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2004 Vol. 21, No. 6

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Atmospheric and Coupled Model Intercomparison in Terms of Amplitude-Phase Characteristics of Surface Air Temperature Annual Cycle
Alexey V. ELISEEV, Igor I. MOKHOV, Konstantin G. RUBINSTEIN, Maria S. GUSEVA
2004, 21(6): 837-847. doi: 10.1007/BF02915586
A model intercomparison in terms of surface air temperature annual cycle ampitude-phase characteristics(SAT AC APC)is performed. The models included in the intercomparison belong to two groups:five atmospheric models with prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover and four coupled models forced by the atmospheric abundances of anthropogenic consituents (in total six coupled model simulations). Over land, the models, simulating higher than observed time averaged SAT,also tend to simulate smaller than observed amplitude of its annual and semiannual harmonics and (outside the Tropics laterthan-observed spring and autumn moments. The models with larger(smaller) time averaged amplitudes of annual and semiannual harmonics also tend to simulate larger(smaller)interannual standard deviations. Over the oceans, the coupled models with larger interannual standard deviations of annual mean SAT tend to simulate larger interannual standard deviations of both annual and semiannual SAT harmonics amplitudes. Most model errors are located in the belts 60°-70°N and 60°-70°S and over Antarctica. These errors are larger for those coupled models which do not employ dynamical modules for sea ice.No systematic differences are found in the simulated time averaged fields of the surface air temperature annual cycle characteristics for atmospheric models on one hand and for the coupled models on the other. But the coupled models generally simulate interannual variability of SAT AC APC better than the atmospheric models (which tend to underestimate it). For the coupled models, the results are not very sensitive to the choice of the particular scenario of anthropogenic forcing.There is a strong linear positive relationship between the model simulated time averaged semiannual SAT harmonics amplitude and interannual standard deviation of annual mean SAT.It is stronger over the tropical oceans and is weaker in the extratropics. In the tropical oceanic areas, it is stronger for the coupled than for the atmospheric models.
Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols over Lanzhou City and Applications Using an Integrating Nephelometer
ZHANG Wu, HU Bo, CHEN Changhe, DU Ping, ZHANG Lei, FENG Guanghong
2004, 21(6): 848-856. doi: 10.1007/BF02915587
The data, measured by a three-wavelength Integrating Nephelometer over Lanzhou City during the winters of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 respectively, have been analyzed for investigating the scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols and exploring their relationship and the status of air pollution. The aerosol particle volume distribution is inverted with the measured spectral scattering coefficients. The results show that the daily variation of the aerosol scattering coefficients is in a tri-peak shape. The average ratio of backscattering coefficient to total scattering coefficient at 550 nm is 0.158; there exists an excellent correlation between the scattering coefficients and the concentration of PM10. The average ratio of the concentration of PM10 to the scattering coefficients is 0.37 g m-2, which is contingent on the optical parameters of aerosol particles such as the size distribution, etc.; an algorithm is developed for inverting the volume distribution of aerosol particles by using the histogram and Monte-Carlo techniques, and the test results show that the inversion is reasonable.
Primary Reasoning behind the Double ITCZ Phenomenon in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model
LI Jianglong, ZHANG Xuehong, YU Yongqiang, DAI Fushan
2004, 21(6): 857-867. doi: 10.1007/BF02915588
This paper investigates the processes behind the double ITCZ phenomenon, a common problem in Coupled ocean-atmosphere General Circulation Models (CGCMs), using a CGCM-FGCM-0 (Flexible General Circulation Model, version 0). The double ITCZ mode develops rapidly during the first two years of the integration and becomes a perennial phenomenon afterwards in the model. By way of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) for SST, sea surface pressure, and sea surface wind, some air-sea interactions are analyzed. These interactions prompt the anomalous signals that appear at the beginning of the coupling to develop rapidly. There are two possible reasons, proved by sensitivity experiments: (1) the overestimated east-west gradient of SST in the equatorial Pacific in the ocean spin-up process, and (2) the underestimated amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast in CCM3 (the Community Climate Model, Version Three). The overestimated east-west gradient of SST brings the anomalous equatorial easterly. The anomalous easterly, affected by the Coriolis force in the Southern Hemisphere, turns into an anomalous westerly in a broad area south of the equator and is enhanced by atmospheric anomalous circulation due to the underestimated amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast simulated by CCM3. The anomalous westerly leads to anomalous warm advection that makes the SST warm in the southeast Pacific.The double ITCZ phenomenon in the CGCM is a result of a series of nonlocal and nonlinear adjustment processes in the coupled system, which can be traced to the uncoupled models, oceanic component, and atmospheric component. The zonal gradient of the equatorial SST is too large in the ocean component and the amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast is too low in the atmosphere component.
