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2006 Vol. 23, No. 5

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Linkage Between the Northeast Mongolian Precipitation and the Northern Hemisphere Zonal Circulation
WANG Huijun
2006, 23(5): 659-664. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0659-0
The long-term relationship between the tree-ring-reconstructed annual precipitation in northeastern Mongolia (PRM) and the Northern Hemisphere Zonal Circulation (NHZC)§defined as the normalized zonal mean sea-level pressure at 60N in May-June-July, is examined in this study. A significant correlation coefficient (0.31) was found between the NHZC indices and PRM based on the dataset for the period of 1872–1995. The mechanisms responsible for the relationship are discussed through analyses of the atmospheric general circulation variability associated with NHZC. It follows that NHZC-related atmospheric circulation variability provides an anomalous southeast flow from the ocean to Northeast Mongolia (northwest flow from Northeast Mongolia to the ocean) in the middle and low troposphere in positive (negative) phase of NHZC, resulting in more (less) water vapor transport to the target region and more (less) precipitation in Northeast Mongolia.
Variations in Typhoon Landfalls over China
Emily A. FOGARTY, James B. ELSNER, Thomas H. JAGGER, Kam-biu LIU, Kin-sheun LOUIE
2006, 23(5): 665-677. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0665-2
The interannual variability in typhoon landfalls over China is investigated using historical and modern records. For the purpose of substantiating and elaborating upon the claim of north to south variation in tropical cyclone activity over China, a north-to-south anti-correlation in yearly activity is confirmed in the historical cyclone records. When cyclone activity over the province of Guangdong is high (low), it tends to be low (high) over the province of Fujian. A similar spatial variation is identified in the modern records using a factor analysis model, which delineates typhoon activity over the southern provinces of Guangdong and Hainan from the activity over the northern provinces of Fujian, Taiwan, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Shandong. A landfall index of typhoon activity representing the degree to which each year follows this pattern of activity is used to identify correlated climate variables. A useful statistical regression model that includes sea-level pressure differences between Mongolia and western China and sea-surface temperature (SST) over the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the summer explains 26% of the interannual variability of the landfall index. It is suggested that a stronger than normal north-south pressure gradient increases the surface easterly wind flow over northern China; this, coupled with lower SST over the Pacific, favors typhoons taking a more westerly track toward southern China.
On the Climatology of Persistent Heavy Rainfall Events in China
TANG Yanbing, GAN Jingjing, ZHAO Lu, GAO Kun
2006, 23(5): 678-692. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0678-x
Persistent heavy rainfall events (PHR events) comprise one category of weather- and climate- related extreme events. Based on daily rainfall data measured in China during the period of 1951–2004, several quantitative criteria were developed to define PHR events by means of their precipitation intensity, temporal duration, spatial extent and persistence. Then a semi-objective classification based on these criteria was applied to summer daily rainfall data to identify all PHR events. A total of 197 events were observed during the study period. All events were further classified into 5 categories according to their comprehensive intensity; into 3 types according to their circulation regime; and into 8 groups according to the geographic locations of their rainbands. Based on these different classifications, finally, the behaviors of 130 PHR events identified as the most severe, severe and moderate categories since the year of 1951, including characteristics of the spatial and temporal distributions of their frequencies, intensities, and rainbands, were investigated in order to present a comprehensive description of the PHR events. The results will be helpful to the future study of revealing and understanding the processes that govern the production of the PHR events and to the improvement of the forecasts of the PHR events.
Wet Refractivity Tomography with an Improved Kalman-Filter Method
CAO Yunchang, CHEN Yongqi, LI Pingwha
2006, 23(5): 693-699. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0693-y
An improved retrieval method, which uses the solution with a Gaussian constraint as the initial state variables for the Kalman Filtering (KF) method, was developed to retrieve the wet refractivity profiles from slant wet delays (SWD) extracted by the double-differenced (DD) GPS method. The accuracy of the GPS-derived SWDs is also tested in this study against the measurements of a water vapor radiometer (WVR) and a weather model. It is concluded that the GPS-derived SWDs have similar accuracy to those measured with WVR and are much higher in quality than those derived from the weather model used. The developed method is used to retrieve the 3D wet refractivity distribution in the Hong Kong region. The retrieved profiles agree well with the radiosonde observations, with a difference of about 4 mm km?1 in the low levels. The accurate profiles obtained with this method are applicable in a number of meteorological applications.
