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2024 Vol. 41, No. 3

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Original Paper
The First Global Map of Atmospheric Ammonia (NH3) as Observed by the HIRAS/FY-3D Satellite
Minqiang ZHOU, Zhili DENG, Charles ROBERT, Xingying ZHANG, Lu ZHANG, Yapeng WANG, Chengli QI, Pucai WANG, Martine De MAZIÈRE
2024, 41(3): 379-390. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3059-9
Abstract:
Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a chemically active trace gas that plays an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate change. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful technique to monitor NH3 concentration based on the absorption lines of NH3 in the thermal infrared region. In this study, we establish a retrieval algorithm to derive the NH3 column from the Hyperspectral Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (HIRAS) onboard the Chinese FengYun (FY)-3D satellite and present the first atmospheric NH3 column global map observed by the HIRAS instrument. The HIRAS observations can well capture NH3 hotspots around the world, e.g., India, West Africa, and East China, where large NH3 emissions exist. The HIRAS NH3 columns are also compared to the space-based Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements, and we find that the two instruments observe a consistent NH3 global distribution, with correlation coefficient (R) values of 0.28–0.73. Finally, some remaining issues about the HIRAS NH3 retrieval are discussed.
Comparison of the Minimum Bounding Rectangle and Minimum Circumscribed Ellipse of Rain Cells from TRMM
Hongke CAI, Yaqin MAO, Xuanhao ZHU, Yunfei FU, Renjun ZHOU
2024, 41(3): 391-406. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-2281-9
Abstract:
Based on the TRMM dataset, this paper compares the applicability of the improved MCE (minimum circumscribed ellipse), MBR (minimum bounding rectangle), and DIA (direct indexing area) methods for rain cell fitting. These three methods can reflect the geometric characteristics of clouds and apply geometric parameters to estimate the real dimensions of rain cells. The MCE method shows a major advantage in identifying the circumference of rain cells. The circumference of rain cells identified by MCE in most samples is smaller than that identified by DIA and MBR, and more similar to the observed rain cells. The area of rain cells identified by MBR is relatively robust. For rain cells composed of many pixels (N > 20), the overall performance is better than that of MCE, but the contribution of MBR to the best identification results, which have the shortest circumference and the smallest area, is less than that of MCE. The DIA method is best suited to small rain cells with a circumference of less than 100 km and an area of less than 120 km2, but the overall performance is mediocre. The MCE method tends to achieve the highest success at any angle, whereas there are fewer “best identification” results from DIA or MBR and more of the worst ones in the along-track direction and cross-track direction. Through this comprehensive comparison, we conclude that MCE can obtain the best fitting results with the shortest circumference and the smallest area on behalf of the high filling effect for all sizes of rain cells.
Cloud-Type-Dependent 1DVAR Algorithm for Retrieving Hydrometeors and Precipitation in Tropical Cyclone Nanmadol from GMI Data
Linjun HAN, Fuzhong WENG, Hao HU, Xiuqing HU
2024, 41(3): 407-419. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3084-8
Abstract:
Understanding the structure of tropical cyclone (TC) hydrometeors is crucial for detecting the changes in the distribution and intensity of precipitation. In this study, the GMI brightness temperature and cloud-dependent 1DVAR algorithm were used to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles and surface rain rate of TC Nanmadol (2022). The Advanced Radiative Transfer Modeling System (ARMS) was used to calculate the Jacobian and degrees of freedom (∆DOF) of cloud water, rainwater, and graupel for different channels of GMI in convective conditions. The retrieval results were compared with the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), GMI 2A, and IMERG products. It is shown that from all channels of GMI, rain water has the highest ∆DOF, at 1.72. According to the radiance Jacobian to atmospheric state variables, cloud water emission dominates its scattering. For rain water, the emission of channels 1–4 dominates scattering. Compared with the GMI 2A precipitation product, the 1DVAR precipitation rate has a higher correlation coefficient (0.713) with the IMERG product and can better reflect the location of TC precipitation. Near the TC eyewall, the highest radar echo top indicates strong convection. Near the melting layer where Ka-band attenuation is strong, the double frequency difference of DPR data reflects the location of the melting. The DPR drop size distribution (DSD) product shows that there is a significant increase in particle size below the melting layer in the spiral rain band. Thus, the particle size may be one of the main reasons for the smaller rain water below the melting layer retrieved from 1DVAR.
