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2006 Vol. 23, No. 4

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Multi-Year Simulations and Experimental Seasonal Predictions for Rainy Seasons inChina byUsing a Nested Regional ClimateModel (RegCM NCC) Part II: The Experimental Seasonal Prediction
DING Yihui, LIU Yiming, SHI Xueli, LI Qingquan, LI Qiaoping, LIU Yan
2006, 23(4): 487-503. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0323-8
A nested regional climate model has been experimentally used in the seasonal prediction at the China National Climate Center (NCC) since 2001. The NCC/IAP (Institute of Atmospheric Physics) T63 coupled GCM (CGCM) provides the boundary and initial conditions for driving the regional climate model (RegCM NCC). The latter has a 60-km horizontal resolution and improved physical parameterization schemes including the mass flux cumulus parameterization scheme, the turbulent kinetic energy closure scheme (TKE) and an improved land process model (LPM). The large-scale terrain features such as the Tibetan Plateau are included in the larger domain to produce the topographic forcing on the rain-producing systems. A sensitivity study of the East Asian climate with regard to the above physical processes has been presented in the first part of the present paper. This is the second part, as a continuation of Part I. In order to verify the performance of the nested regional climate model, a ten-year simulation driven by NCEP reanalysis datasets has been made to explore the performance of the East Asian climate simulation and to identify the model’s systematic errors. At the same time, comparative simulation experiments for 5 years between the RegCM2 and RegCM NCC have been done to further understand their differences in simulation performance. Also, a ten-year hindcast (1991–2000) for summer (June–August), the rainy season in China, has been undertaken. The preliminary results have shown that the RegCM NCC is capable of predicting the major seasonal rain belts. The best predicted regions with high anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) are located in the eastern part of West China, in Northeast China and in North China, where the CGCM has maximum prediction skill as well. This fact may reflect the importance of the largescale forcing. One significant improvement of the prediction derived from RegCM NCC is the increase of ACC in the Yangtze River valley where the CGCM has a very low, even a negative, ACC. The reason behind this improvement is likely to be related to the more realistic representation of the large-scale terrain features of the Tibetan Plateau. Presumably, many rain-producing systems may be generated over or near the Tibetan Plateau and may then move eastward along the Yangtze River basin steered by upper-level westerly airflow, thus leading to enhancement of rainfalls in the mid and lower basins of the Yangtze River. The real-time experimental predictions for summer in 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 by using this nested RegCM NCC were made. The results are basically reasonable compared with the observations.
Shearing Wind Helicity and Thermal Wind Helicity
HAN Ying, WU Rongsheng, FANG Juan
2006, 23(4): 504-512. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0504-5
Helicity is defined as H = V · !, where V and ! are the velocity and vorticity vectors, respectively. Many works have pointed out that the larger the helicity is, the longer the life cycle of the weather system is. However, the direct relationship of the helicity to the evolution of the weather system is not quite clear. In this paper, the concept of helicity is generalized as shearing wind helicity (SWH). Dynamically, it is found that the average SWH is directly related to the increase of the average cyclonic rotation of the weather system. Physically, it is also pointed out that the SWH, as a matter of fact, is the sum of the torsion terms and the divergence term in the vorticity equation. Thermal wind helicity (TWH), as a derivative of SWH, is also discussed here because it links the temperature field and the vertical wind field. These two quantities may be effective for diagnosing a weather system. This paper applies these two quantities in cylindrical coordinates to study the development of Hurricane Andrew to validate their practical use. Through analyzing the hurricane, it is found that TWH can well describe the characteristics of the hurricane such as the strong convection and release of latent heat. SWH is not only a good quantity for diagnosing the weather system, but also an effective one for diagnosing the development of the hurricane.
