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2010 Vol. 27, No. 4

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CCSC (climate change study in China)
An Economical Approach to Four-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation
WANG Bin, LIU Juanjuan, WANG Shudong, CHENG Wei, LIU Juan, LIU Chengsi, Qingnong XIAO, Ying-Hwa KUO
2010, 27(4): 715-727. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9122-3
Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVar) is one of the most promising methods to provide optimal analysis for numerical weather prediction (NWP). Five national NWP centers in the world have successfully applied 4DVar methods in their global NWPs, thanks to the increment method and adjoint technique. However, the application of 4DVar is still limited by the computer resources available at many NWP centers and research institutes. It is essential, therefore, to further reduce the computational cost of 4DVar. Here, an economical approach to implement 4DVar is proposed, using the technique of dimension-reduced projection (DRP), which is called ``DRP-4DVar." The proposed approach is based on dimension reduction using an ensemble of historical samples to define a subspace. It directly obtains an optimal solution in the reduced space by fitting observations with historical time series generated by the model to form consistent forecast states, and therefore does not require implementation of the adjoint of tangent linear approximation. To evaluate the performance of the DRP-4DVar on assimilating different types of mesoscale observations, some observing system simulation experiments are conducted using MM5 and a comparison is made between adjoint-based 4DVar and DRP-4DVar using a 6-hour assimilation window.
Application of the Characteristic CIP Method to a Shallow Water Model on the Sphere
PENG Xindong, CHANG Yan, LI Xingliang, XIAO Feng
2010, 27(4): 728-740. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9148-6
Semi-implicit algorithms are popularly used to deal with the gravitational term in numerical models. In this paper, we adopt the method of characteristics to compute the solutions for gravity waves on a sphere directly using a semi-Lagrangian advection scheme instead of the semi-implicit method in a shallow water model, to avoid expensive matrix inversions. Adoption of the semi-Lagrangian scheme renders the numerical model always stable for any Courant number, and which saves CPU time. To illustrate the efficiency of the characteristic constrained interpolation profile (CIP) method, some numerical results are shown for idealized test cases on a sphere in the Yin-Yang grid system.
A New Strategy for Solving a Class of Constrained Nonlinear Optimization Problems Related to Weather and Climate Predictability
DUAN Wansuo, LUO Haiying
2010, 27(4): 741-749. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9141-0
There are three common types of predictability problems in weather and climate, which each involve different constrained nonlinear optimization problems: the lower bound of maximum predictable time, the upper bound of maximum prediction error, and the lower bound of maximum allowable initial error and parameter error. Highly efficient algorithms have been developed to solve the second optimization problem. And this optimization problem can be used in realistic models for weather and climate to study the upper bound of the maximum prediction error. Although a filtering strategy has been adopted to solve the other two problems, direct solutions are very time-consuming even for a very simple model, which therefore limits the applicability of these two predictability problems in realistic models. In this paper, a new strategy is designed to solve these problems, involving the use of the existing highly efficient algorithms for the second predictability problem in particular. Furthermore, a series of comparisons between the older filtering strategy and the new method are performed. It is demonstrated that the new strategy not only outputs the same results as the old one, but is also more computationally efficient. This would suggest that it is possible to study the predictability problems associated with these two nonlinear optimization problems in realistic forecast models of weather or climate.
Impacts of Future NOx and CO Emissions on Regional Chemistry and Climate over Eastern China
WANG Geli, YANG Peicai, LIU Chuanxi, LIU Yi, LU Daren
2010, 27(4): 750-760. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9101-8
A coupled chemical/dynamical model (SOCOL-SOlar Climate Ozone Links) is applied to study the impacts of future enhanced CO and NOx emissions over eastern China on regional chemistry and climate. The result shows that the increase of CO and NOx emissions has significant effects on regional chemistry, including NOx, CO, O3, and OH concentrations. During winter, the CO concentration is uniformly increased in the northern hemisphere by about 10 ppbv. During summer, the increase of CO has a regional distribution. The change in O3, concentrations near eastern China has both strong seasonal and spatial variations. During winter, the surface O3, concentrations decrease by about 2 ppbv, while during summer they increase by about 2 ppbv in eastern China. The changes of CO, NOx, and O3, induce important impacts on OH concentrations. The changes in chemistry, especially O3, induce important effects on regional climate. The analysis suggests that during winter, the surface temperature decreases and air pressure increases in central-eastern China. The changes of temperature and pressure produce decreases in vertical velocity. We should mention that the model resolution is coarse, and the calculated concentrations are generally underestimated when they are compared to measured results. However, because this model is a coupled dynamical/chemical model, it can provide some useful insights regarding the climate impacts due to changes in air pollutant emissions.
