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2019 Vol. 36, No. 9

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Preface to Special Issue on the National Report to the IUGG Centennial by CNC-IAMAS (2011-2018)
2019, 36(9): 885-885. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9005-1
Recent Progress in Studies of the Variabilities and Mechanisms of the East Asian Monsoon in a Changing Climate
Wen CHEN, Lin WANG, Juan FENG, Zhiping WEN, Tiaojiao MA, Xiuqun YANG, Chenghai WANG
2019, 36(9): 887-901. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8230-y
Located in a monsoon domain, East Asia suffers devastating natural hazards induced by anomalous monsoon behaviors. East Asian monsoon (EAM) research has traditionally been a high priority for the Chinese climate community and is particularly challenging in a changing climate where the global mean temperature has been rising. Recent advances in studies of the variabilities and mechanisms of the EAM are reviewed in this paper, focusing on the interannual to interdecadal time scales. Some new results have been achieved in understanding the behaviors of the EAM, such as the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), including both its onset and withdrawal over the South China Sea, the changes in the northern boundary activity of the EASM, or the transitional climate zone in East Asia, and the cycle of the EASM and the East Asian winter monsoon and their linkages. In addition, understanding of the mechanism of the EAM variability has improved in several aspects, including the impacts of different types of ENSO on the EAM, the impacts from the Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, and the roles of mid- to high-latitude processes. Finally, some scientific issues regarding our understanding of the EAM are proposed for future investigation.
Pathways of Influence of the Northern Hemisphere Mid-high Latitudes on East Asian Climate: A Review
Jianping LI, Fei ZHENG, Cheng SUN, Juan FENG, Jing WANG
2019, 36(9): 902-921. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8236-5
This paper reviews recent progress made by Chinese scientists on the pathways of influence of the Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes on East Asian climate within the framework of a "coupled oceanic-atmospheric (land-atmospheric or sea-ice-atmospheric) bridge" and "chain coupled bridge". Four major categories of pathways are concentrated upon, as follows: Pathway A——from North Atlantic to East Asia; Pathway B——from the North Pacific to East Asia; Pathway C——from the Arctic to East Asia; and Pathway D——the synergistic effects of the mid-high latitudes and tropics. In addition, definitions of the terms "combined effect", "synergistic effect" and "antagonistic effect" of two or more factors of influence or processes and their criteria are introduced, so as to objectively investigate those effects in future research.
Progress in Semi-arid Climate Change Studies in China
Jianping HUANG, Jieru MA, Xiaodan GUAN, Yue LI, Yongli HE
2019, 36(9): 922-937. doi: 10.1007/s00376-018-8200-9
This article reviews recent progress in semi-arid climate change research in China. Results indicate that the areas of semi-arid regions have increased rapidly during recent years in China, with an increase of 33% during 1994-2008 compared to 1948-62. Studies have found that the expansion rate of semi-arid areas over China is nearly 10 times higher than that of arid and sub-humid areas, and is mainly transformed from sub-humid/humid regions. Meanwhile, the greatest warming during the past 100 years has been observed over semi-arid regions in China, and mainly induced by radiatively forced processes. The intensity of the regional temperature response over semi-arid regions has been amplified by land-atmosphere interactions and human activities. The decadal climate variation in semi-arid regions is modulated by oceanic oscillations, which induce land-sea and north-south thermal contrasts and affect the intensities of westerlies, planetary waves and blocking frequencies. In addition, the drier climates in semi-arid regions across China are also associated with the weakened East Asian summer monsoon in recent years. Moreover, dust aerosols in semi-arid regions may have altered precipitation by affecting the local energy and hydrological cycles. Finally, semi-arid regions in China are projected to continuously expand in the 21st century, which will increase the risk of desertification in the near future.
Recent Progress in Numerical Atmospheric Modeling in China
Rucong YU, Yi ZHANG, Jianjie WANG, Jian LI, Haoming CHEN, Jiandong GONG, Jing CHEN
2019, 36(9): 938-960. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8203-1
This review summarizes the scientific and technical progress in atmospheric modeling in China since 2011, including the dynamical core, model physics, data assimilation, ensemble forecasting, and model evaluation strategies. In terms of the dynamical core, important efforts have been made in the improvement of the existing model formulations and in exploring new modeling approaches that can better adapt to massively parallel computers and global multiscale modeling. With regard to model physics, various achievements in physical representations have been made, especially a trend toward scale-aware parameterization for accommodating the increase of model resolution. In the field of data assimilation, a 4D-Var system has been developed and is operationally used by the National Meteorological Center of China, and its performance is promising. Furthermore, ensemble forecasting has played a more important role in operational forecast systems and progressed in many fundamental techniques. Model evaluation strategies, including key performance metrics and standardized experimental protocols, have been proposed and widely applied to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the systems, offering key routes for model improvement. The paper concludes with a concise summary of the status quo and a brief outlook in terms of future development.
