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2007 Vol. 24, No. 4

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Intercomparison of Precipitation Simulated by Regional Climate Models over East Asia in 1997 and 1998
Dong-Kyou LEE, William J. GUTOWSKI, Jr., Hyun-Suk KANG, Chun-Ji KIM
2007, 24(4): 539-554. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0539-2
Regional climate simulations in Asia from May 1997 to August 1998 were performed using the Seoul National University regional climate model (SNURCM) and Iowa State University regional climate model (ALT.MM5/LSM), which were developed by coupling the NCAR/Land Surface Model (LSM) and the Mesoscale Model (MM5). However, for physical processes of precipitation, the SNURCM used the Grell scheme for the convective parameterization scheme (CPS) and the simple ice scheme for the explicit moisture scheme (EMS), while the ALT.MM5/LSM used the Betts-Miller scheme for CPS and the mixed phase scheme for EMS. The simulated precipitation patterns and amounts over East Asia for the extreme climatic summer in 1997 (relative drought conditions) and 1998 (relative flood conditions) were especially focused upon. The ALT.MM5/LSM simulated more precipitation than was observed in 1997 due to more moisture and cloud water in the lower levels, despite weak upward motion. In the SNURCM, strong upward motion resulted in more precipitation than that was observed in 1998, with more moisture and cloud water in the middle levels. In the ALT.MM5/LSM, weak upward motion, unchanged moisture in the lower troposphere, and the decrease in latent heat flux at the surface increased convective precipitation only by 3% for the 1998 summer event. In the SNURCM, strong upward motion, the increase in moisture in the lower troposphere, and the increase in latent heat flux at the surface increased convective precipitation by 48% for the summer of 1998. The main differences between both simulations were moisture availability and horizontal momentum transport in the lower troposphere, which were also strongly influenced by large-scale forcing.
Mesoscale Analysis of a Heavy Rainfall Event over Hong Kong During a Pre-rainy Season in South China
ZHAO Sixiong, BEI Naifang, SUN Jianhua
2007, 24(4): 555-572. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0555-2
During the Heavy Rainfall Experiment in South China (HUAMEX) of 1998, a record heavy rainfall event occurred in the delta of the Pearl River during the 24 hours from 1200 UTC 8 June to 1200 UTC 9 June, 1998, and a 24-hour precipitation maximum of 574 mm was reported in Hong Kong. In this paper, some mesoscale characteristics of this heavy rainfall event are studied using data from satellites, Doppler radar, wind profilers, and automatic meteorological stations collected during HUAMEX. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) During this heavy rainfall event, there existed a favorable large-scale environment, that included a front with weak baroclinity in the heavy rain area and with an upward motion branch ahead of the front. (2) Unlike most extratropical or subtropical systems, the closed low in the geopotential height field does not exited. The obvious feature was that a southerly branch trough in the westerlies existed and Hong Kong was located ahead of the trough. (3) The rainfall areas were located in the warm sector ahead of the front, rather than in the frontal zone, which is one of the characteristics of heavy rainfalls during the pre-rainy season of South China. A southerly warm and moist current contributed to the heavy rainfall formation, including the transportation of rich water vapor and the creation of strong horizontal wind convergence. (4) The observations show that the heavy rainfall in Hong Kong was directly caused by a series of meso β systems rather than a mesoscale convective complex (MCC). These meso β systems moved with the steering current in the lower-mid troposphere, their life cycles were 3--6 hours, and their horizontal sizes were 10--100 km. (5) The disturbances in the lower and mid troposphere, especially that in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) were very shallow. However, they are a possible trigger mechanism for the occurrence and development of the mesoscale convective systems and related heavy rainfalls. Finally, a conceptual model of the heavy rainfall in the warm sector ahead of the front in South China is proposed.
Influence of Vertical Eddy Diffusivity Parameterization on Daily and Monthly Mean Concentrations of O3 and NOy
AN Junling, CHENG Xinjin, QU Yu, CHEN Yong
2007, 24(4): 573-580. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0573-0
Two parameterization schemes for vertical eddy diffusivity were utilized to investigate their impacts on both the daily and monthly mean concentrations of ozone and NOy, which are the major fractions of the sum of all reactive nitrogen species, i.e., NOy=NO+NO2+HNO3+PAN. Simulations indicate that great changes in the vertical diffusivity usually occur within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Daily and monthly mean concentrations of NOy are much more sensitive to changes in the vertical diffusivity than those of ozone and ozone and NOy levels only at or in (relatively) clean sites and areas, where long-range transport plays a crucial role, display roughly equivalent sensitivity. The results strongly suggest that a widely-accepted parameterization scheme be selected and the refinement of the model's vertical resolution in the PBL be required, even for regional and long-term studies, and ozone only being examined in an effort to judge the model's performance be unreliable, and NOy be included for model evaluations.
