## 2008 Vol. 25, No. 2

Display Method:
2008, 25(2): 157-163. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0157-7
[Abstract](1081) [PDF 379KB](1672)
Abstract:
A wavelet method was applied to detect inhomogeneities in daily meteorological series, data which are being increasingly applied in studies of climate extremes. The wavelet method has been applied to a few well-established long-term daily temperature series back to the 18th century, which have been homogenized" with conventional approaches. Various types of problems remaining in the series were revealed with the wavelet method. Their influences on analyses of change in climate extremes are discussed. The results have importance for understanding issues in conventional climate data processing and for development of improved methods of homogenization in order to improve analysis of climate extremes based on daily data.
2008, 25(2): 164-180. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0164-8
Abstract:
Systematic studies on the cryosphere in China started in the late 1950s. Significant achievements have been made by continuous investigation of glacier inventories, frozen ground observations, paleo-climate analyses of ice cores, process studies and the modeling of cryopsheric/atmospheric interactions. The general facts and understanding of these changes include: (1) Solid precipitation, including the number of days with frost and hail storms, shows a decreasing tendency over the past half century. (2) In most areas glaciers are retreating or have completely vanished (>80%), some glaciers are still advancing (5%--20% depending upon time period). The annual glacial melt water has been increasing since the 1980s. This increased supply of melt water to river runoff in Northwest China is about a 10%--13%. (3) The long-term variability of snow cover in western China is characterized by a large inter-annual variation superimposed on a small increasing trend. Snow cover variability in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP) is influenced by the Indian monsoon, and conversely impacts monsoon onset and strength and eventually the drought and flood events in middle-low reaches of Yangtze River. (4) Frozen ground, including permafrost, is decaying both in QXP and in Northeast China. The most significant changes occurred in the regions with thickest seasonal frozen ground (SFG), i.e., inland QXP, then northeastern and northwestern QXP. The cold season air temperature is the main factor controlling SFG change. The increase of ground surface temperatures is more significant than air temperature. (5) The sea ice coverage over the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea has deceased since the 1980s. (6) River ice duration and ice thickness is also decreasing in northern China. In 2001, the Chinese National Committee of World Climate Research Program/Climate and Cyosphere (WCRP/CliC) (CNC-CliC) was organized to strengthen research on climate and cryosphere in China. Future monitoring of the cryosphere in China will be enhanced both in spatial coverage and through the use of new techniques. Interactions between atmosphere/cryosphere/ hydrosphere/land-surface will be assessed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of cryospheric change.
2008, 25(2): 181-201. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0181-7
[Abstract](1149) [PDF 832KB](1466)
Abstract:
A regional nitrogen cycle model, named IAP-N, was designed for simulating regional nitrogen (N) cycling and calculating N fluxes flowing among cultivated soils, crops, and livestock, as well as human, atmospheric and other systems. The conceptual structure and calculation methods and procedures of this model are described in detail. All equations of the model are presented. In addition, definitions of all the involved variables and parameters are given. An application of the model in China at the national scale is presented. In this example, annual surpluses of consumed synthetic N fertilizer; emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxide (NOx); N loss from agricultural lands due to leaching and runoff; and sources and sinks of anthropogenic reactive N (Nr) were estimated for the period 1961--2004. The model estimates show that surpluses of N fertilizer started to occur in the mid 1990s and amounted to 5.7 Tg N yr-1 in the early 2000s. N2O emissions related to agriculture were estimated as 0.69 Tg N yr-1 in 2004, of which 58% was released directly from N added to agricultural soils. Total NH3 and NOx emissions in 2004 amounted to 4.7 and 4.9 Tg N yr-1, respectively. About 3.9 Tg N yr-1 of N was estimated to have flowed out of the cultivated soil layer in 2004, which accounted for 33% of applied synthetic N fertilizer. Anthropogenic Nr sources changed from 2.8 (1961) to 28.1 Tg N yr-1 (2004), while removal (sinks) changed from to 2.1 to 8.4 Tg N yr-1. The ratio of anthropogenic Nr sources to sinks was only 1.4 in 1961 but 3.3 in 2004. Further development of the IAP-N model is suggested to focus upon: (a) inter-comparison with other regional N models; (b) overcoming the limitations of the current model version, such as adaptation to other regions, high-resolution database, and so on; and (c) developing the capacity to estimate the safe threshold of anthropogenic Nr source to sink ratios.