Decreasing Reference Evapotranspiration in a Warming Climate—A Case of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Catchment During 1970–2000
Chong-yu XU, Lebing GONG, JIANG Tong, Deliang CHEN
2006, 23(4): 513-520. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0513-4
This study deals with temporal trends in the Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration estimated from standard meteorological observations, observed pan evaporation, and four related meteorological variables during 1970–2000 in the Yangtze River catchment. Relative contributions of the four meteorological variables to changes in the reference evapotranspiration are quantified. The results show that both the reference evapotranspiration and the pan evaporation have significant decreasing trends in the upper, the middle as well as in the whole Changjiang (Yangtze) River catchment at the 5% significance level, while the air temperature shows a significant increasing trend. The decreasing trend detected in the reference evapotranspiration can be attributed to the significant decreasing trends in the net radiation and the wind speed.
Air-sea Interaction of Typhoon Sinlaku (2002) Simulated by the Canadian MC2 Model
REN Xuejuan, William PERRIE
2006, 23(4): 521-530. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0521-4
Three experiments for the simulation of typhoon Sinlaku (2002) over the western North Pacific are performed in this study by using the Canadian Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) atmospheric model. The objective of these simulations is to investigate the air-sea interaction during extreme weather conditions, and to determine the sensitivity of the typhoon evolution to the sea surface temperature (SST) cooling induced by the typhoon. It is shown from the three experiments that the surface heat fluxes have a substantial influence on the slow-moving cyclone over its lifetime. When the SST in the East China coastal ocean becomes 1C cooler in the simulation, less latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the underlying ocean to the cyclone tend to reduce the typhoon intensity. The cyclone is weakened by 7 hPa at the time of its peak intensity. The SST cooling also has impacts on the vertical structure of the typhoon by weakening the warm core and drying the eye wall. With a finer horizontal resolution of (1/6) × (1/6), the model produces higher surface wind, and therefore more surface heat fluxes are emitted from the ocean surface to the cyclone, in the finer-resolution MC2 grid compared with the relatively lower resolution of 0.25 ×0.25 MC2 grid.
Inter-Comparison of 10-year Precipitation Simulated by Several RCMs for Asia
FENG Jinming, FU Congbin
2006, 23(4): 531-542. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0531-2
In phase II of the Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (RMIP) for Asia, the regional climate has been simulated for July 1988 through December 1998 by five regional climate models and one global variable resolution model. Comparison of the 10-year simulated precipitation with the observations was carried out. The results show that most models have the capacity to reproduce the basic spatial pattern of precipitation for Asia, and the main rainbelt can be reproduced by most models, but there are distinctions in the location and the intensity. Most models overestimate the precipitation over most continental regions. Interannual variability of the precipitation can also be basically simulated, while differences exist between various models and the observations. The biases in the stream field are important reasons behind the simulation errors of the Regional Climate Models (RCMs). The cumulus scheme and land surface process have large influences on the precipitation simulation. Generally, the Grell cumulus scheme produces more precipitation than the Kuo scheme.
A Possible Impact of Cooling over the Tibetan Plateau on the Mid-Holocene East Asian Monsoon Climate
JIN Liya, WANG Huijun, CHEN Fahu, JIANG Dabang
2006, 23(4): 543-550. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0543-y
By using a 9-level global atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the authors investigated the response of the East Asian monsoon climate to changes both in orbital forcing and the snow and glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau at the mid-Holocene, about 6000 calendar years before the present (6 kyr BP). With the Earth’s orbital parameters appropriate for the mid-Holocene, the IAP9L-AGCM computed warmer and wetter conditions in boreal summer than for the present day. Under the precondition of continental snow and glacier cover existing over part of the Tibetan Plateau at the mid-Holocene, the authors examined the regional climate response to the Tibetan Plateau cooling. The simulations indicated that climate changes in South Asia and parts of central Asia as well as in East Asia are sensitive to the Tibetan Plateau cooling at the mid-Holocene, showing a significant decrease in precipitation in northern India, northern China and southern Mongolia and an increase in Southeast Asia during boreal summer. The latter seems to correspond to the weakening, southeastward shift of the Asian summer monsoon system resulting from reduced heat contrast between the Eurasian continent and the Pacific and Indian Oceans when a cooling over the Tibetan Plateau was imposed. The simulation results suggest that the snow and glacier environment over the Tibetan Plateau is an important factor for mid-Holocene climate change in the areas highly influenced by the Asian monsoon.