Assessment of Crop Yield in China Simulated by Thirteen Global Gridded Crop Models
Dezhen YIN, Fang LI, Yaqiong LU, Xiaodong ZENG, Zhongda LIN, Yanqing ZHOU
2024, 41(3): 420-434. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-2234-3
Abstract:
Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) have been broadly applied to assess the impacts of climate and environmental change and adaptation on agricultural production. China is a major grain producing country, but thus far only a few studies have assessed the performance of GGCMs in China, and these studies mainly focused on the average and interannual variability of national and regional yields. Here, a systematic national- and provincial-scale evaluation of the simulations by 13 GGCMs [12 from the GGCM Intercomparison (GGCMI) project, phase 1, and CLM5-crop] of the yields of four crops (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) in China during 1980–2009 was carried out through comparison with crop yield statistics collected from the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Results showed that GGCMI models generally underestimate the national yield of rice but overestimate it for the other three crops, while CLM5-crop can reproduce the national yields of wheat, maize, and rice well. Most GGCMs struggle to simulate the spatial patterns of crop yields. In terms of temporal variability, GGCMI models generally fail to capture the observed significant increases, but some can skillfully simulate the interannual variability. Conversely, CLM5-crop can represent the increases in wheat, maize, and rice, but works less well in simulating the interannual variability. At least one model can skillfully reproduce the temporal variability of yields in the top-10 producing provinces in China, albeit with a few exceptions. This study, for the first time, provides a complete picture of GGCM performance in China, which is important for GGCM development and understanding the reliability and uncertainty of national- and provincial-scale crop yield prediction in China.
A Study on the Assessment and Integration of Multi-Source Evapotranspiration Products over the Tibetan Plateau
Ming CHENG, Lei ZHONG, Yaoming MA, Han MA, Yaoxin CHANG, Peizhen LI, Meilin CHENG, Xian WANG, Nan GE
2024, 41(3): 435-448. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3036-3
Abstract:
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a crucial variable in the terrestrial water, carbon, and energy cycles. At present, a large number of multisource ET products exist. Due to sparse observations, however, great challenges exist in the evaluation and integration of ET products in remote and complex areas such as the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this paper, the applicability of the multiple collocation (MC) method over the TP is evaluated for the first time, and the uncertainty of multisource ET products (based on reanalysis, remote sensing, and land surface models) is further analyzed, which provides a theoretical basis for ET data fusion. The results show that 1) ET uncertainties quantified via the MC method are lower in RS-based ET products (5.95 vs. 7.06 mm month–1) than in LSM ET products (10.22 vs. 17.97 mm month–1) and reanalysis ET estimates (7.27 vs. 12.26 mm month–1). 2) A multisource evapotranspiration (MET) dataset is generated at a monthly temporal scale with a spatial resolution of 0.25° across the TP during 2005–15. MET has better performance than any individual product. 3) Based on the fusion product, the total ET amount over the TP and its patterns of spatiotemporal variability are clearly identified. The annual total ET over the entire TP is approximately 380.60 mm. Additionally, an increasing trend of 1.59±0.85 mm yr–1 over the TP is shown during 2005–15. This study provides a basis for future studies on water and energy cycles and water resource management over the TP and surrounding regions.
Downscaling Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts over East Africa with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Temesgen Gebremariam ASFAW, Jing-Jia LUO
2024, 41(3): 449-464. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3029-2
Abstract:
This study assesses the suitability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for downscaling precipitation over East Africa in the context of seasonal forecasting. To achieve this, we design a set of experiments that compare different CNN configurations and deployed the best-performing architecture to downscale one-month lead seasonal forecasts of June–July–August–September (JJAS) precipitation from the Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology Climate Forecast System version 1.0 (NUIST-CFS1.0) for 1982–2020. We also perform hyper-parameter optimization and introduce predictors over a larger area to include information about the main large-scale circulations that drive precipitation over the East Africa region, which improves the downscaling results. Finally, we validate the raw model and downscaled forecasts in terms of both deterministic and probabilistic verification metrics, as well as their ability to reproduce the observed precipitation extreme and spell indicator indices. The results show that the CNN-based downscaling consistently improves the raw model forecasts, with lower bias and more accurate representations of the observed mean and extreme precipitation spatial patterns. Besides, CNN-based downscaling yields a much more accurate forecast of extreme and spell indicators and reduces the significant relative biases exhibited by the raw model predictions. Moreover, our results show that CNN-based downscaling yields better skill scores than the raw model forecasts over most portions of East Africa. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of CNN in downscaling seasonal precipitation predictions over East Africa, particularly in providing improved forecast products which are essential for end users.
