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1989 Vol. 6, No. 2

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Variational Principle of Instability of Atmospheric Motions
Zeng Qingcun
1989, 6(2): 137-172. doi: 10.1007/BF02658013
Problems of instability of rotating atmospheric motions are investigated by using nonlinear governing equations and the variational principle. The method suggested in this paper is universal for obtaining criteria of instability in all models with all possible basic flows. For example, the model can be barotropic or baroclinic, layer or continuous, quasi-geostrophic or primitive equations; the basic flow can be zonal or nonzonal, steady or unsteady.Although the basic flows possess a great deal of variety, they all are the stationary points in the functional space determined by an appropriate invariant functional. The basic flow is an unsteady one if the conservation of angular momentum is included in the associated functional.The second variation, linear or nonlinear, gives the criteria of instability. Especially, the general criteria of instability for unsteady basic flow, orographically disturbed flow as well as nongeostrophic flow are first obtained by the method described in this paper.It is also shown that the difference between the criteria of instability obtained by the linear theory and our variational principle clearly indicates the importance of using nonlinear governing equations.In the appendix the theory is extended to cases such as in a β-plane where the fluid does not possess finite total energy, hence the variational principle can not be directly applied. However, a generalized Liapounoff norm can still be obtained on the basis of variational consideration.
The Role of Topography and Diabatic Heating in the Formation of Dipole Blocking in the Atmosphere
Luo Dehai, Ji Liren
1989, 6(2): 173-185. doi: 10.1007/BF02658014
In this paper, the nonlinear stationary waves forced by topography and diabatic heating are investigated. It is pointed out that (1) the nonlinear interaction of different stationary waves forced only by topography might form dipole blocking in the atmosphere, this might explain the dipole blocking appeared in the Pacific and Atlantic regions; (2) the dipole blocking could not be caused by the nonlinear interaction of the different stationary waves forced by the diabatic heating alone; (3) the nonlinear interaction of the different stationary waves forced by both topography and diabatic heating could initiate dipole blocking in the atmosphere. In winter, the dipole blocking mainly occurs in the west regions of the Pacific and the Atlantic, and the heat source over the western part of the two oceans is advantageous to the formation of dipole blocking in the west of two oceans. However, in summer, the dipole blocking could be formed in the east part of the two oceans, and the heat source over the eastern part of two continents is favourable for the formation of dipole blocking in the east regions of two oceans.
Some Annual Variation Characteristics for the Northern Hemispheric Monthly Mean Precipitation Fields
Tang Maocang
1989, 6(2): 186-201. doi: 10.1007/BF02658015
By the utilization of monthly precipitation data from all stations in the Northern Hemisphere annexed to the “World Survey of climatology, Vol. 1-15, the distributions of the maximum precipitation months (MPM), the annual relative precipitation (ARP) and the monthly relative precipitation (percent of annual) in January and July are respectively mapped. Moreover the distributions of intermonthly relative precipitation variabilities from January to December are plotted as well. From these figures, the precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere may be classified into three types (continental, oceanic and transitional types) and 17 regions. The precipitation regime may also be divided into two patterns, the global and regional patterns. The global pattern consists of planetary front system and ITCZ and its inter-monthly variation shows the north-and-south shift of the rain belt; the regional pattern consists of the sea-land monsoon and plateau monsoon regime, in which the inter-monthly variation of rain belt shows a east- and-west shift.
Numerical Simulation of the Relationship between the Anomaly of Subtropical High over East Asia and the Convective Activities in the Western Tropical Pacific
Huang Ronghui, Lu Li
1989, 6(2): 202-214. doi: 10.1007/BF02658016
In this paper, a close relationship between the intraseasonal variation of subtropical high over East Asia and the convective activities around the South China Sea and the Philippines is analysed from OLR data.This relationship is studied by using the theory of wave propagating in a slowly varying medium and by using a quasi-geostrophic linear, spherical model and the IAP-GCM, respectively. The results show that when the SST is warming around the western tropical Pacific or the Philippines, the convective activities are intensified around the Philippines. As a consequence, the subtropical high will be intensified over East Asia. The computed results also show that when the anomaly of connective activities are caused around the Philippines, a teleconnection pattern of circulation anomalies will be caused over South Asia, East Asia and North America.