Preliminary Results of 4-D Water Vapor Tomography in the Troposphere Using GPS
BI Yanmeng, MAO Jietai, LI Chengcai
2006, 23(4): 551-560. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0551-y
Slant-path water vapor amounts (SWV) from a station to all the GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites in view can be estimated by using a ground-based GPS receiver. In this paper, a tomographic method was utilized to retrieve the local horizontal and vertical structure of water vapor over a local GPS receiver network using SWV amounts as observables in the tomography. The method of obtaining SWV using ground-based GPS is described first, and then the theory of tomography using GPS is presented. A water vapor tomography experiment was made using a small GPS network in the Beijing region. The tomographic results were analyzed in two ways: (1) a pure GPS method, i.e., only using GPS observables as input to the tomography; (2) combining GPS observables with vertical constraints or a priori information, which come from average radiosonde measurements over three days. It is shown that the vertical structure of water vapor is well resolved with a priori information. Comparisons of profiles between radiosondes and GPS show that the RMS error of the tomography is about 1–2mm. It is demonstrated that the tomography can monitor the evolution of tropospheric water vapor in space and time. The vertical resolution of the tomography is tested with layer thicknesses of 600 m, 800 m and 1000 m. Comparisons with radiosondes show that the result from a resolution of 800m is slightly better than results from the other two resolutions in the experiment. Water vapor amounts recreated from the tomography field agree well with precipitable water vapor (PWV) calculated using GPS delays. Hourly tomographic results are also shown using the resolution of 800 m. Water vapor characteristics under the background of heavy rainfall development are analyzed using these tomographic results. The water vapor spatio-temporal structures derived from the GPS network show a great potential in the investigation of weather disasters.
Wind-Driven, Double-Gyre, Ocean Circulation in a Reduced-Gravity, 2.5-Layer, Lattice Boltzmann Model
ZHONG Linhao, FENG Shide, LUO Dehai, GAO Shouting
2006, 23(4): 561-578. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0561-9
A coupled lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with second-order accuracy is applied to the reduced-gravity, shallow water, 2.5-layer model for wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation. By introducing the secondorder integral approximation for the collision operator, the model becomes fully explicit. The Coriolis force and other external forces are included in the model with second-order accuracy, which is consistent with the discretization accuracy of the LB equation. The feature of the multiple equilibria solutions is found in the numerical experiments under different Reynolds numbers based on this LB scheme. With the Reynolds number increasing from 3000 to 4000, the solution of this model is destabilized from the anti-symmetric double-gyre solution to the subtropic gyre solution and then to the subpolar gyre solution. The transitions between these equilibria states are also found in some parameter ranges. The time-dependent variability of the circulation based on this LB simulation is also discussed for varying viscosity regimes. The flow of this model exhibits oscillations with different timescales varying from subannual to interannual. The corresponding statistical oscillation modes are obtained by spectral analysis. By analyzing the spatiotemporal structures of these modes, it is found that the subannual oscillation with a 9-month period originates from the barotropic Rossby basin mode, and the interannual oscillations with periods ranging from 1.5 years to 4.6 years originate from the recirculation gyre modes, which include the barotropic and the baroclinic recirculation gyre modes.
Analysis of Turbulence Characteristics over the Northern Tibetan Plateau Area
LI Maoshan, MA Yaoming, MA Weiqiang, HU Zeyong, ISHIKAWA Hirohiko, Zhongbo SU, SUN Fanglin
2006, 23(4): 579-585. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0579-z
Based on CAMP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau] turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law under both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the “?1/3 power law” under unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.