Seasonal Variation of the Sea Surface Temperature Growth Rate of ENSO
Xinyi XING, Xianghui FANG, Da PANG, Chaopeng JI
2024, 41(3): 465-477. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3005-x
Abstract:
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) exhibits a distinctive phase-locking characteristic, first expressed during its onset in boreal spring, developing during summer and autumn, reaching its peak towards winter, and decaying over the next spring. Several studies have demonstrated that this feature arises as a result of seasonal variation in the growth rate of ENSO as expressed by the sea surface temperature (SST). The bias towards simulating the phase locking of ENSO by many state-of-the-art climate models is also attributed to the unrealistic depiction of the growth rate. In this study, the seasonal variation of SST growth rate in the Niño-3.4 region (5°S–5°N, 120°–170°W) is estimated in detail based on the mixed layer heat budget equation and recharge oscillator model during 1981–2020. It is suggested that the consideration of a variable mixed layer depth is essential to its diagnostic process. The estimated growth rate has a remarkable seasonal cycle with minimum rates occurring in spring and maximum rates evident in autumn. More specifically, the growth rate derived from the meridional advection (surface heat flux) is positive (negative) throughout the year. Vertical diffusion generally makes a negative contribution to the evolution of growth rate and the magnitude of vertical entrainment represents the smallest contributor. Analysis indicates that the zonal advective feedback is regulated by the meridional immigration of the intertropical convergence zone, which approaches its southernmost extent in February and progresses to its northernmost location in September, and dominates the seasonal variation of the SST growth rate.
The Persistence and Zonal Scale of Atmospheric Dipolar Modes
Jie SONG
2024, 41(3): 478-492. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3023-8
Abstract:
This study investigates the relationship between the persistence and the zonal scale of atmospheric dipolar modes (DMs). Results from the daily data of ERA5 and the long-term output of an idealized atmospheric model show that the atmospheric DMs with a broader (narrower) zonal scale dipolar structure possess a longer (shorter) persistence. A detailed vorticity budget analysis indicates that the persistence of a hemispheric-scale DM (1/1 DM) and a regional or sectoral DM (1/8 DM) in the model both largely rely on the persistence of the nonlinear eddy forcing. Linear terms can indirectly reduce the persistence of the anomalous nonlinear eddy forcing in a 1/8 DM by modifying the baroclinicity via the arousal of anomalous vertical motions. Therefore, the atmospheric DMs with a broader (narrower) zonal scale possess a longer (shorter) persistence because the effects of the linear terms are less (more) pronounced when the atmospheric DMs have better (worse) zonal symmetry. Further analyses show that the positive eddy feedback effect is weak or even absent in a 1/8 DM and the high-frequency eddy forcing acts more like a concomitant phenomenon rather than a leading driving factor for a 1/8 DM. Thus, the hemispheric-scale DM and the regional or sectoral DMs are different, not only in their persistence but also in their dynamics.
A Long-Time-Step-Permitting Tracer Transport Model on the Regular Latitude–Longitude Grid
Jianghao LI, Li DONG
2024, 41(3): 493-508. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-2270-z
Abstract:
If an explicit time scheme is used in a numerical model, the size of the integration time step is typically limited by the spatial resolution. This study develops a regular latitude–longitude grid-based global three-dimensional tracer transport model that is computationally stable at large time-step sizes. The tracer model employs a finite-volume flux-form semi-Lagrangian transport scheme in the horizontal and an adaptively implicit algorithm in the vertical. The horizontal and vertical solvers are coupled via a straightforward operator-splitting technique. Both the finite-volume scheme’s one-dimensional slope-limiter and the adaptively implicit vertical solver’s first-order upwind scheme enforce monotonicity. The tracer model permits a large time-step size and is inherently conservative and monotonic. Idealized advection test cases demonstrate that the three-dimensional transport model performs very well in terms of accuracy, stability, and efficiency. It is possible to use this robust transport model in a global atmospheric dynamical core.