Local Meteorological and Synoptic Characteristics of Fogs Formed over Incheon International Airport in the West Coast of Korea
Chang Ki KIM, Seong Soo YUM
2010, 27(4): 761-776. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9090-7
Fogs observed over Incheon international airport (IIA) in the west coast of Korea from January 2002 to August 2006 are classified into categories of coastal fog, cold sea fog, and warm sea fog based on the areal extent of the fogs and the difference between the air temperature (T) and the SST, i.e., cold sea fog if TSST = T-SST>0oC and warm sea fog if TSST oC. The numbers of coastal, cold, and warm sea fog cases are 64, 26, and 9. Coastal fogs form most frequently in winter, while cold sea fogs occur mostly in summer and warm sea fogs are observed from January to May but not in November and December. On average the air gets colder by 1.6oC during the three hours leading up to the coastal fog formation, and an additional cooling of 1.1oC occurs during the fog. The change in the dew point temperature (Td) is minimal except during the fog (0.6oC). Decreases in T for the cold and warm sea fogs are relatively smaller. The average Td is higher than SST during the cold sea fog periods but this Td is more than 4oC higher than that for the corresponding non-fog days, suggesting that cold sea fogs be formed by the cooling of already humid air (i.e., Td>SST). Increases of Td are significant during the warm sea fog periods (1.4oC), implying that efficient moisture supply is essential to warm sea fog formation. Four major synoptic patterns are identified in association with the observed fogs. The most frequent is a north Pacific high that accounts for 38% of cases. Surface or upper inversions are present in 77%, 69%, and 81% of the fog periods for coastal, cold, and warm sea fogs, respectively.
Application of Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization to Beijing Daily Temperature Series (1960--2006)
LI Zhen, YAN Zhongwei
2010, 27(4): 777-787. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9052-0
Homogenization of climate observations remains a challenge to climate change researchers, especially in cases where metadata (e.g., probable dates of break points) are not always available. To examine the influence of metadata on homogenizing climate data, the authors applied the recently developed Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method to the Beijing (BJ) daily temperature series for 1960--2006 in three cases with different references: (1) 13M---considering metadata at BJ and 12 nearby stations; (2) 13NOM---considering the same 13 stations without metadata; and (3) 21NOM---considering 20 further stations and BJ without metadata. The estimated mean annual, seasonal, and monthly inhomogeneities are similar between the 13M and 13NOM cases, while those in the 21NOM case are slightly different. The detected biases in the BJ series corresponding to the documented relocation dates are as low as -0.71oC, -0.79oC, and -0.5oC for the annual mean in the 3 cases, respectively. Other biases, including those undocumented in metadata, are minor. The results suggest that any major inhomogeneity could be detected via MASH, albeit with minor differences in estimating inhomogeneities based on the different references. The adjusted annual series showed a warming trend of 0.337, 0.316, and 0.365oC (10 yr)-1 for the three cases, respectively, smaller than the estimate of 0.453oC (10 yr)-1 in the original series, mainly due to the relocation-induced biases. The impact of the MASH-type homogenization on estimates of climate extremes in the daily temperature series is also discussed.
Increased Tibetan Plateau Snow Depth:An Indicator of the Connection between Enhanced Winter NAO and Late-Spring Tropospheric Cooling over East Asia
XIN Xiaoge, ZHOU Tianjun, YU Rucong
2010, 27(4): 788-794. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9071-x
The authors present evidence to suggest that variations in the snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are connected with changes of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter (JFM). During the positive phase of NAO, the Asian subtropical westerly jet intensifies and the India-Myanmar trough deepens. Both of these processes enhance ascending motion over the TP. The intensified upward motion, together with strengthened southerlies upstream of the India-Myanmar trough, favors stronger snowfall over the TP, which is associated with East Asian tropospheric cooling in the subsequent late spring (April--May). Hence, the decadal increase of winter snow depth over the TP after the late 1970s is proposed to be an indicator of the connection between the enhanced winter NAO and late spring tropospheric cooling over East Asia.