On-line Measurement of Water-Soluble Ions in Ambient Particles
WEN Tianxue, WANG Yuesi, CHANG Shih-Yu, LIU Guangren
2006, 23(4): 586-592. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0586-0
Combining the system of rapid collection of ambient particles and ion chromatography, the system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC) was established to automatically analyze on-line the concentrations of water-soluble ions in ambient particles. Here, the general scheme of RCFP-IC is described and its basic performance is tested. The detection limit of RCFP-IC for SO2? 4 , NO?3 , NO?2 , Cl? and F? is below 0.3 μg m?3. The collection efficiency of RCFP-IC increases rapidly with increasing sized particles. For particles larger than 300 nm, the collection efficiency approaches 100%. The precision of RCFP-IC is more than 90% over 28 repetitions. The response of RCFP-IC is very sensitive and no obvious cross-pollution is found during measurement. A comparison of RCFP-IC with an integrated filter measurement indicates that the measurement of RCFP-IC is comparable in both laboratory experiments and field observations. The results of the field experiment prove that RCFP-IC is an effective on-line monitoring system and is helpful in source apportionment and pollution episode monitoring.
Comparison of Products from ERA-40, NCEP-2, and CRU with Station Data for Summer Precipitation over China
ZHAO Tianbao, FU Congbin
2006, 23(4): 593-604. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0593-1
Summer precipitation products from the 45-Year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA-40), and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) Reanalysis (NCEP-2), and Climatic Research Unit (CRU) TS 2.1 dataset are compared with the corresponding observations over China in order to understand the quality and utility of the reanalysis datasets for the period 1979–2001. The results reveal that although the magnitude and location of the rainfall belts differ among the reanalysis, CRU, and station data over South and West China, the spatial distributions show good agreement over most areas of China. In comparison with the observations in most areas of China, CRU best matches the observed summer precipitation, while ERA-40 reports less precipitation and NCEP-2 reports more precipitation than the observations. With regard to the amplitude of the interannual variations, CRU is better than either of the reanalyses in representing the corresponding observations. The amplitude in NCEP-2 is stronger but that of ERA-40 is weaker than the observations in most study domains. NCEP-2 has a more obvious interannual variability than ERA-40 or CRU in most areas of East China. Through an Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the main features of the rainfall belts produced by CRU agree better with the observations than with those produced by the reanalyses in the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley. In East of China, particularly in the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley, CRU can reveal the quasi-biennial oscillation of summer precipitation represented by the observations, but the signal of ERA-40 is comparatively weak and not very obvious, whereas that of NCEP-2 is also weak before 1990 but very strong after 1990. The results also suggest that the magnitude of the precipitation difference between ERA-40 and the observations is smaller than that between NCEP-2 and the observations, but the variations represented by NCEP-2 are more reasonable than those given by ERA-40 in most areas of East China to some extent.
Numerical Study on the Impacts of Heterogeneous Reactions on Ozone Formation in the Beijing Urban Area
XU Jun, ZHANG Yuanhang, WANG Wei
2006, 23(4): 605-614. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0605-1
The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO!NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.
Improved ENSO Forecasts by Assimilating Sea Surface Temperature Observations into an Intermediate Coupled Model
ZHENG Fei, ZHU Jiang, Rong-Hua ZHANG, ZHOU Guangqing
2006, 23(4): 615-624. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0615-z
A simple method for initializing intermediate coupled models (ICMs) using only sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly data is comprehensively tested in two sets of hindcasts with a new ICM. In the initialization scheme, both the magnitude of the nudging parameter and the duration of the assimilation are considered, and initial conditions for both atmosphere and ocean are generated by running the coupled model with SST anomalies nudged to the observations. A comparison with the observations indicates that the scheme can generate realistic thermal fields and surface dynamic fields in the equatorial Pacific through hindcast experiments. An ideal experiment is performed to get the optimal nudging parameters which include the nudging intensity and nudging time length. Twelve-month-long hindcast experiments are performed with the model over the period 1984–2003 and the period 1997–2003. Compared with the original prediction results, the model prediction skills are significantly improved by the nudging method especially beyond a 6-month lead time during the two different periods. Potential problems and further improvements are discussed regarding the new coupled assimilation system.