2008, 25(2): 202-212. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0202-6
[Abstract](1096) [PDF 144KB](1362)
Abstract:
Convective processes affect large-scale environments through cloud-radiation interaction, cloud microphysical processes, and surface rainfall processes. Over the last three decades, cloud-resolving models (CRMs) have demonstrated to be capable of simulating convective-radiative responses to an imposed large-scale forcing. The CRM-produced cloud and radiative properties have been utilized to study the convective-related processes and their ensemble effects on large-scale circulations. This review summarizes the recent progress on the understanding of convective processes with the use of CRM simulations, including precipitation processes; cloud microphysical and radiative processes; dynamical processes; precipitation efficiency; diurnal variations of tropical oceanic convection; local-scale atmosphere-ocean coupling processes; and tropical convective-radiative equilibrium states. Two different ongoing applications of CRMs to general circulation models (GCMs) are discussed: replacing convection and cloud schemes for studying the interaction between cloud systems and large-scale circulation, and improving the schemes for climate simulations.
2008, 25(2): 213-226. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0213-3
[Abstract](1094) [PDF 1250KB](1541)
Abstract:
The climate changes that occured following the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Phillippines on 15 June 1991 have been simulated using the ARPEGE atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM). The model was forced by a reconstructed spatial-time distribution of stratospheric aerosols intended for use in long climate simulations. Four statistical ensembles of the AGCM simulations with and without volcanic aerosols over a period of 5 years following the eruption have been made, and the calculated fields have been compared to available observations. The model is able to reproduce some of the observed features after the eruption, such as the winter warming pattern that was observed over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) during the following winters. This pattern was caused by an enhanced Equator-to-pole temperature gradient in the stratosphere that developed due to aerosol heating of the tropics. This in turn led to a strengthening of the polar vortex, which tends to modulate the planetary wave field in such a way that an anomalously positive Arctic Oscillation pattern is produced in the troposphere and at the surface, favouring warm conditions over the NH. During the summer, the model produced a more uniform cooling over the NH.
2008, 25(2): 227-245. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0227-x
[Abstract](1137) [PDF 539KB](1478)
Abstract:
Existing satellite microwave algorithms for retrieving Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Wind (SSW) are applicable primarily for non-raining cloudy conditions. With the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite in 2002, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) onboard provides some unique measurements at lower frequencies which are sensitive to ocean surface parameters under adverse weather conditions. In this study, a new algorithm is developed to derive SST and SSW for hurricane predictions such as hurricane vortex analysis from the AMSR-E measurements at 6.925 and 10.65 GHz. In the algorithm, the effects of precipitation emission and scattering on the measurements are properly taken into account. The algorithm performances are evaluated with buoy measurements and aircraft dropsonde data. It is found that the root mean square (RMS) errors for SST and SSW are about 1.8 K and 1.9 m s-1, respectively, when the results are compared with the buoy data over open oceans under precipitating clouds (e.g., its liquid water path is larger than 0.5 mm), while they are 1.1 K for SST and 2.0 m s-1 for SSW, respectively, when the retrievals are validated against the dropsonde measurements over warm oceans. These results indicate that our newly developed algorithm can provide some critical surface information for tropical cycle predictions. Currently, this newly developed algorithm has been implemented into the hybrid variational scheme for the hurricane vortex analysis to provide predictions of SST and SSW fields.
2008, 25(2): 246-252. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0246-7
[Abstract](1051) [PDF 626KB](1486)
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This paper investigates possible warming effects of an El Nino event on the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Most pure positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events (without an El Nino event co-occurring) have a maximum positive SSTA mainly in the central Indian Ocean south of the equator, while most co-occurrences with an El Nino event exhibit a northwest-southeast typical dipole mode. It is therefore inferred that warming in the northwestern Indian Ocean is closely related to the El Nino event. Based on the atmospheric bridge theory, warming in the northwestern Indian Ocean during co-occurring cases may be primarily caused by relatively less latent heat loss from the ocean due to reduced wind speed. The deepened thermocline also contributes to the warming along the east coast of Africa through the suppressed upwelling of the cold water. Therefore, the El Nino event is suggested to have a modulating effect on the structure of the dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean.