Long-Term Changes of the Ultraviolet Radiation in China and its Relationship with Total Ozone and Precipitation
WEI Ke, CHEN Wen, HUANG Ronghui
2006, 23(5): 700-710. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0700-3
The new version (version 8) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) ozone and noontime erythemal ultraviolet (UV) irradiance products are used to analyze their long-term changes in this paper. It is shown that the summer UV irradiance has increased significantly from Central China to the northern and western parts of China, especially in Central China near Chongqing, Shaanxi, and Hubei provinces; whereas the UV irradiance has decreased significantly in the southern part of China, especially in South China. In July, when UV irradiance is at its maximum and hence when the most serious potential damage may happen, the results indicate an increase in the UV irradiance in Central China and the Yangtze River- Huaihe River valley and a decrease in South China and the eastern part of North China. At the same time, the total ozone amount is lower over China in summer with the most serious depletion occurring in Northeast China and Northwest China. It is found that the thinning of the ozone layer is not the main reason for the UV irradiance trend in the eastern and southern parts of China, but that the rainfall and the related cloud variations may dominate the long-term changes of the UV irradiance there. In addition, the future UV irradiance trend in China is also estimated.
Indo-Japanese Lidar Observations of the Tropical Middle Atmosphere During 1998 and 1999
2006, 23(5): 711-725. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0711-0
A state-of-the art Rayleigh and Mie backscattering lidar was set up at Gadanki (13.5N, 79.2E) in the Tropics in India. Using this system, regular observations of upper tropospheric clouds, aerosols at stratospheric heights and atmospheric temperatures in the range from 30 to 80 km were made. In this paper, the data collected during the period of 1998–99 were selected for systematic investigation and presentation. The Mie scattering lidar system is capable of measuring the degree of depolarization in the laser backscattering. Several tropical cirrus cloud structures have been identified with low to moderate ice content. Occasionally, thin sub-visible cirrus clouds in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause have also been detected. The aerosol measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere show low aerosol content with a vertical distribution up to 35 km altitude. Rayleigh-scattering lidar observations reveal that at the tropical site, temperature inversion occurs at mesospheric heights. Atmospheric waves have induced perturbations in the temperatures for several times at the upper stratospheric heights. A significant warming in the lower mesosphere associated with a consistent cooling in the upper stratospheric heights is observed particularly in the winter season during the events of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW).
Comparison of CO2 Effluxes and Their Driving Factors Between Two Temperate Steppes in Inner Mongolia, China
QI Yuchun, DONG Yunshe, Manfred DOMROES, GENG Yuanbo, LIU Lixin, LIU Xingren
2006, 23(5): 726-736. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0726-6
Soil respiration is a key component of the global terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The static opaque chamber method was used to measure the CO2 effluxes from soil of a semiarid Aneurolepidium chinense steppe and a Stipa krylovii steppe in the Xilin River Basin of Inner Mongolia, China from March 2002 to December 2004. The results indicated that the soil respiration rates of the semiarid Aneurolepidium chinense steppe and the Stipa krylovii steppe were both relatively high from mid-May to mid-September of each year and remained low during the rest of the year. The minimum value of soil respiration occurred in December or January and negative effluxes of CO2 appeared for several days during the non-growing season of individual years at the two sampling sites. A high annual variation was found in the two steppes with the coefficients of variance (CV) being over 94%, even high to 131%. The annual sums of soil CO2 efflux of the Aneurolepidium chinense steppe varied between 356.4 gC m?2 yr?1 and 408.8 gC m?2 yr?1, while those of the Stipa krylovii steppe in the three years were in the range of 110.6 gC m?2 yr?1 to 148.6 gC m?2 yr?1. The mean respiration rates of the Aneurolepidium chinense steppe were significantly higher than those of the Stipa krylovii steppe in different statistical periods with the exception of the non-growing season. About 59.9% and 80.6% of the soil respiration variations in both steppes for the whole sampling period were caused by the changes of temperature and soil water content. In the Aneurolepidium chinense steppe, the soil respiration rate has significant or extremely significant positive correlation (r = 0.58 ? 0.85, p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) with air temperature and ground temperature of the topsoil except in 2002; the unique contributions of temperature change to the soil respiration variation of the three years were 53.3%, 81.0% and 58.6%, respectively. But, for the Stipa krylovii steppe in the same time interval, the soil water content (especially that of the 10–20 cm layer) has a greater effect on the change of soil respiration, and the unique contributions of the change of the 10–20 cm soil water content to the variations of soil respiration in 2002 and 2003 were 60.0% and 54.3%, respectively. In 2004, in spite of the higher contribution of temperature than soil water content, the contribution of ground temperature at a depth of 10 cm was only 46.2%, much weaker than that of any single year in the Aneurolepidium chinense steppe.