Effect of the Lower Boundary Position of the Fourier Equation on the Soil Energy Balance
SUN Shufen, ZHANG Xia
2004, 21(6): 868-878. doi: 10.1007/BF02915589
In this study, the effect of the lower boundary position selection for the Fourier equation on heat transfer and energy balance in soil is evaluated. A detailed numerical study shows that the proper position of the lower boundary is critical when solving the Fourier equation by using zero heat flux as the lower boundary condition. Since the position defines the capacity of soil as a heat sink or source, which absorbs and stores radiation energy from the sky in summer and then releases the energy to the atmosphere in winter, and regulates the deep soil temperature distribution, the depth of the position greatly influences the heat balance within the soil as well as the interaction between the soil and the atmosphere. Based on physical reasoning and the results of numerical simulation, the proper depth of the position should be equal to approximately 3 times of the annual heat wave damping depth. For most soils, the proper lower boundary depth for the Fourier equation should be around 8 m to 15 m, depending on soil texture.
Simulation of Asian Monsoon Seasonal Variations with Climate Model R42L9/LASG
WANG Zaizhi, WU Guoxiong, WU Tongwen, YU Rucong
2004, 21(6): 879-889. doi: 10.1007/BF02915590
The seasonal variations of the Asian monsoon were explored by applying the atmospheric general circulation model R42L9 that was developed recently at the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (LASG/IAP/CAS). The 20-yr (1979-1998) simulation was done using the prescribed20-yr monthly SST and sea-ice data as required by Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)Ⅱ in the model. The monthly precipitation and monsoon circulations were analyzed and compared with the observations to validate the model's performance in simulating the climatological mean and seasonal variations of the Asian monsoon. The results show that the model can capture the main features of the spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of precipitation in the Indian and East Asian monsoon areas. The model also reproduced the basic patterns of monsoon circulation. However, some biases exist in this model. The simulation of the heating over the Tibetan Plateau in summer was too strong. The overestimated heating caused a stronger East Asian monsoon and a weaker Indian monsoon than the observations. In the circulation fields, the South Asia high was stronger and located over the Tibetan Plateau. The western Pacific subtropical high was extended westward, which is in accordance with the observational results when the heating over the Tibetan Plateau is stronger. Consequently, the simulated rainfall around this area and in northwest China was heavier than in observations, but in the Indian monsoon area and west Pacific the rainfall was somewhat deficient.
A Miniature Robotic Plane Meteorological Sounding System
MA Shuqing, CHEN Hongbin, WANG Gai, PAN Yi, LI Qiang
2004, 21(6): 890-896. doi: 10.1007/BF02915591
This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.
Connections between Surface Sensible Heat Net Flux and Regional Summer Precipitation over China
TANG Yanbing
2004, 21(6): 897-908. doi: 10.1007/BF02915592
Using the observed monthly precipitation and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction)reanalysis surface flux data from 1951-2000, the connections between the seasonal SSHNF (Surface Sensible Heat Net Flux) over the Asian continent and the regional summer precipitation of China were examined.The patterns of collective and individual correlations were identified. The results indicate that the response of the regional summer precipitation of China to the seasonal SSHNF over the study area varies according to region and season. The interannual variability of summer precipitation anomalies over Xinjiang, the northernmost Northeast China, and the North China Plain are most sensitive to the anomaly of the seasonal SSHNF. There are significant collective correlations between the interannual anomalies of the seasonal SSHNF and summer precipitation over these regions. In contrast, the Southeast Tibetan Plateau,Huaihe River Valley, and surrounding areas exhibit the least significant correlation. Significant individual correlations exist between the summer precipitation over the southernmost Northeast China, East Inner Mongolia, South of the Yangtze River and South China and the seasonal SSHNF in certain seasons over the following areas: near Lake Baikal and Lake Balkhash, near Da Hinggan Mountains and Xiao Hinggan Mountains, as well as the Tibetan Plateau.