Frontogenesis and Frontolysis of a Cold Filament Driven by the Cross-Filament Wind and Wave Fields Simulated by a Large Eddy Simulation
Guojing LI, Dongxiao WANG, Changming DONG, Jiayi PAN, Yeqiang SHU, Zhenqiu ZHANG
2024, 41(3): 509-528. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3037-2
Abstract:
The variations of the frontogenetic trend of a cold filament induced by the cross-filament wind and wave fields are studied by a non-hydrostatic large eddy simulation. Five cases with different strengths of wind and wave fields are studied. The results show that the intense wind and wave fields further break the symmetries of submesoscale flow fields and suppress the levels of filament frontogenesis. The changes of secondary circulation directions—that is, the conversion between the convergence and divergence of the surface cross-filament currents with the downwelling and upwelling jets in the filament center—are associated with the inertial oscillation. The filament frontogenesis and frontolysis caused by the changes of secondary circulation directions may periodically sharpen and smooth the gradient of submesoscale flow fields. The lifecycle of the cold filament may include multiple stages of filament frontogenesis and frontolysis.
Aircraft Observation and Simulation of the Supercooled Liquid Water Layer in a Warm Conveyor Belt over North China
Jiefan YANG, Fei YAN, Hengchi LEI, Shuo JIA, Xiaobo DONG, Xiangfeng HU
2024, 41(3): 529-544. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3068-8
Abstract:
This paper studied a snow event over North China on 21 February 2017, using aircraft in-situ data, a Lagrangian analysis tool, and WRF simulations with different microphysical schemes to investigate the supercooled layer of warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Based on the aircraft data, we found a fine vertical structure within clouds in the WCB and highlighted a 1−2 km thin supercooled liquid water layer with a maximum Liquid Water Content (LWC) exceeding 0.5 g kg–1 during the vertical aircraft observation. Although the main features of thermodynamic profiles were essentially captured by both modeling schemes, the microphysical quantities exhibited large diversity with different microphysics schemes. The conventional Morrison two-moment scheme showed remarkable agreement with in-situ observations, both in terms of the thermodynamic structure and the supercooled liquid water layer. However, the microphysical structure of the WCB clouds, in terms of LWC and IWC, was not apparent in HUJI fast bin scheme. To reduce such uncertainty, future work may focus on improving the representation of microphysics in bin schemes with in-situ data and using similar assumptions for all schemes to isolate the impact of physics.
An Initial Perturbation Method for the Multiscale Singular Vector in Global Ensemble Prediction
Xin LIU, Jing CHEN, Yongzhu LIU, Zhenhua HUO, Zhizhen XU, Fajing CHEN, Jing WANG, Yanan MA, Yumeng HAN
2024, 41(3): 545-563. doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3035-4
Abstract:
Ensemble prediction is widely used to represent the uncertainty of single deterministic Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) caused by errors in initial conditions (ICs). The traditional Singular Vector (SV) initial perturbation method tends only to capture synoptic scale initial uncertainty rather than mesoscale uncertainty in global ensemble prediction. To address this issue, a multiscale SV initial perturbation method based on the China Meteorological Administration Global Ensemble Prediction System (CMA-GEPS) is proposed to quantify multiscale initial uncertainty. The multiscale SV initial perturbation approach entails calculating multiscale SVs at different resolutions with multiple linearized physical processes to capture fast-growing perturbations from mesoscale to synoptic scale in target areas and combining these SVs by using a Gaussian sampling method with amplitude coefficients to generate initial perturbations. Following that, the energy norm, energy spectrum, and structure of multiscale SVs and their impact on GEPS are analyzed based on a batch experiment in different seasons. The results show that the multiscale SV initial perturbations can possess more energy and capture more mesoscale uncertainties than the traditional single-SV method. Meanwhile, multiscale SV initial perturbations can reflect the strongest dynamical instability in target areas. Their performances in global ensemble prediction when compared to single-scale SVs are shown to (i) improve the relationship between the ensemble spread and the root-mean-square error and (ii) provide a better probability forecast skill for atmospheric circulation during the late forecast period and for short- to medium-range precipitation. This study provides scientific evidence and application foundations for the design and development of a multiscale SV initial perturbation method for the GEPS.