2008, 25(2): 253-266. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0253-8
[Abstract](1033) [PDF 1537KB](1276)
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A new method for deduction of the sensible heat flux is validated with three sets of published SODAR (sound detection and ranging) data. Although the related expressions have previously been confirmed by the author with surface layer data, they have not yet been validated with observations from the boundary layer before this work. In the study, selected SODAR data are used to test the method for the convective boundary layer. The sensible heat flux (SHF) retrieved from SODAR data is found to decrease linearly with height in the mixed layer. The surface sensible heat fluxes derived from the deduced sensible heat flux profiles under convective conditions agree well with those measured by the eddy correlation method. The characteristics of SHF profiles deduced from SODAR data in different places reflect the background meteorology and terrain. The upper part of the SHF profile (SHFP) for a complicated terrain is found to have a different slope from the lower part. It is suggested that the former reflects the advective characteristic of turbulence in upwind topography. A similarity relationship for the estimation of SHFP in a well mixed layer with surface SHF and zero-heat-flux layer height is presented.
2008, 25(2): 267-278. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0267-2
[Abstract](1006) [PDF 1726KB](1567)
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Daily precipitation rates observed at 576 stations in China from 1961 to 2000 were classified into six grades of intensity, including trace (no amount), slight (≤1 mm d-1), small, large, heavy, and very heavy. The last four grades together constitute the so called effective precipitation (>1 mm d-1). The spatial distribution and temporal trend of the graded precipitation days are examined. A decreasing trend in trace precipitation days is observed for the whole of China, except at several sites in the south of the middle section of the Yangtze River, while a decreasing trend in slight precipitation days only appears in eastern China. The decreasing trend and interannual variability of trace precipitation days is consistent with the warming trend and corresponding temperature variability in China for the same period, indicating a possible role played by increased surface air temperature in cloud formation processes. For the effective precipitation days, a decreasing trend is observed along the Yellow River valley and for the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Southwest China, while an increasing trend is found for Xinjiang, the eastern Tibetan Plateau, Northeast China and Southeast China. The decreasing trend of effective precipitation days for the middle-lower Yellow River valley and the increasing trend for the lower Yangtze River valley are most likely linked to anomalous monsoon circulation in East China. The most important contributor to the trend in effective precipitation depends upon the region concerned.
2008, 25(2): 279-296. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0279-y
[Abstract](1079) [PDF 4430KB](1131)
Abstract:
The 1999 East Asian summer monsoon was very unusual for its weak northward advance and remarkably anomalous climate conditions. The monsoonal southwesterly airflow and related rain belt in East Asia were blocked south of the Yangtze River Valley. The monsoonal airflow and major moisture transport conduct shifted eastward and turned northward to Japan from the tropical western Pacific rather than to East China from the South China Sea (SCS) as in normal years. Severe and prolonged drought occurred over extensive areas of North China and heavy precipitation in South China and Japan. The investigation on the possible intrinsic mechanisms related to such an anomalous monsoon year has shown that the unique behavior of intraseasonal oscillation may play an essential role during this process. During this year, the northward propagation of 30--60-day anomalous low-level cyclone/anticyclone collapsed in the region around 20N and did not extend beyond the latitudes of the Yangtze River basin due to the barrier of strong cold air intrusion from the mid-latitudes. The southwesterly moisture flux on the northwestern flank of the anticyclonic moisture transport system in the western North Pacific, which was regulated by the northward shift of 30--60-day cyclonic/anticyclonic moisture transport, also did not reach the region north of 30N as well. Under this circumstance, the weak northward advance of the monsoon westerlies and associated northward moisture transport could not arrive in North China and led to the severe droughts there in 1999. The SCS and South China were mostly affected by the airflow in the southern and northern flanks of the same 30--60-day cyclones or anticyclones, respectively, and thus controlled by the nearly reverse zonal wind and moisture convergent/divergent conditions. The rainfall in the SCS and South China showed out-of-phase oscillation through the transient local Hadley circulation, with the rainfall maximum occurring in the SCS (South China) when the 30--60-day anticyclone (cyclone) reached its peak phase.