Convective Asymmetries Associated with Tropical Cyclone Landfall: beta-Plane Simulations
2010, 27(4): 795-806. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9086-3
The physical processes associated with changes in the convective structure of an idealized tropical cyclone (TC) during landfall on a beta-plane were studied using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University--National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model, version 3 (MM5). The simulation results suggested that the suppression of moisture supply and increased friction acted to enhance the convection from the left and front quadrants of the TC to the front and right of the TC during different periods of landfall. When surface moisture flux was turned off, convection in other parts of the quadrant was clearly suppressed and the total rainfall was reduced. When surface friction was increased, precipitation showed a marked increase after the TC made landfall. Wetter air at low and intermediate levels, and drier air at high levels around the onshore side of the coastline led to a high value of convective available potential energy (CAPE). Consequently, convection was enhanced immediately downstream of this area when the surface moisture flux was cut off. When surface friction was increased, the physical process was similar prior to landfall. After landfall, increased convergence at the onshore side of the land resulted in enhanced convection in front of the TC. Consistent with previous findings, our results suggest that during landfall the TC structure changes from one of thermodynamic symmetry to asymmetry due to differential moisture flux between the land and sea surface. The asymmetry of the thermodynamic structure, which can be explained by the distribution of CAPE, causes an asymmetric rainfall structure.
Interaction between Planetary-Scale Diffluent Flow and Synoptic-Scale Waves During the Life Cycle of Blocking
LUO Dehai, LIU Jinting, LI Jianping
2010, 27(4): 807-831. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9074-7
In this paper, a new transient forced quasi-resonant triad interaction theory in a beta channel is proposed to investigate the interaction between planetary-scale diffluent flow composed of zonal wavenumbers 1--3 and synoptic-scale waves produced continuously by a synoptic-scale vorticity source fixed upstream of an incipient blocking region during the life cycle of blocking. It is shown that the superposition of initial three Rossby waves for zonal wavenumbers 1 (monopole), 2 (dipole), and 3 (monopole), which permit triad quasi-resonance, can represent an incipient blocking event. The synoptic-scale eddies may act to amplify the incipient blocking and to excite a blocking circulation with a strong meander, whose flow pattern depends on the initial amplitudes of the planetary waves and both the intensity and location of preexisting synoptic-scale waves. The onset (decay) of the planetary-scale split-flow blocking is mainly represented by a strong increase (decrease) in the amplitude of the zonal wavenumber 2 component, having a dipole meridional structure related to the preexisting synoptic-scale eddies. The typical persistence time of the model blocking was of about 20 days, consistent with observations of blocking patterns. In our model, isolated asymmetric dipole blocking is formed by synoptic-scale waves. The instantaneous fields of total streamfunctions exhibit a remarkable resemblance to the synoptic maps observed during the life cycle of blocking. During the onset stage, the synoptic-scale waves are enhanced and split into two branches around the blocking region due to the feedback of the amplified blocking, in agreement with the observed changes of synoptic-scale waves in real blocking events. In addition, a diagnostic case study of blocking is presented to confirm the forced quasi-resonant triad interaction theory proposed here.
Influence of South China Sea SST and the ENSO on Winter Rainfall over South China
ZHOU Lian-Tong, Chi-Yung TAM, ZHOU Wen, Johnny C. L. CHAN
2010, 27(4): 832-844. doi: 10.1007/s00376--009-9102-7
The present study investigates the influence of South China Sea (SCS) SST and ENSO on winter (January--February--March; JFM) rainfall over South China and its dynamic processes by using station observations for the period 1951--2003, Met Office Hadley Center SST data for the period 1900--2008, and ERA-40 reanalysis data for the period 1958--2002. It is found that JFM rainfall over South China has a significant correlation with Nino-3 and SCS SST. Analyses show that in El Nino or positive SCS SST anomaly years, southwesterly anomalies at 700 hPa dominate over the South China Sea, which in turn transports more moisture into South China and favors increased rainfall. A partial regression analysis indicates that the independent ENSO influence on winter rainfall occurs mainly over South China, whereas SCS SST has a larger independent influence on winter rainfall in northern part of South China. The temperature over South China shows an obvious decrease at 300 hPa and an increase near the surface, with the former induced by Nino-3 and the latter SCS SST anomalies. This enhances the convective instability and weakens the potential vorticity (PV), which explains the strengthening of ascending motion and the increase of JFM rainfall over South China.