A Mesoscale Analysis of Heavy Rain Caused by Frontal and Topographical Heterogeneities on Taiwan Island
JING Li, LU Hancheng, WANG Hanjie, ZHU Min, KOU Zheng
2004, 21(6): 909-922. doi: 10.1007/BF02663597
The prevailing mesoscale model MM5 (V3) is used to simulate a heavy rain case caused by interaction between a move-in front and topographical heterogeneities on Taiwan Island. It is found that both thermodynamic and dynamic fields along the front are heterogeneous in time and space. The heterogeneity becomes more significant as the effect of topography is added on. The heterogeneous distribution of physical variables along the front is the main reason for the heterogeneous frontal rain band; the optimum cooperation of the low level and upper level jet is another reason for the development of the rain band.Topography can strengthen the rainfall and causes extremely heavy rain cells. Updraft induced by topography extends to a rather low level, while the uplifted air by frontal circulation can reach to higher levels.The quasi-steady topographic circulation overlaps the frontal circulation when the front moves over Taiwan Island; the advantageous cooperation of various mesoscale conditions causes the large upward velocity on the windward side of the island.
Impacts of Cloud-Induced Mass Forcing on the Development of Moist Potential Vorticity Anomaly During Torrential Rains
GAO Shouting, ZHOU Yushu, CUI Xiaopeng, DAI Guoping
2004, 21(6): 923-927. doi: 10.1007/BF02915594
The impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of the moist potential vorticity (MPV)anomaly associated with torrential rains are investigated by using NCEP/NCAR 1°× 1° data. The MPV tendency equation with the cloud-induced mass forcing is derived, and applied to the torrential rain event over the Changjiang River-Huaihe River Valleys during 26-30 June 1999. The result shows that positive anomalies are located mainly between 850 hPa and 500 hPa, while the maximum MPV, maximum positive tendency of the MPV, and maximum surface rainfall are nearly collocated. The cloud-induced mass forcing contributes to the positive tendency of the moist potential vorticity anomaly. The results indicate that the MPV may be used to track the propagation of rain systems for operational applications.
Vorticity Budget Investigation of a Simulated Long-Lived Mesoscale Vortex in South China
CHEN Min, ZHENG Yongguang
2004, 21(6): 928-940. doi: 10.1007/BF02915595
A vorticity budget investigation is performed using the output data from a numerical simulation of a typical MCV (mesoscale convectively generated votex) case in South China. Results suggest that the divergence caused by convection in the low troposphere is the main producer of positive vorticity, while vertical vorticity transferred by the tilting term from the horizontal vorticity compensates the upward output of cyclonic vorticity. Scale analyses of the vorticity equation suggest that the advection of planetary vorticity can be neglected owing to the low latitude, which is different from the larger scale systems in high latitude areas. In addition, the distribution of relative vorticity tendency on pressure level is not uniform. A vortex will move along the vector from the negative to the positive vorticity tendency region. The mechanism of the phenomenon-that nearly all of the convectively ascending region is located southward/southeastward of the vortex center-is also discussed. Convergence with regard to latent heat release would be in favor of the spin-up of meso-vortex, however, the horizontal vorticity caused by wind shear is tilted by vertical motion due to convection. Consequently, the negative and positive vorticity tendencies are located symmetrically about the convective center, which suggests that the vortex southward movement is dynamically driven by convection.
Assessment of Several Moist Adiabatic Processes Associated with Convective Energy Calculation
LI Yaodong, GAO Shouting, LIU Jianwen
2004, 21(6): 941-950. doi: 10.1007/BF02915596
Several methods dealing with the moist adiabatic process are described in this paper. They are based on static energy conservation, pseudo-equivalent potential temperature conservation, the strict pseudoadiabatic equation, and the reversible moist adiabatic process, respectively. Convective energy parameters, which are closely related to the moist adiabatic process and which reflect the gravitational effects of condensed liquid water, are reintroduced or defined, including MCAPE [Modified-CAPE (convective available potential energy)], DCAPE (Downdraft-CAPE), and MDCAPE (Modified-Downdraft-CAPE). Two real case analyses with special attention given to condensed liquid water show that the selection of moist adiabatic process does affect the calculated results of CAPE and the gravitational effects of condensed liquid water are not negligible in severe storms. Intercomparisons of these methods show that static energy conservation is consistent with pseudo-equivalent potential temperature conservation not only in physical properties but also in calculated results, and both are good approximations to the strict pseudo-adiabatic equation. The lapse rate linked with the reversible moist adiabatic process is relatively smaller than that linked with other moist adiabatic processes, especially when considering solidification of liquid water in the reversible adiabatic process.
