstract](1245) [PDF 1664KB](1462)
Abstract:
The low frequency oscillation in both hemispheres and its possible role in the dust weather storm events over North China in 2002 are analyzed as a case study. Results show that the Aleutian Low is linked with the Circumpolar Vortex in the Southern Hemisphere on a 30--60-day oscillation, with a weak Circumpolar Vortex tending to deepen the Aleutian Low which may be helpful for the generation of dust storm events. The possible mechanism behind this is the inter-hemispheric interaction of the mean meridional circulation, with the major variability over East Asia. The zonal mean westerly wind at high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in the upper level troposphere may lead that of the Northern Hemisphere, which then impacts the local circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the low frequency oscillation teleconnection is one possible linkage in the coupling between the Southern Hemisphere circulation and dust events over North China. However, the interannual variation of the low frequency oscillation is unclear.
2007, 24(1): 35-43. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0035-8
[Abstract](1303) [PDF 837KB](1554)
Abstract:
The mesoscale orographic effects on typhoon Aere's precipitation are simulated using an Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM) version 3.0. In particular, the effects of the latent heat release are studied by two comparable experiments: with and without condensational heating. The results show that the typhoon rainfall is tripled by the southeastern China mesoscale terrain, and the condensational heating is responsible for at least half of the increase. One role of the latent heat release is to warm the atmosphere, leading to a depression of the surface pressure, which then causes a larger pressure difference in the zonal direction. This pressure gradient guides the water vapour to flow into the foothills, which in turn amplifies the water vapour flux divergence amplified, causing the typhoon rainfall to increase eventually. The other role of the latent heat release is to make the convection more organized, resulting in a relatively smaller rain area and stronger precipitation.
2007, 24(1): 44-54. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0044-7
[Abstract](1257) [PDF 1079KB](1518)
Abstract:
In this paper, the potential vorticity structure and inversion of the cyclogenesis over the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys during 21--23 June 2003 are investigated with a potential vorticity (PV) framework. The cyclogenesis is manifested by a lower-tropospheric PV anomaly over the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys at early stages mainly due to latent heat release, which greatly affects the evolution of the associated lower-tropospheric geopotential height and wind fields as demonstrated by piecewise PV inversion. At later stages, an upper-tropospheric PV anomaly develops, resulting in the growth of ridges over the cyclone in both the upstream and downstream, which provide a favorable background field for the low-level cyclone development. But the effect of a surface thermal anomaly always impedes the development of the cyclone to different extents during this cyclogenesis. It is further demonstrated that the position and the strength of the PV anomaly are closely related to the low-level cyclone development, and the lower-tropospheric PV anomaly seems to constitute the most significant feature, for instance, contributing about 60% to the low-level jet (LLJ).
2007, 24(1): 55-64. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0055-4
[Abstract](1245) [PDF 267KB](1294)
Abstract:
To quantitatively address the role of tissue N in crop respiration under various agricultural practices, and to consequently evaluate the impact of synthetic fertilizer N application on biomass production and respiration, and hence net carbon fixation efficiency (Encf), pot and field experiments were carried out for an annual rotation of a rice-wheat cropping system from 2001 to 2003. The treatments of the pot experiments included fertilizer N application, sowing date and planting density. Different rates of N application were tested in the field experiments. Static opaque chambers were used for sampling the gas. The respiration as CO2 emission was detected by a gas chromatograph. A successive biomass clipping method was employed to determine the crop autotrophic respiration coefficient (Ra). Results from the pot experiments revealed a linear relationship between Ra and tissue N content as Ra=4.74N-1.45 (R2=0.85, P<0.001). Measurements and calculations from the field experiments indicated that fertilizer N application promoted not only biomass production but also increased the respiration of crops. A further investigation showed that the increase of carbon loss in terms of respiration owing to fertilizer N application exceeded that of net carbon gain in terms of aboveground biomass when fertilizer N was applied over a certain rate. Consequently, the Encf declined as the N application rate increased.