Roles of Multi-Scale Disturbances over the Tropical North Pacific in the Turnabout of 1997--98 El Nino
ZHANG Zuqiang, ZHANG Renhe, Song YANG
2007, 24(4): 581-590. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0581-0
The space-time features of major vorticity disturbances over the western North Pacific during the 1997--98 El Nino ranked as one of the strongest events on record was investigated in this study. We distinguished the different roles that these disturbances had on different timescales in causing the reversal or turnabout of the El Nino event. Remarkable differences in the various disturbances of synoptic, intraseasonal, and interannual timescales were found in the time evolution, propagation, and in their contributions to the changes in near-equatorial zonal flow, which was crucial to the demise of the warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific. It is hypothesized that the westward-traveling synoptic and intraseasonal oscillations in the western North Pacific might be considered as a self-provided negative feedback from the El Nino and played an additional role in its reversal in comparison with other interannual internal and external forcings. In this case, the off-equatorial synoptic and intraseaonal fluctuations served as a stochastic forcing for the tropical ocean and gave rise to the aperiodicity or irregularity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.
Conversion of Kinetic Energy from Synoptic Scale Disturbance to Low-Frequency Fluctuation over the Yangtze River Valley in the Summers of 1997 and 1999
LI Yuefeng
2007, 24(4): 591-598. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0591-y
In order to investigate the conversion of kinetic energy from a synoptic scale disturbance (SSD; period≤seven days) to a low-frequency fluctuation (LFF; period>seven days), the budget equation of the LFF kinetic energy is derived. The energy conversion is then calculated and analyzed for the summers of 1997 and 1999. The results show that the energy conversion from the SSD to the LFF is obviously enhanced in the middle and lower troposphere during the heavy rainfall, suggesting this to be one of mechanisms inducing the heavy rainfall, although the local LFF kinetic energy may not be enhanced.
Real-Time Mesoscale Forecast Support During the CLAMS Field Campaign
2007, 24(4): 599-605. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0599-3
This paper reports the use of a specialized, mesoscale, numerical weather prediction (NWP) system and a satellite imaging and prediction system that were set up to support the CLAMS (Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites) field campaign during the summer of 2001. The primary objective of CLAMS was to validate satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties and vertical profiles of the radiative flux, temperature and water vapor. Six research aircraft were deployed to make detailed coincident measurements of the atmosphere and ocean surface with the research satellites that orbited overhead. The mesoscale weather modeling system runs in real-time to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for forecasts that are delivered via the World Wide Web along with a variety of satellite imagery and satellite location predictions. This system is a multi-purpose modeling system capable of both data analysis/assimilation and multi-scale NWP ranging from cloud-scale to larger than regional scale. This is a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic compressible model in a terrain-following coordinate. The model employs advanced numerical techniques and contains detailed interactive physical processes. The utility of the forecasting system is illustrated throughout the discussion on the impact of the surface-wind forecast on BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) and the description of the cloud/moisture forecast versus the aircraft measurement.
The Impacts of Moisture Transport of East Asian Monsoon on Summer Precipitation in Northeast China
SUN Li, SHEN Baizhu, GAO Zongting, SUI Bo, Lesheng BAI, Sheng-Hung WANG, AN Gang, LI Jian
2007, 24(4): 606-618. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0606-8
By using the ECMWF reanalysis daily data and daily precipitation data of 80 stations in Northeast China from 1961 to 2002, the impacts of moisture transport of East Asian summer monsoon on the summer precipitation anomaly in Northeast China, and the relationship between the variation of moisture budget and the establishment of East Asian summer monsoon in this region are studied. The results demonstrate that the moisture of summer precipitation in Northeast China mainly originates from subtropical, South China Sea, and South Asia monsoon areas. East China and its near coastal area are the convergent region of the monsoonal moisture currents and the transfer station for the currents continually moving northward. The monsoonal moisture transport, as an important link or bridge, connects the interaction between middle and low latitude systems. In summer half year, there is a moisture sink in Northeast China where the moisture influx is greater than outflux. The advance transport and accumulation of moisture are of special importance to pentad time scale summer precipitation. The onset, retreat, and intensity change of the monsoonal rainy season over Northeast China are mainly signified by the moisture input condition along the southern border of this area. The establishment of East Asian summer monsoon in this area ranges from about 10 July to 20 August and the onset in the west is earlier than that in the east. The latitude that the monsoon can reach is gradually northward from west to east, reaching 50N within longitude 120--135E. In summer, the difference of air mass transport between summers with high and low rainfall mainly lies in whether more air masses originating from lower latitudes move northward through East China and its coastal areas, consequently transporting large amounts of hot and humid air into Northeast China.