Modeling the Tropical Pacific Ocean Using a Regional Coupled Climate Model
FU Weiwei, ZHOU Guangqing, WANG Huijun
2006, 23(4): 625-638. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0625-x
A high-resolution tropical Pacific general circulation model (GCM) coupled to a global atmospheric GCM is described in this paper. The atmosphere component is the 5×4 global general circulation model of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) with 9 levels in the vertical direction. The ocean component with a horizontal resolution of 0.5, is based on a low-resolution model (2 × 1 in longitude-latitude). Simulations of the ocean component are first compared with its previous version. Results show that the enhanced ocean horizontal resolution allows an improved ocean state to be simulated; this involves (1) an apparent decrease in errors in the tropical Pacific cold tongue region, which exists in many ocean models, (2) more realistic large-scale flows, and (3) an improved ability to simulate the interannual variability and a reduced root mean square error (RMSE) in a long time integration. In coupling these component models, a monthly “linear-regression” method is employed to correct the model’s exchanged flux between the sea and the atmosphere. A 100-year integration conducted with the coupled GCM (CGCM) shows the effectiveness of such a method in reducing climate drift. Results from years 70 to 100 are described. The model produces a reasonably realistic annual cycle of equatorial SST. The large SSTA is confined to the eastern equatorial Pacific with little propagation. Irregular warm and cold events alternate with a broad spectrum of periods between 24 and 50 months, which is very realistic. But the simulated variability is weaker than the observed and is also asymmetric in the sense of the amplitude of the warm and cold events.
Some Phenomena of the Interaction Between Vegetation and a Atmosphere on Multiple Scales
HU Yinqiao, CHEN Jinbei, ZHENG Yuanrun, LI Guoqing, ZUO Hongchao
2006, 23(4): 639-648. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0639-4
This article studies the response of the distribution pattern and the physiological characteristics of the ecosystem to the spontaneous precipitation and the interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere on multiple scales in arid and semi-arid zones, based on measured data of the ecological physiological parameters in the Ordas Plateau of northern China. The results show that the vegetation biomass and the energy use efficiency of photosynthesis are especially sensitive to the annual precipitation; strong and complex interactions exist between the vegetation and the atmosphere on multiple scales leading to supernormal thermal heterogeneity of the underlying surface, the strong vortex movement and turbulence. This study can facilitate understanding of the land surface processes and the influences of global climate change as well as human activities on the human environment in the arid and semi-arid zones. It also aids in improving the parameterization schemes of turbulent fluxes of a heterogeneous underlying surface for land surface processes in climate models.
Stable Isotopic Variations in Precipitation in Southwest China
ZHANG Xinping, JIN Huijun, SUN Weizhen
2006, 23(4): 649-658. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0649-2
This study analyzes the relationships of stable isotopes in precipitation with temperature, air pressure and humidity at different altitudes, and the potential influencing mechanisms of control factors on the stable isotopes in precipitation in Southwest China. There appear marked negative correlations of the 18O in precipitation with precipitation amount, vapor pressure and atmospheric precipitable water (PW) at the Mengzi, Simao and Tengchong stations on the synoptic timescale; the marked negative correlations between the 18O in precipitation and the diurnal mean temperature at 400 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa and 850 hPa are different from the temperature effect in middle-high-latitude inland areas. In addition, the notable positive correlation between the 18O in precipitation and the dew-point deficit Td at different altitudes is found at the three stations. Precipitation is not the only factor generating an amount effect. Probably, the amount effect is related to the variations of atmospheric circulation and vapor origins. On the annual timescale, the annual precipitation amount weighted-mean 18O displays negative correlations not only with annual precipitation but also with annual mean temperature at 500 hPa. It can be deduced that, in the years with an abnormally strong summer monsoon, more warm and wet air from low-latitude oceans is transported northward along the vapor channel located in Southwest China and generates abnormally strong rainfall on the way. Meanwhile, the abnormally strong condensation process will release more condensed latent heat in the atmosphere, and this will lead to a rise of atmospheric temperature during rainfall but a decline of 18O in the precipitation. On the other hand, in the years with an abnormally weak summer monsoon, the precipitation and the atmospheric temperature during rainfalls decrease abnormally but the 18O in precipitation increases.