2007, 24(1): 65-81. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0065-2
[Abstract](1470) [PDF 4231KB](1708)
Abstract:
In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated. The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100~m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as: (1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600~m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.
2007, 24(1): 82-88. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0082-1
[Abstract](1333) [PDF 1982KB](1544)
Abstract:
Recently, a new atmospheric general circulation model (GAMIL: Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG) has been developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which is based on the Community Atmospheric Model Version 2 (CAM2) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Since the two models have the same physical processes but different dynamical cores, the interannual variability simulation performances of the two models are compared. The ensemble approach is used to reduce model internal variability. In general, the simulation performances of the two models are similar. Both models have good performance in simulating total space-time variability and the Southern Oscillation Index. GAMIL performs better in the Eastern Asian winter circulation simulation than CAM2, and the model internal variability of GAMIL has a better response to external forcing than that of CAM2. These indicate that the improvement of the dynamic core is very important. It is also verified that there is less predictability in the middle and high latitudes than in the low latitudes.Recently, a new atmospheric general circulation model (GAMIL: Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG) has been developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which is based on the Community Atmospheric Model Version 2 (CAM2) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Since the two models have the same physical processes but different dynamical cores, the interannual variability simulation performances of the two models are compared. The ensemble approach is used to reduce model internal variability. In general, the simulation performances of the two models are similar. Both models have good performance in simulating total space-time variability and the Southern Oscillation Index. GAMIL performs better in the Eastern Asian winter circulation simulation than CAM2, and the model internal variability of GAMIL has a better response to external forcing than that of CAM2. These indicate that the improvement of the dynamic core is very important. It is also verified that there is less predictability in the middle and high latitudes than in the low latitudes.
2007, 24(1): 89-100. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0089-7
[Abstract](1214) [PDF 272KB](1542)
Abstract:
It has been proved that there exists a cross coupling between vertical heat turbulent transport and vertical velocity by using linear thermodynamics. This result asserts that the vertical component of heat turbulent transport flux is composed of both the transport of the vertical potential temperature gradient and the coupling transport of the vertical velocity. In this paper, the coupling effect of vertical velocity on vertical heat turbulent transportation is validated by using observed data from the atmospheric boundary layer to determine cross coupling coefficients, and a series of significant properties of turbulent transportation are opened out. These properties indicate that the cross coupling coefficient is a logarithm function of the dimensionless vertical velocity and dimensionless height, and is not only related to the friction velocity u*, but also to the coupling roughness height zW0 and the coupling temperature TW0 of the vertical velocity. In addition, the function relations suggest that only when the vertical velocity magnitude conforms to the limitation |W/u*|≠1, and is above the level zW0, then the vertical velocity leads to the cross coupling effect on the vertical heat turbulent transport flux. The cross coupling theory and experimental results provide a challenge to the traditional turbulent K closure theory and the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.
2007, 24(1): 101-110. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0101-2
[Abstract](1800) [PDF 655KB](1568)
Abstract:
This paper describes the procedure and methodology to formulate the convective weather potential (CWP) algorithm. The data used in the development of the algorithm are the radar echoes at 0.5$^\circ$ elevation from Guangzhou Doppler Radar Station, surface observations from automatic weather stations (AWS) and outputs of numeric weather prediction (NWP) models. The procedure to develop the CWP algorithm consists of two steps: (1) identification of thunderstorm cells in accordance with specified statistical criteria; and (2) development of the algorithm based on multiple linear regression. The thunderstorm cells were automatically identified by radar echoes with intensity greater than or equal to 50~dB($Z$) and of an area over 64 square kilometers. These cells are generally related to severe convective weather occurrences such as thunderstorm wind gusts, hail and tornados. In the development of the CWP algorithm, both echo- and environment-based predictors are used. The predictand is the probability of a thunderstorm cell to generate severe convective weather events. The predictor-predictand relationship is established through a stepwise multiple linear regression approach. Verification with an independent dataset shows that the CWP algorithm is skillful in detecting thunderstorm-related severe convective weather occurrences in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of South China. An example of a nowcasting case for a thunderstorm process is illustrated.