2008, 25(2): 297-305. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0297-9
[Abstract](1099) [PDF 332KB](2166)
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A total of 11 PM2.5 samples were collected from October 2003 to October 2004 at 8 sampling sites in Beijing city. The PM2.5 concentrations are all above the PM2.5 pollution standard (65 μg m-3) established by Environmental Protection Agency, USA (USEPA) in 1997 except for the Ming Tombs site. PM2.5 concentrations in winter are much higher than in summer. The 16 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by USEPA in PM2.5 were completely identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with variable wavelength detector (VWD) and fluorescence detector (FLD) employed. The PM2.5 concentrations indicate that the pollution situation is still serious in Beijing. The sum of 16 PAHs concentrations ranged from 22.17 to 5366 ng m-3. The concentrations of the heavier molecular weight PAHs have a different pollution trend from the lower PAHs. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The source apportionment analysis suggests that PAHs from PM2.5 in Beijing city mainly come from coal combustion and vehicle exhaust emission. New measures about restricting coal combustion and vehicle exhaust must be established as soon as possible to improve the air pollution situation in Beijing city.
2008, 25(2): 306-318. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0306-z
[Abstract](1018) [PDF 1657KB](1916)
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The radon transport test, which is a widely used test case for atmospheric transport models, is carried out to evaluate the tracer advection schemes in the Grid-Point Atmospheric Model of IAP-LASG (GAMIL). Two of the three available schemes in the model are found to be associated with significant biases in the polar regions and in the upper part of the atmosphere, which implies potentially large errors in the simulation of ozone-like tracers. Theoretical analyses show that inconsistency exists between the advection schemes and the discrete continuity equation in the dynamical core of GAMIL and consequently leads to spurious sources and sinks in the tracer transport equation. The impact of this type of inconsistency is demonstrated by idealized tests and identified as the cause of the aforementioned biases. Other potential effects of this inconsistency are also discussed. Results of this study provide some hints for choosing suitable advection schemes in the GAMIL model. At least for the polar-region-concentrated atmospheric components and the closely correlated chemical species, the Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian advection scheme produces more reasonable simulations of the large-scale transport processes without significantly increasing the computational expense.
2008, 25(2): 319-328. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0319-7
Abstract:
The relationship between the interannual variation in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) and the thermal state over the warm pool (WP) is examined in this paper. The results show that the subsurface temperature in the WP is well correlated with TC geographical distribution and track type. Their relation is linked by the East Asian monsoon trough. During the warm years, the westward-retreating monsoon trough creates convergence and vorticity fields that are favorable for tropical cyclogenesis in the northwest of the WNP, whereas more TCs concentrating in the southeast result from eastward penetration of the monsoon trough during the cold years. The steering flows at 500 hPa lead to a westward displacement track in the warm years and recurving prevailing track in the cold years. The two types of distinct processes in the monsoon environment triggering tropical cyclogenesis are hypothesized by composites centered for TC genesis location corresponding to two kinds of thermal states of the WP. During the warm years, low-frequency intraseasonal oscillation is active in the west of the WNP such that eastward-propagating westerlies cluster TC genesis in that region. In contrast, during the cold years, the increased cyclogenesis in the southeast of the WNP is mainly associated with tropical depression type disturbances transiting from equatorially trapped mixed Rossby gravity waves. Both of the processes may be fundamental mechanisms for the inherent interannual variation in TC activity over the WNP.
2008, 25(2): 329-338. doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0329-5
[Abstract](1787) [PDF 1380KB](2291)
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Using daily outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data of geopotential height fields for 1979--2006, the relationship between persistent heavy rain events (PHREs) in the Huaihe River valley (HRV) and the distribution pattern of convective activity in the tropical western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) is investigated. Based on nine cases of PHREs in the HRV, common characteristics of the West Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) show that the northern edge of the WPSH continues to lie in the HRV and is associated with the persistent north weak south strong" distribution pattern of convective activities in the WPWP. Composite analysis of OLR leading the circulation indicates that the response of the WPSH to OLR anomaly patterns lags by about 1--2 days. In order to explain the reason for the effects of the distribution pattern of convective activities in the WPWP on the persistent northern edge of the WPSH in the HRV, four typical persistent heavy and light rain events in the Yangtze River valley (YRV) are contrasted with the PHREs in the HRV. The comparison indicates that when the distribution pattern of the convective activities anomaly behaves in a weak (strong) manner across the whole WPWP, persistent heavy (light) rain tends to occur in the YRV. When the distribution pattern of the convective activities anomaly behaves according to the north weak south strong" pattern in the WPWP, persistent heavy rain tends to occur in the HRV. The effects of the north weak south strong" distribution pattern of convective activities on PHREs in the HRV are not obvious over the seasonal mean timescale, perhaps due to the non-extreme status of convective activities in the WPWP.