Climatic Study on the Summer Tropical Easterly Jet at 200 hPa
Lu Jingxi, Ding Yihui
1989, 6(2): 215-226. doi: 10.1007/BF02658017
The low latitude easterlies at 200 hPa in summer (May-October) is analysed climatically during the 13-year period from 1968 to 1980, with a special emphasis on the relationship between the anomalous tropical easterly jet stream over South Asia and the low latitude atmospheric circulation, and also the summer monsoon precipitation in India. The compositing analysis shows that the tropical easterly jet stream over South Asia has five anomalous patterns at 200 hPa i.e. the western pattern, middle pattern, eastern pattern, two-branch pattern and multi-core pattern. Evidence has shown that the precipitaion in India anomalously increased during the anomalous period of the western pattern and the middle pattern, but reverse case is true in the eastern pattern. Some different anomalies of the precipitation in different area of India were found during the other two anomalous pattern.
The Synoptic Climatology of Monthly Mean Surface Temperature in Asia in Relation to the 700 hPa Circulation
Runhua Yang, William H. Klein
1989, 6(2): 227-238. doi: 10.1007/BF02658018
The synoptic climatology of monthly mean surface air temperature anomaly (MMATA)at 47 surface stations in Asia is assessed by two types of maps. The first consists of simple linear correlation coefficients between the MMATA at a station and the monthly mean 700 hPa height anomaly (MMHA) at 134 grid points in the Northern Hemisphere. In winter, these fields generally contain two equally important centers: a center of maximum positive correlation approximately 1300 km from the reference station and a negative center about 2800 km to its northwest. In summer, the positive center is located an average of 800 km from the reference station and strongly dominates the MMATA, while the negative center is no longer as important as in winter. The second kind of map is a special type of anomaly composite, constructed by multiplying the correlation coefficient at each grid point by the standard deviation of MMHA at the same point. This map shows the optimum distribution of height anomalies for abnormally warm (or cold) weather for winter and summer in each of several climate-Logically similar regions into which Asia is subdivided.
Lunar Phases and Atmospheric Electric Field
Poonam Mehra
1989, 6(2): 239-246. doi: 10.1007/BF02658019
The association between the lunar phases and the atmospheric electric field has been investigated from the superposed epoch analysis of the lone series of continuous data of the vertical electric field for Colaba, Bombay (18o53’N, 73o48’E 11 mASL) for the period 1947-1966. Also the periodicities in the atmospheric electric field have been studied from the spectral analysis of the data. The study has indicated that when the full moon is within 4o of the ecliptic plane i. e., Bf 4o, the electric field peaks on the day of the full moon followed by a steep fall in the field val-ues up to 4 days following the full moon day and there after it showed a steep increase. Also, the electric field has exhibited 5-9 day periodicity and its multiples are nearly always present. The periodicity in the electric field corresponds with the average time interval between the successive magnetic sector boundary (MSB) crossings i.e., 7 days. On most of the occasions, the MSB crossing day is associated with a maximum of one or more of the wavelengths derived from the spectral analysis of the atmospheric electric field.
A Study of Supersaturation Spectra of Deposition Ice Nuclei
K. Hussain, A. Shaukat
1989, 6(2): 247-253. doi: 10.1007/BF02658020
Ice nuclei-supersaturation spectra in the form of a Power Law ( Ni=RSir; B and y are empirical constants) have been expressed since 1973 when the curve was first introduced independentally by Gagin and Huffman. Experiments performed with a thermal gradient diffusion chamber in order to investigate the validity of the power curve. The results show that a linear curve fit to the data is as good as the power curve. The linear curve has the coefficients of correlation between 0.75 and 0.93 whereas the power curve fit to the same data has the coefficients between 0.82 and 0.93. The data reported by other workers, Zamurs and Jiusto and Zamurs et al., exhibit the same trend.
Observation Research of the Turbulent Fluxes of Momentum, Sensible Heat and Latent Heat over the West Pacific Tropical Ocean Area
Qu Shaohou
1989, 6(2): 254-264. doi: 10.1007/BF02658021
This paper describes results of the fluxes of momentum , sensible heat and latent heat for the West Pacific Tropical Ocean Area ( 127 ° E - 150 ° E , 5 ° N -3 ° S ). The data were collected by the small tethered balloon sounding system over this ocean area including 6 continuous stations (140 ° E. 0 ° ; 145 ° E, 0 ° ; 150 ° E, 0 ° ; 140° E, 5 ° N; 145 ° E, 5° N and 150 ° E, 5 ° N) from 11 October to 15 December, 1986 . These fluxes were calculated by the semiempirical flux-profile relationships of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory using these observed data. The results show that for this tropical ocean area the drag coefficient CD is equal to (1.53 ± 0.25) × 10 3 and the daily mean latent flux Hl is greater than its daily mean sensible flux HV by a factor of about 9.