2007, 24(1): 111-125. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0111-0
Abstract:
In this study numerical simulations and water tank experiments were used to investigate the flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon. Two types of canyon geometry were tested. The studies indicate that in a step-up notch canyon (higher buildings on the downstream side of the canyon), the height and shape of the upstream lower buildings plays an important role in flow pattern and pollutant dispersion, while in a step-down notch canyon (lower buildings on the downstream side), the downstream lower buildings have little influence. The studies also show that the substitution of tall towers for parallelepiped buildings on one side of the canyon may enhance the street ventilation and decrease the pollutant concentration emitted by motor vehicles.
2007, 24(1): 126-135. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0126-6
Abstract:
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the multidecadal variation of North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), exhibits an oscillation with a period of 65--80 years and an amplitude of 0.4oC. Observational composite analyses reveal that the warm phase AMO is linked to warmer winters in East China, with enhanced precipitation in the north of this region and reduced precipitation in the south, on multidecadal time scales. The pattern is reversed during the cold phase AMO. Whether the AMO acts as a forcing of the multidecadal winter climate of East China is explored by investigating the atmospheric response to warm AMO SST anomalies in a large ensemble of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments. The results from three AGCMs are consistent and suggest that the AMO warmth favors warmer winters in East China. This influence is realized through inducing negative surface air pressure anomalies in the hemispheric-wide domain extending from the midlatitude North Atlantic to midlatitude Eurasia. These negative surface anomalies favor the weakening of the Mongolian Cold High, and thus induce a weaker East Asian Winter Monsoon.
2007, 24(1): 136-146. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0136-4
[Abstract](1209) [PDF 2035KB](1486)
Abstract:
The ability of a climate model to reproduce the climatic characters of the South Asia High (SAH) is assessed by analyzing the 110-yr output of a Flexible Coupled GCM, version 0 (FGCM-0). Comparing the results of FGCM-0 with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the major findings show that FGCM-0 has better results in simulation of the geopotential height field at 100~hPa, and reproduces fairly the main atmospheric circulation centers. However, there are still some differences in the simulated results compared with the reanalysis data. The coupled model also successfully reproduces the mean seasonal variation of the SAH, that is, it moves from the Pacific Ocean to the Asian continent, remaining over the Tibetan Plateau from winter to summer, and then withdraws from the Tibetan Plateau to the Pacific Ocean from summer to winter. However, such observed relationships between the SAH positions and the summer precipitation patterns cannot be fairly reproduced in the FGCM-0.
2007, 24(1): 147-151. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0147-1
[Abstract](1188) [PDF 181KB](1319)
Abstract:
The linear two-layer barotropic primitive equations in cylindrical coordinates are used to derive a generalized energy equation, which is subsequently applied to explain the instability of the spiral wave in the model. In the two-layer model, there are not only the generalized barotropic instability and the super high-speed instability, but also some other new instabilities, which fall into the range of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the generalized baroclinic instability, when the upper and lower basic flows are different. They are perhaps the mechanisms of the generation of spiral cloud bands in tropical cyclones as well.
2007, 24(1): 152-162. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0152-4
[Abstract](1234) [PDF 1606KB](1462)
Abstract:
In this study, we investigated the features of Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), that is, the annular modes in the extratropics, in the internal atmospheric variability attained through an ensemble of integrations by an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with the global observed SSTs. We focused on the interannual variability of AO/AAO, which is dominated by internal atmospheric variability. In comparison with previous observed results, the AO/AAO in internal atmospheric variability bear some similar characteristics, but exhibit a much clearer spatial structure: significant correlation between the North Pacific and North Atlantic centers of action, much stronger and more significant associated precipitation anomalies, and the meridional displacement of upper-tropospheric westerly jet streams in the Northern/Southern Hemisphere. In addition, we examined the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/AO and East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). It has been shown that in the internal atmospheric variability, the EAWM variation is significantly related to the NAO through upper-tropospheric atmospheric teleconnection patterns.