The Prediction of Non-stationary Climate Series Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition
YANG Peicai, WANG Geli, BIAN Jianchun, ZHOU Xiuji
2010, 27(4): 845-854. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9128-x
This paper proposes a new approach which we refer to as ``segregated prediction" to predict climate time series which are nonstationary. This approach is based on the empirical mode decomposition method (EMD), which can decompose a time signal into a finite and usually small number of basic oscillatory components. To test the capabilities of this approach, some prediction experiments are carried out for several climate time series. The experimental results show that this approach can decompose the nonstationarity of the climate time series and segregate nonlinear interactions between the different mode components, which thereby is able to improve prediction accuracy of these original climate time series.
How Well do Existing Indices Measure the Strength of the East Asian Winter Monsoon?
2010, 27(4): 855-870. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9094-3
Defining the intensity of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) with a simple index has been a difficult task. This paper elaborates on the meanings of 18 existing EAWM strength indices and classifies them into four categories: low level wind indices, upper zonal wind shear indices, east-west pressure contrast indices, and East Asian trough indices. The temporal/spatial performance and prediction potential of these indices are then analyzed for the 1957--2001 period. It reveals that on the decadal timescale, most indices except the east--west pressure contrast indices can well capture the continuous weakening of the EAWM around 1986. On the interannual timescale, the low level wind indices and East Asian trough indices have the best predictability based on knowledge of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation, respectively. All the 18 existing indices can well describe the EAWM-related circulation, precipitation, and lower tropospheric air temperature anomalies. However, the variations of surface air temperature over large areas of central China cannot be well captured by most indices, which is possibly related to topographic effects. The results of this study may provide a possible reference for future studies of the EAWM.
A Comparison of GPS- and NWP-derived PW Data over the Korean Peninsula
Ha-Taek KWON, Eui-Hyun JUNG, Gyu-Ho LIM
2010, 27(4): 871-882. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9069-4
Precipitable Water (PW) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model analysis data were compared to further evaluate the efficacy of applying GPS-derived PW to the NWP model. The spatial and temporal variations of GPS-derived PW during a rainfall event were also examined. GPS-derived PW measurements show good agreement with the behavior of water vapor at a high spatial resolution during the analysis period. Temporal anomalies of GPS-derived PW moving along with the front are successfully detected by the GPS array. Large positive anomalies of GPS-derived PW are indicated immediately before a rainfall event, and the intensity of these positive anomalies do not seem to decrease significantly as the precipitation system passes. These results indicate that the Korean GPS network may have great potential as a PW sensor over the Korean Peninsula. In contrast with GPS-derived PW, NWP-derived PW shows negative biases. These biases appear to stem mainly from the differences between modeled and actual GPS site elevations, as GPS sites were generally located at elevations lower than those employed by the NWP model. However, there still exists a discernable dry bias after a PW correction is applied to NWP-derived PW. GPS-derived PW better reflects the spatial and temporal moisture variations of precipitation systems, as compared to NWP-derived PW. These results provide entirely new information for improving the regional NWP system, since GPS-derived PW produced with data from the Korean GPS network may be incorporated into the NWP model to improve rainfall forecasts.