The Structure and Rainfall Features of Tropical Cyclone Rammasun (2002)
MA Leiming, DUAN Yihong, ZHU Yongti
2004, 21(6): 951-963. doi: 10.1007/BF02915597
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data [TRMM Microwave Imager/Precipitation Radar/Visible and Infrared Scanner (TMI/PR/VIRS)] and a numerical model are used to investigate the structure and rainfall features of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Rammasun (2002). Based on the analysis of TRMM data, which are diagnosed together with NCEP/AVN [Aviation (global model)] analysis data,some typical features of TC structure and rainfall are preliminary discovered. Since the limitations of TRMM data are considered for their time resolution and coverage, the world observed by TRMM at several moments cannot be taken as the representation of the whole period of the TC lifecycle, therefore the picture should be reproduced by a numerical model of high quality. To better understand the structure and rainfall features of TC Rammasun, a numerical simulation is carried out with mesoscale model MM5in which the validations have been made with the data of TRMM and NCEP/AVN analysis.
A Modeling Study of the Effects of Anomalous Snow Cover over the Tibetan Plateau upon the South Asian Summer Monsoon
LIU Huaqiang, SUN Zhaobo, WANG Ju, MIN Jinzhong
2004, 21(6): 964-975. doi: 10.1007/BF02915598
The effect of anomalous snow cover over the Tibetan Plateau upon the South Asian summer monsoon is investigated by numerical simulations using the NCAR regional climate model (RegCM2) into which gravity wave drag has been introduced. The simulations adopt relatively realistic snow mass forcings based on Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) pentad snow depth data. The physical mechanism and spatial structure of the sensitivity of the South Asian early summer monsoon to snow cover anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau are revealed. The main results are summarized as follows. The heavier than normal snow cover over the Plateau can obviously reduce the shortwave radiation absorbed by surface through the albedo effect, which is compensated by weaker upward sensible heat flux associated with colder surface temperature, whereas the effects of snow melting and evaporation are relatively smaller.The anomalies of surface heat fluxes can last until June and become unobvions in July. The decrease of the Plateau surface temperature caused by heavier snow cover reaches its maximum value from late April to early May. The atmospheric cooling in the mid-upper troposphere over the Plateau and its surrounding areas is most obvious in May and can keep a fairly strong intensity in June. In contrast, there is warming to the south of the Plateau in the mid-lower troposphere from April to June with a maximum value in May.The heavier snow cover over the Plateau can reduce the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon and rainfall to some extent, but this influence is only obvious in early summer and almost disappears in later stages.
A Diagnostic Study of Record Heavy Rain in Twin Cities Islāmābad-Rāwalpindi
Ghulam RASUL, Qamar-uz-Zaman CHAUDHRY, ZHAO Sixiong, ZENG Qingcun
2004, 21(6): 976-988. doi: 10.1007/BF02915599
Using surface and NCEP reanalysis data along with radar and satellite images, diagnosis has been July 2001. It has been revealed that the sudden evolution of this meso-scale severe weather system was the direct result of strong surface convection in moist and unstable lower layers of the atmosphere. The subsequent rapid development was the combined effect of the presence of the mid latitude westerly's trough in the north and moisture feeding through monsoon flow along the Himalayas and also the direct southwesterly current from the Arabian Sea. After the westward shifting of the Sub-Tropical High (STH) from the north of India, the strong divergence zone on its eastern edge contributed positively to the development of upward motion. Initially the convective systems moved towards the south and then southeastward following the steering current in the middle troposphere. Based on these analyses, the physical model of the sudden record heavy rainfall has been proposed and a comparison between the heavy rainfall in this case and one in China has been conducted.