Boundary-Layer Wind Structure in a Landfalling Tropical Cyclone
TANG Xiaodong, TAN Zhemin
2006, 23(5): 737-749. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0737-3
In this study, a slab boundary layer model with a constant depth is used to analyze the boundary-layer wind structure in a landfalling tropical cyclone. Asymmetry is found in both the tangential and radial components of horizontal wind in the tropical cyclone boundary layer at landfall. For a steady tropical cyclone on a straight coastline at landfall, the magnitude of the radial component is greater in the offshoreflow side and the tangential component is greater over the sea, slightly offshore, therefore the greater total wind speed occurs in the offshore-flow side over the sea. The budget analysis suggests that: (1) a greater surface friction over land produces a greater inflow and the nonlinear effect advects the maximum inflow downstream, and (2) a smaller surface friction over the sea makes the decrease of the tangential wind component less than that over land. Moreover, the boundary layer wind structures in a tropical cyclone are related to the locations of the tropical cyclone relative to the coastline due to the different surface frictions. During tropical cyclone landfall, the impact of rough terrain on the cyclone increases, so the magnitude of the radial component of wind speed increases in the offshore-flow side and the tangential component outside the radius of maximum wind speed decreases gradually.
On the Nonlinear Response of Lower Stratospheric Ozone to Nox and ClOx Perturbations for Different CH4 Sources
WANG Geli, YANG Peicai
2006, 23(5): 750-757. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0750-6
The impact of sulfate aerosol, ClOx and NOx perturbations for two different magnitudes of CH4 sources on lower stratospheric ozone is studied by using a heterogeneous chemical system that consists of 19 species belonging to 5 chemical families (oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and carbon). The results show that the present modeled photochemical system can present several different solutions, for instance, periodic states and multi-equilibrium states appearing in turn under certain parameter domains, through chlorine chemistry and nitrogen chemistry together with sulfate aerosol as well as the increasing magnitude of CH4 sources. The existence of catastrophic transitions could produce a dramatic reduction in the ozone concentration with the increase of external sources.
Analysis and Application of Multiple-Precision Computation and Round-off Error for Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
WANG Pengfei, HUANG Gang, WANG Zaizhi
2006, 23(5): 758-766. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0758-y
This research reveals the dependency of floating point computation in nonlinear dynamical systems on machine precision and step-size by applying a multiple-precision approach in the Lorenz nonlinear equations. The paper also demonstrates the procedures for obtaining a real numerical solution in the Lorenz system with long-time integration and a new multiple-precision-based approach used to identify the maximum effective computation time (MECT) and optimal step-size (OS). In addition, the authors introduce how to analyze round-off error in a long-time integration in some typical cases of nonlinear systems and present its approximate estimate expression.
Application of a Cloud-Texture Analysis Scheme to the Cloud Cluster Structure Recognition and Rainfall Estimation in a Mesoscale Rainstorm Process
SHOU Yixuan, LI Shenshen, SHOU Shaowen, ZHAO Zhongming
2006, 23(5): 767-774. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0767-x
It is thought that satellite infrared (IR) images can aid the recognition of the structure of the cloud and aid the rainfall estimation. In this article, the authors explore the application of a classification method relevant to four texture features, viz. energy, entropy, inertial-quadrature and local calm, to the study of the structure of a cloud cluster displaying a typical meso-scale structure on infrared satellite images. The classification using the IR satellite images taken during 4–5 July 2003, a time when a meso-scale torrential rainstorm was occurring over the Yangtze River basin, illustrates that the detailed structure of the cloud cluster can be obviously seen by means of the neural network classification method relevant to textural features, and the relationship between the textural energy and rainfall indicates that the structural variation of a cloud cluster can be viewed as an exhibition of the convection intensity evolvement. These facts suggest that the scheme of following a classification method relevant to textural features applied to cloud structure studies is helpful for weather analysis and forecasting.
Applications of Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation to the Study of the Stability and Sensitivity of the Jovian Atmosphere
2006, 23(5): 775-783. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0775-x
A two-layer quasi-geostrophic model is used to study the stability and sensitivity of motions on smallscale vortices in Jupiter’s atmosphere. Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) and linear singular vectors (LSVs) are both obtained numerically and compared in this paper. The results show that CNOPs can capture the nonlinear characteristics of motions in small-scale vortices in Jupiter’s atmosphere and show great difference from LSVs under the condition that the initial constraint condition is large or the optimization time is not very short or both. Besides, in some basic states, local CNOPs are found. The pattern of LSV is more similar to local CNOP than global CNOP in some cases. The elementary application of the method of CNOP to the Jovian atmosphere helps us to explore the stability of variousscale motions of Jupiter’s atmosphere and to compare the stability of motions in Jupiter’s atmosphere and Earth’s atmosphere further.