A Simple but Accurate Ultraviolet Limb-Scan Spherically-Layered Radiative-Transfer-Model Based on Single-Scattering Physics
GUO Xia, LU Daren, LU Yao
2007, 24(4): 619-630. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0619-3
Here we present a study focusing on atmospheric limb-scattered radiative characteristics in the ultraviolet band by using a limb-scan spherically-layered radiative-transfer-model based on the single-scattering approximation, which was developed by the present authors. We have applied an accurate numerical integration technique involving an auto-adaptive modified-space step, which assured high accuracy and simplification. Comparisons were made to the newly released spherical radiative transfer model, SCIATRAN2.0, which was developed by Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP/IFE) at University of Bremen and to measurements collected via an ultraviolet spectrometer on the Solar Mesospheric Explorer (SME) satellite, which was launched in October, 1981. Preliminary results indicate that the present model provides a good interpretation of the earth-limb scattered ultraviolet radiance, and thus, is suitable for the study of the ultraviolet-limb radiative-transfer problem with high accuracy.
Characteristic Study of the Boundary Layer Parameters over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal Using the QuikSCAT Dataset
2007, 24(4): 631-643. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0631-7
The marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) plays a vital role in the transport of momentum and heat from the surface of the ocean into the atmosphere. A detailed study on the MABL characteristics was carried out using high-resolution surface-wind data as measured by the QuikSCAT (Quick scatterometer) satellite. Spatial variations in the surface wind, frictional velocity, roughness parameter and drag coefficient for the different seasons were studied. The surface wind was strong during the southwest monsoon season due to the modulation induced by the Low Level Jetstream. The drag coefficient was larger during this season, due to the strong winds and was lower during the winter months. The spatial variations in the frictional velocity over the seas was small during the post-monsoon season (~0.2 m s-1). The maximum spatial variation in the frictional velocity was found over the south Arabian Sea (0.3 to 0.5 m s-1) during the southwest monsoon period, followed by the pre-monsoon over the Bay of Bengal (0.1 to 0.25 m s-1). The mean wind-stress curl during the winter was positive over the equatorial region, with a maximum value of 1.5×10-7N m-3, but on either side of the equatorial belt, a negative wind-stress curl dominated. The area average of the frictional velocity and drag coefficient over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were also studied. The values of frictional velocity shows a variability that is similar to the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and this was confirmed via wavelet analysis. In the case of the drag coefficient, the prominent oscillations were ISO and quasi-biweekly mode (QBM). The interrelationship between the drag coefficient and the frictional velocity with wind speed in both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal was also studied.
Discrepancy and Applicability of Various Similarity Functions in Flux Calculations Under Stable Conditions
GUO Xiaofeng, ZHANG Hongsheng, CAI Xuhui, KANG Ling, LI Wanbiao, DU Jinlin
2007, 24(4): 644-654. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0644-2
Based on data obtained during the Huaihe River Basin Experiment (HUBEX) in 1999, this study intends to detect the quantitative discrepancies in the momentum (τ0), sensible heat (H0) and latent heat (E0) fluxes among six sets of similarity functions with the aerodynamic method. It also aims to clarify the applicability of the functions under stable conditions. The relative discrepancy was studied with the normalized transfer coefficients for τ0, H0 and E0, namely CD, CH and CQ, respectively. Except for one set of functions that adopted a rather small von Karman's constant (0.365), the relative discrepancy in τ0 among the other functions was less than 10%, while that in H0 E0 sometimes reached 25% when the bulk Richardson number (RiB) was less than 0.07. The absolute discrepancy in the fluxes was studied with statistical computations. Among the six sets of functions, the discrepancy in τ0, H0 and E0 sometimes reached 0.03 kg m-1 s-2, 4 W m-2 and 10 W m-2, respectively, and the discrepancy in the energy balance ratio sometimes exceeded 0.1. Furthermore, when RiB exceeded the critical value Ric) for a specific set of functions, no fluxes could be derived with the functions. It is therefore suggested that RiB be compared with Ric before computing the fluxes if RiB is less than Ric. Finally, two sets of nonlinear similarity functions are recommended, due to their unlimited applicability in terms of Ri B.