Recent Progress in Dual-Polarization Radar Research and Applications in China
Kun ZHAO, Hao HUANG, Mingjun WANG, Wen-Chau LEE, Gang CHEN, Long WEN, Jing WEN, Guifu ZHANG, Ming XUE, Zhengwei YANG, Liping LIU, Chong WU, Zhiqun HU, Sheng CHEN
2019, 36(9): 961-974. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9057-2
Dual-polarization (dual-pol) radar can measure additional parameters that provide more microphysical information of precipitation systems than those provided by conventional Doppler radar. The dual-pol parameters have been successfully utilized to investigate precipitation microphysics and improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The recent progress in dual-pol radar research and applications in China is summarized in four aspects. Firstly, the characteristics of several representative dual-pol radars are reviewed. Various approaches have been developed for radar data quality control, including calibration, attenuation correction, calculation of specific differential phase shift, and identification and removal of non-meteorological echoes. Using dual-pol radar measurements, the microphysical characteristics derived from raindrop size distribution retrieval, hydrometeor classification, and QPE is better understood in China. The limited number of studies in China that have sought to use dual-pol radar data to validate the microphysical parameterization and initialization of numerical models and assimilate dual-pol data into numerical models are summarized. The challenges of applying dual-pol data in numerical models and emerging technologies that may make significant impacts on the field of radar meteorology are discussed.
Interannual and Decadal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone in China and the Associated Chemistry-Climate Interactions: A Review
Yu FU, Hong LIAO, Yang YANG
2019, 36(9): 975-993. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8216-9
China has been experiencing widespread air pollution due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in recent decades. The two major concerns of ambient air quality in China are particulate matter (PM) and tropospheric ozone (O3). With the implementation of air pollution prevention and control actions in the last five years, the PM pollution in China has been substantially reduced. In contrast, under the conditions of the urban air pollution complex, the elevated O3 levels in city clusters of eastern China, especially in warm seasons, have drawn increasing attention. Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors not only contribute to regional air quality, but also alter climate. Climate change in turn can change chemical processes, long-range transport, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. Compared to PM, less is known about O3 pollution and its climate effects over China. Here, we present a review of the main findings from the literature over the period 2011-18 with regard to the characteristics of O3 concentrations in China and the mechanisms that drive its interannual to decadal variations, aiming to identify robust conclusions that may guide decision-making for emissions control and to highlight critical knowledge gaps. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated the impacts of tropospheric O3 on climate, as well as the projections of future tropospheric O3 owing to climate and/or emission changes.
A Review of Atmospheric Electricity Research in China from 2011 to 2018
Xiushu QIE, Yijun ZHANG
2019, 36(9): 994-1014. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8195-x
Atmospheric electricity research has been conducted actively in China, having profited from the development and application of high temporal and spatial resolution lightning detection and location technologies. This paper reviews the scientific advances made in the field of atmospheric electricity in China from 2011 to 2018, covering the following five aspects: (1) lightning detection and location techniques; (2) discharge processes and parameters associated with rocket-triggered lightning; (3) physical processes in natural lightning and attachment to the ground; (4) lightning activities and charge structure in different thunderstorms; and (5) effects of thunderstorms on the upper atmosphere. In addition, some outstanding questions for future research are outlined.
Recent Progress of Aerosol Light-scattering Enhancement Factor Studies in China
Chunsheng ZHAO, Yingli YU, Ye KUANG, Jiangchuan TAO, Gang ZHAO
2019, 36(9): 1015-1026. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8248-1
Assessment of the radiative forcing of aerosols in models still lacks sufficient input data for aerosol hygroscopicity. The light scattering enhancement factor [f( RH,Λ)] is a crucial parameter for describing aerosol hygroscopic growth properties. In this paper, we provide a survey of f( RH,Λ) studies in China for the past seven years, including instrument developments of humidified nephelometers, ambient f( RH,Λ) measurements in China, f( RH,Λ) parameterization schemes, and f( RH,Λ) applications in aerosol measurements. Comparisons of different f( RH,Λ) parameterizations are carried out to check their performance in China using field measurement datasets. We also summary the parameterization schemes for predicting f( RH,Λ) with aerosol chemical compositions. The recently developed methods to observe other aerosol properties using f( RH,Λ) measurements, such as calculating the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, aerosol liquid water content, and aerosol asymmetry factor, are introduced. Suggestions for further research on f( RH,Λ) in China are given.
Latest Progress of the Chinese Meteorological Satellite Program and Core Data Processing Technologies
Peng ZHANG, Qifeng LU, Xiuqing HU, Songyan GU, Lei YANG, Min MIN, Lin CHEN, Na XU, Ling Sun, Wenguang BAI, Gang MA, Di XIAN
2019, 36(9): 1027-1045. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8215-x
In this paper, the latest progress, major achievements and future plans of Chinese meteorological satellites and the core data processing techniques are discussed. First, the latest three FengYun (FY) meteorological satellites (FY-2H, FY-3D, and FY-4A) and their primary objectives are introduced. Second, the core image navigation techniques and accuracies of the FY meteorological satellites are elaborated, including the latest geostationary (FY-2/4) and polar-orbit (FY-3) satellites. Third, the radiometric calibration techniques and accuracies of reflective solar bands, thermal infrared bands, and passive microwave bands for FY meteorological satellites are discussed. It also illustrates the latest progress of real-time calibration with the onboard calibration system and validation with different methods, including the vicarious China radiance calibration site calibration, pseudo invariant calibration site calibration, deep convective clouds calibration, and lunar calibration. Fourth, recent progress of meteorological satellite data assimilation applications and quantitative science produce are summarized at length. The main progress is in meteorological satellite data assimilation by using microwave and hyper-spectral infrared sensors in global and regional numerical weather prediction models. Lastly, the latest progress in radiative transfer, absorption and scattering calculations for satellite remote sensing is summarized, and some important research using a new radiative transfer model are illustrated.