On the Ability of the Regional Climate Model RIEMS to Simulate the Present Climate over Asia
XIONG Zhe, FU Congbin, ZHANG Qing
2006, 23(5): 784-791. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0784-9
A continuous 10-year simulation in Asia for the period of 1 July 1988 to 31 December 1998 was conducted using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS) with NCEP Reanalysis II data as the driving fields. The model processes include surface physics state package (BATS 1e), a Holtslag explicit planetary boundary layer formulation, a Grell cumulus parameterization, and a modified radiation package (CCM3). Model-produced surface temperature and precipitation are compared with observations from 1001 meteorology stations distributed over Asia and with the 0.5 × 0.5 CRU gridded dataset. The analysis results show that: (1) RIEMS reproduces well the spatial pattern and the seasonal cycle of surface temperature and precipitation; (2) When regionally averaged, the seasonal mean temperature biases are within 1–2C. For precipitation, the model tends to give better simulation in winter than in summer, and seasonal precipitation biases are mostly in the range of ?12%–50%; (3) Spatial correlation coefficients between observed and simulated seasonal precipitation are higher in north of the Yangtze River than in the south and higher in winter than in summer; (4) RIEMS can well reproduce the spatial pattern of seasonal mean sea level pressure. In winter, the model-simulated Siberian high is stronger than the observed. In summer, the simulated subtropical high is shifted northwestwards; (5) The temporal evolution of the East Asia summer monsoon rain belt, with steady phases separated by more rapid transitions, is reproduced.
Implementation of the Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme on a Quasi-Uniform Overset Grid on a Sphere
LI Xingliang, CHEN Dehui, PENG Xindong, XIAO Feng, CHEN Xiongshan
2006, 23(5): 792-801. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0792-9
The semi-Lagrangian advection scheme is implemented on a new quasi-uniform overset (Yin-Yang) grid on the sphere. The Yin-Yang grid is a newly developed grid system in spherical geometry with two perpendicularly-oriented latitude-longitude grid components (called Yin and Yang respectively) that overlapp each other, and this effectively avoids the coordinate singularity and the grid convergence near the poles. In this overset grid, the way of transferring data between the Yin and Yang components is the key to maintaining the accuracy and robustness in numerical solutions. A numerical interpolation for boundary data exchange, which maintains the accuracy of the original advection scheme and is computationally efficient, is given in this paper. A standard test of the solid-body advection proposed by Williamson is carried out on the Yin-Yang grid. Numerical results show that the quasi-uniform Yin-Yang grid can get around the problems near the poles, and the numerical accuracy in the original semi-Lagrangian scheme is effectively maintained in the Yin-Yang grid.
Approximations of the Scattering Phase Functions of Particles
ZHAO Jian-Qi, SHI Guangyu, CHE Huizheng, CHENG Guangguang
2006, 23(5): 802-808. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0802-y
Based on anomalous diffraction theory and the modified Rayleigh-Debye approximation, a physically realistic model in bridging form is described to approximate the scattering phase function of particles. When compared with the exact method, the bridging technique reported here provides a reasonable approximation to the Mie results over a broader range of angles and size parameters, and it demonstrates the advantage of being computationally economic. In addition, the new phase function model can be essentially extended to other shapes and conveniently used in more complicated scattering and emission problems related to the solutions of the radiative transfer equations.
On Nonlinear Stability Theorems of 3D Quasi-geostrophic Flow
LIU Yongming, CAI Jingjing
2006, 23(5): 809-814. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0809-4
Nonlinear stability criteria for quasi-geostrophic zonally symmetric flow are improved by establishing an optimal Poincar′e inequality. The inequality is derived by a variational calculation considering the additional invariant of zonal momentum. When applied to the Eady model in a periodic channel with finite zonal length, the improved nonlinear stability criterion is identical to the linear normal-mode stability criterion provided the channel meridional width is no greater than 0.8605· · · times its channel length (which is the geophysically relevant case).
Application of ATOVS Microwave Radiance Assimilation to Rainfall Prediction in Summer 2004
QI Linlin, SUN Jianhua
2006, 23(5): 815-830. doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0815-6
Experiments are performed in this paper to understand the influence of satellite radiance data on the initial field of a numerical prediction system and rainfall prediction. First, Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit A (AMSU-A¤and Unit B (AMSU-B¤radiance data are directly used by three-dimensional variational data assimilation to improve the background field of the numerical model. Then, the detailed effect of the radiance data on the background field is analyzed. Secondly, the background field, which is formed by application of Advanced Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) microwave radiance assimilation, is employed to simulate some heavy rainfall cases. The experiment results show that the assimilation of AMSU-A (B) microwave radiance data has a certain impact on the geopotential height, temperature, relative humidity and flow fields. And the impacts on the background field are mostly similar in the different months in summer. The heavy rainfall experiments reveal that the application of AMSU-A (B) microwave radiance data can improve the rainfall prediction significantly. In particular, the AMSU-A radiance data can significantly enhance the prediction of rainfall above 10 mm within 48 h, and the AMSU-B radiance data can improve the prediction of rainfall above 50 mm within 24 h. The present study confirms that the direct assimilation of satellite radiance data is an effective way to improve the prediction of heavy rainfall in the summer in China.