Teleconnections of Inter-Annual Streamflow Fluctuation in Slovakia with Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Oscillation, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Phenomena
2007, 24(4): 655-663. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0655-z
The aim of the paper is to analyze a possible teleconnection of Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), Southern Oscillation (SO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and Arctic Oscillation (AO) phenomena with long-term streamflow fluctuation of the Bela River (1895--2004) and Cierny Hron River (1931--2004) (central Slovakia). Homogeneity, long-term trends, as well as inter-annual dry and wet cycles were analyzed for the entire 1895--2004 time series of the Bela River and for the 1931--2004 time series of the Cierny Hron River. Inter-annual fluctuation of the wet and dry periods was identified using spectral analysis. The most significant period is that of 3.6 years. Other significant periods are those of 2.35 years, 13.5 years, and 21 years. Since these periods were found in other rivers of the world, as well as in SO, NAO, and AO phenomena, they can be considered as relating to the general regularity of the Earth.
A Numerical Study on the Winter Monsoon and Cold Surge over East Asia
LI Qiaoping, DING Yihui, DONG Wenjie, YAN Guanhua
2007, 24(4): 664-678. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0664-y
By using the improved regional climate model (RegCM\_NCC), a numerical study has been undertaken for the East Asia region over a period of 5 years (1998--2002) in an effort to evaluate the model's ability to reproduce the winter monsoon conditions that were observed. The results showed that the model can successfully simulate the basic characteristics of the winter monsoon circulations, including the location and intensity of the cold-surface, high-pressure system, as well as the wind patterns and the intensity of the winter monsoon. The simulated occurrence frequency and regions of the cold surge were consistent with the observations. The simulated rainfall distribution over China was consistent with the observations collected in South China. The features of the simulated moisture transport were also in good agreement with the observations that were derived from the NCEP reanalysis data, indicating that moisture transport coming from the Bay of Bengal trough plays a crucial role in supplying moisture needed for precipitation in South China. In addition, the moisture transport coming from the near-equatorial west-Pacific was also important. These two branches of moisture transport converged in South China, as a prerequisite for occurrence of the precipitation that was observed there. Heat budgets have shown that the development of a heat sink over the East Asian continent was remarkable and its thermal contrast relative to the neighboring seas was the important forcing factor for the winter monsoon activity. The simulation also indicated that the significant differences in circulation patterns and rainfalls during the winters of 1997/98 and 1998/99 were affected by cold and warm ENSO events, respectively. The above analysis demonstrated the model's ability to simulate the East Asian winter monsoon.
Establishment and Evaluation of a Method for Analyzing Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds
SUN Yang, WANG Yuesi, XIU Tianyang, WANG Yinghong, XU Xin
2007, 24(4): 679-687. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0679-4
An automated cumulative sampling system and a method that combines a two-step cryo-concentrated system and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CCS-GC/MS) are introduced. The method is evaluated by a set of special experiments and the results are presented. The lowest measurement detection limit was expanded from 10-6 nmol mol-1 to 10-12 nmol mol-1 by using CCS-GC/MS instead of the simpler method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with the average responsible factor of 39 object compounds being 2.9×10-12. When the volume of air sample reached 1000 cm3, the lowest detection limit reached up to 7×10-12--40×10-12 nmol mol-1. The CCS-GC/MS method can potentially identify all objective chemical species in an atmospheric sample, with an average 2.5 s bias error of retention time for 39 gas chromatography (GC) peaks. Within the range 0--400×10-9 nmol mol-1, the concentration of 39 kinds of objective compounds can be individually calculated very accurately by a standard curve [average r2 (coefficient of determination) value of above 0.99]. The recovery efficiency was 88%--111%, with an average of 100.8% ±5.6%. The bias error of precision was 2%--14%, with an average of 6.6%.