Applying Artificial Neural Networks to Modeling the Middle Atmosphere
XIAO Cunying, HU Xiong
2010, 27(4): 883-890. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9019-1
An artificial neural network (ANN) is used to model the middle atmosphere using a large number of TIMED/SABER limb sounding temperature profiles. A three-layer feed-forward network is chosen based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm. Latitude, longitude, and height are chosen as the input vectors of the network while temperature is the output vector. The temperature observations during the period from 13 January through 16 March 2007, which are in the same satellite yaw, are taken as samples to train an ANN. Results suggest that the network has high quality for modeling spatial variations of temperature. Quantitative comparisons between the ANN outputs and those from the popular empirical NRLMSISE-00 model illustrate their generally consistent features and some specific differences. The NRLMSISE-00 models zonal mean temperatures are too high by ~6 K--10 K near the stratopause, and the amplitude and phase of the planetary wave number 1 activity are different in some respects from the ANN simulations above 45--50 km, suggesting improvement is needed in the NRLMSISE-00 model for more accurate simulation near and above the stratopause.
A Polarized Radiative Transfer Model Based on Successive Order of Scattering
DUAN Minzheng, Qilong MIN, LU Daren
2010, 27(4): 891-900. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9049-8
Based on Successive Order of Scattering approach, a full Vector Radiative Transfer model (SOSVRT) for vertically inhomogeneous plane-parallel media has been developed. To overcome computational burden of convergence, a simple approximation technique by truncating scattering orders with a geometry serial is used to reduce computational time. Analytical Fourier decomposition of phase matrix with three symmetry relationships and two mutual inverse operators has been implemented to further improve the computation efficiency. To improve the accuracy, a post-processing procedure is implemented to accurately interpolate the Stokes vector at arbitrary angles. Comparisons with the benchmarks for an atmosphere of randomly orientated oblate spheroids show excellent agreement for each stokes parameter (within 0.1%). SOSVRT has been tested for different atmospheric condition against RT3, which is based on doubling-adding method, the results approve that SOSVRT is accurate and much more efficient in vector radiative transfer modeling, especially for optical thin atmosphere, which is the most cases in polarized radiative transfer simulation. SOSVRT is written in fortran 90 and the code is freely accessible by contacting the author.
The Variations of Dominant Convection Modes over Asia, Indian Ocean, and Western Pacific Ocean during the Summers of 1997--2004
LI Yuefeng, XIAO Ziniu, JU Jianhua, Guoquan Hu
2010, 27(4): 901-920. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9072-9
The NOAA daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) daily precipitation data are used to study the variation of dominant convection modes and their relationships over Asia, the Indian Ocean, and the western Pacific Ocean during the summers from 1997 to 2004. Major findings are as follows: (1) Regression analysis with the OLR indicates the convective variations over Asian monsoon region are more closely associated with the convective activities over the western subtropical Pacific (WSP) than with those over the northern tropical Indian Ocean (NTIO). (2) The EOF analysis of OLR indicates the first mode (EOF1) exhibits the out-of-phase variations between eastern China and India, and between eastern China and the WSP. The OLR EOF1 primarily exhibits seasonal and even longer-term variations. (3) The OLR EOF2 mostly displays in-phase convective variations over India, the Bay of Bengal, and southeastern China. A wavelet analysis reveals intraseasonal variation (ISV) features in 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004. However, the effective ISV does not take place in every year and it seems to occur only when the centers of an east--west oriented dipole reach enough intensity over the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans. (4) The spatial patterns of OLR EOF3 are more complicated than those of EOF1 and EOF2, and an effective ISV is noted from 1999 to 2004. The OLR EOF3 implies there is added complexity of the OLR pattern when the effective ISV occurs. (5) The correlation analysis suggests the precipitation over India is more closely associated with the ISV, seasonal variations, and even longer-term variations than precipitation occurring over eastern China.