Atmospheric Environmental Capacity of SO2 in Winter over Lanzhou in China: A Case Study
AN Xingqin, ZUO Hongchao, CHEN Lijuan
2007, 24(4): 688-699. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0688-3
The total emission control method based on atmospheric environmental capacity is the most effective in air pollution mitigation. The atmospheric environmental capacities of SO2 on representative days over Lanzhou are estimated using the numerical models RAMS, HYPACT and a linear programming model, according to the national ambient air quality standard of China (NAAQSCHN). The results show that the fields of meteorological elements and SO2 simulated by the models agree reasonably well with observations. The atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2 over Lanzhou is around 111.7×103 kg d-1, and in order to meet the air quality level II of the NAAQSCHN, SO2 emissions need to be reduced by 20%.
Estimating Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from Station Observations
REN Fumin, WANG Yongmei, WANG Xiaoling, LI Weijing
2007, 24(4): 700-711. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0700-y
In this paper, an objective technique for estimating the tropical cyclone (TC) precipitation from station observations is proposed. Based on a comparison between the Original Objective Method (OOM) and the Expert Subjective Method (ESM), the Objective Synoptic Analysis Technique (OSAT) for partitioning TC precipitation was developed by analyzing the western North Pacific (WNP) TC historical track and the daily precipitation datasets. Being an objective way of the ESM, OSAT overcomes the main problems in OOM, by changing two fixed parameters in OOM, the thresholds for the distance of the absolute TC precipitation D0 and the TC size D1, into variable parameters. Case verification for OSAT was also carried out by applying CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique) daily precipitation measurements, which is NOAA's combined satellite precipitation measurement system. This indicates that OSAT is capable of distinguishing simultaneous TC precipitation rain-belts from those associated with different TCs or with middle-latitude weather systems.
Performance of a Reconfigured Atmospheric General Circulation Model at Low Resolution
WEN Xinyu, ZHOU Tianjun, WANG Shaowu, WANG Bin, WAN Hui, LI Jian
2007, 24(4): 712-728. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0712-7
Paleoclimate simulations usually require model runs over a very long time. The fast integration version of a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM), which shares the same physical and dynamical processes but with reduced horizontal resolution and increased time step, is usually developed. In this study, we configure a fast version of an atmospheric GCM (AGCM), the Grid Atmospheric Model of IAP/LASG (Institute of Atmospheric Physics/State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics), at low resolution (GAMIL-L, hereafter), and compare the simulation results with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and other data to examine its performance. GAMIL-L, which is derived from the original GAMIL, is a finite difference AGCM with 72×40 grids in longitude and latitude and 26 vertical levels. To validate the simulated climatology and variability, two runs were achieved. One was a 60-year control run with fixed climatological monthly sea surface temperature (SST) forcing, and the other was a 50-yr (1950--2000) integration with observational time-varying monthly SST forcing. Comparisons between these two cases and the reanalysis, including intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability are also presented. In addition, the differences between GAMIL-L and the original version of GAMIL are also investigated. The results show that GAMIL-L can capture most of the large-scale dynamical features of the atmosphere, especially in the tropics and mid latitudes, although a few deficiencies exist, such as the underestimated Hadley cell and thereby the weak strength of the Asia summer monsoon. However, the simulated mean states over high latitudes, especially over the polar regions, are not acceptable. Apart from dynamics, the thermodynamic features mainly depend upon the physical parameterization schemes. Since the physical package of GAMIL-L is exactly the same as the original high-resolution version of GAMIL, in which the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2) physical package was used, there are only small differences between them in the precipitation and temperature fields. Because our goal is to develop a fast-running AGCM and employ it in the coupled climate system model of IAP/LASG for paleoclimate studies such as ENSO and Australia-Asia monsoon, particular attention has been paid to the model performances in the tropics. More model validations, such as those ran for the Southern Oscillation and South Asia monsoon, indicate that GAMIL-L is reasonably competent and valuable in this regard.
A Note on the Role of Meridional Wind Stress Anomalies and Heat Flux in ENSO Simulations
ZHU Jieshun, SUN Zhaobo, ZHOU Guangqing
2007, 24(4): 729-738. doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0729-y
Four comparative experiments and some supplementary experiments were conducted to examine the role of meridional wind stress anomalies and heat flux variability in ENSO simulations by using a high-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM). The results indicate that changes in the direction and magnitude of meridional wind stress anomalies have little influence on ENSO simulations until meridional wind stress anomalies are unrealistically enlarged by a factor of 5.0. However, evidence of an impact on ENSO simulations due to heat flux variability was found. The simulated Nino-3 index without the effect of heat flux anomalies tended to be around 1.0circ lower than the observed, as well as the control run, during the peak months of ENSO events.