Potential Predictability of Sea Surface Temperature in a Coupled Ocean--Atmosphere GCM
YAN Li, WANG Panxing, YU Yongqiang, LI Lijuan, WANG Bin
2010, 27(4): 921-936. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9062-y
Using the Flexible Global Ocean--Atmosphere--Land System model (FGOALS) version g1.11, a group of seasonal hindcasting experiments were carried out. In order to investigate the potential predictability of sea surface temperature (SST), singular value decomposition (SVD) analyses were applied to extract dominant coupled modes between observed and predicated SST from the hindcasting experiments in this study. The fields discussed are sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical Pacific basin (20oS--20oN, 120oE--80oW), respectively starting in four seasons from 1982 to 2005. On the basis of SVD analysis, the simulated pattern was replaced with the corresponding observed pattern to reconstruct SST anomaly fields to improve the ability of the simulation. The predictive skill, anomaly correlation coefficients (ACC), after systematic error correction using the first five modes was regarded as potential predictability. Results showed that: 1) the statistical postprocessing approach was effective for systematic error correction; 2) model error sources mainly arose from mode 2 extracted from the SVD analysis---that is, during the transition phase of ENSO, the model encountered the spring predictability barrier; and 3) potential predictability (upper limits of predictability) could be high over most of the tropical Pacific basin, including the tropical western Pacific and an extra 10-degrees region of the mid and eastern Pacific.
Trends of Temperature Extremes in China and its Relationship with Global temperature anomalies Relationship with Global Temperature Anomalies
HUANG Danqing, QIAN Yongfu, ZHU Jian
2010, 27(4): 937-946. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9085-4
Changes of temperature extremes over China were evaluated using daily maximum and minimum temperature data from 591 stations for the period 1961--2002. A set of indices of warm extremes, cold extremes and daily temperature range (DTR) extremes was studied with a focus on trends. The results showed that the frequency of warm extremes (F_WE) increased obviously in most parts of China, and the intensity of warm extremes (I_WE) increased significantly in northern China. The opposite distribution was found in the frequency and intensity of cold extremes. The frequency of high DTR extremes was relatively uniform with that of intensity: an obvious increasing trend was located over western China and the east coast, while significant decreases occurred in central, southeastern and northeastern China; the opposite distribution was found for low DTR extreme days. Seasonal trends illustrated that both F_WE and I_WE showed significant increasing trends, especially over northeastern China and along the Yangtze Valley basin in spring and winter. A correlation technique was used to link extreme temperature anomalies over China with global temperature anomalies. Three key regions were identified, as follows: northeastern China and its coastal areas, the high-latitude regions above 40oN, and southwestern China and the equatorial eastern Pacific.
A Closure Study of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth Factor during the 2006 Pearl River Delta Campaign
LIU Xingang, ZHANG Yuanhang, WEN Mengting, WANG Jingli, Jinsang JUNG, CHANG Shih-yu, HU Min, ZENG Limin, Young Joon KIM
2010, 27(4): 947-956. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9150-z
Measurements of aerosol physical, chemical and optical parameters were carried out in Guangzhou, China from 1 July to 31 July 2006 during the Pearl River Delta Campaign. The dry aerosol scattering coefficient was measured using an integrating nephelometer and the aerosol scattering coefficient for wet conditions was determined by subtracting the sum of the aerosol absorption coefficient, gas scattering coefficient and gas absorption coefficient from the atmospheric extinction coefficient. Following this, the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH), was calculated as the ratio of wet and dry aerosol scattering coefficients. Measurements of size-resolved chemical composition, relative humidity (RH), and published functional relationships between particle chemical composition and water uptake were likewise used to find the aerosol scattering coefficients in wet and dry conditions using Mie theory for internally- or externally-mixed particle species [(NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaCl, POM, EC and residue]. Closure was obtained by comparing the measured f(RH) values from the nephelometer and other in situ optical instruments with those computed from chemical composition and thermodynamics. Results show that the model can represent the observed f(RH) and is appropriate for use as a component in other higher-order models.
Application of an Economy--Climate Model to Assess the Impact of Climate Change
CHOU Jieming, DONG Wenjie, FENG Guolin
2010, 27(4): 957-965. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-8166-8
An interdisciplinary investigation was conducted to assess the impact of climate change on grain yields using an economy--climate model (C-D-C). The model was formulated by incorporating climate factors into the classic Cobb-Douglas (C-D) economic production function model. The economic meanings of the model output elasticities are described and elucidated. The C-D-C model was applied to the assessment of the impact of climate change on grain yields in China during the past 20 years, from 1983 through 2002. In the study, the land of China was divided into eight regions, and both the C-D-C and C-D models were applied to each individual region. The results suggest that the C-D-C model is superior to the classic C-D model, indicating the importance of climate factors. Prospective applications of the C-D-C model are discussed.