Advanced Search

2013 Vol. 30, No. 2

Display Method:
Interdecadal Enhancement of the Walker Circulation over the Tropical Pacific in the Late 1990s
Buwen DONG, LU Riyu
2013, 30(2): 247-262. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2069-9
The Walker circulation is one of the major components of the large-scale tropical atmospheric circulation and variations in its strength are critical to equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation. It has been argued in the literature that during the 20th century the Walker circulation weakened, and that this weakening was attributable to anthropogenic climate change. By using updated observations, we show that there has been a rapid interdecadal enhancement of the Walker circulation since the late 1990s. Associated with this enhancement is enhanced precipitation in the tropical western Pacific, anomalous westerlies in the upper troposphere, descent in the central and eastern tropical Pacific, and anomalous surface easterlies in the western and central tropical Pacific. The characteristics of associated oceanic changes are a strengthened thermocline slope and an enhanced zonal SST gradient across the tropical Pacific. Many characteristics of these changes are similar to those associated with the mid-1970s climate shift with an opposite sign. We also show that the interdecadal variability of the Walker circulation in the tropical Pacific is inversely correlated to the interdecadal variability of the zonal circulation in the tropical Atlantic. An enhancement of the Walker circulation in the tropical Pacific is associated with a weakening zonal circulation in the tropical Atlantic and vise versa, implying an inter-Atlantic-Pacific connection of the zonal overturning circulation variation. Whether these recent changes will be sustained is not yet clear, but our research highlights the importance of understanding the interdecadal variability, as well as the long-term trends, that influence tropical circulation.
A Study on a Snowband Associated with a Coastal Front and Cold-Air Damming Event of 3-4 February 1998 along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula
Jae-Gyoo LEE, Ming XUE
2013, 30(2): 263-279. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2088-6
A 24-h simulation with the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) nonhydrostatic model is performed for the heavy snowfall event of 3-4 February 1998 along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula; the results are used to understand the snowfall process, including why the precipitation maxima formed along the Yeongdong coastal region rather than over the mountain slope and ridge top during. The numerical simulation with a 4-km horizontal grid spacing and 43 levels reproduces very well the narrow snowband located off the eastern Korean coast, away from, instead of over, the Yeongdong coastal mountain range. The general evolution of the snowband agrees quite well with radar observations, while the water-equivalent precipitation amount agrees reasonably well with radar precipitation estimate. The simulation results clearly show that the snow band developed due to the lifting by a coastal front that developed because of the damming of cold air against the eastern slope of the coastal mountain range. The damming was enhanced by the advection of cold air by a low-level mountain-parallel jet from the north, formed due to geostrophic adjustment as the on-shore upslope air was decelerated by the mountain blocking. As the onshore flow weakened later due to synoptic-scale flow pattern change, the cold front propagated off shore and the precipitation dissipated.
Variability and Risk Analysis of Hong Kong Air Quality Based on Monsoon and El Nino Conditions
Jong-Suk KIM, ZHOU Wen, Ho Nam CHEUNG, Chak Hang CHOW
2013, 30(2): 280-290. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2074-z
This study presents an exploratory analysis aimed at improving understanding of the variability of Hong Kong air quality associated with different climate conditions. Significantly negative correlations were found when Nino 3 led particulate matter ≤10 μm PM10) and NO2 by 2-3 months over the Hong Kong territory, while the other pollutants (e.g., O3, SO2) showed modest correlations. A significant decreasing trend in visibility was observed during the autumn and winter, which has potential implications for the air-quality degradation and the endangerment of human health in Hong Kong. In an El Nino summer, the visibility was relatively better, while visibility in other seasons was diminished. On the other hand, in La Nina events, significant changes occurred in visibility in winter and autumn. Air pollution indices were less sensitive to the South China Summer Monsoon (SCSM), but a relatively high correlation existed between the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and air pollutants. Rainfall was lower during most of the strong EAWM years compared to the weak years. This result suggests that the pollutants that accumulate in Hong Kong are not easy to wash out, so concentrations remain at a higher level. Finally, based on the conditional Air Pollution Index (API) risk assessment, site-specific vulnerabilities were analyzed to facilitate the development of the air-quality warning systems in Hong Kong.
Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis of Near-Surface Moisture from Simulated Radar Refractivity-Related Phase Change Observations
Ken-ichi SHIMOSE, Ming XUE, Robert D. PALMER, Jidong GAO, Boon Leng CHEONG, David J. BODINE
2013, 30(2): 291-305. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2087-7
Because they are most sensitive to atmospheric moisture content, radar refractivity observations can provide high-resolution information about the highly variable low-level moisture field. In this study, simulated radar refractivity-related phase-change data were created using a radar simulator from realistic high-resolution model simulation data for a dryline case. These data were analyzed using the 2DVAR system developed specifically for the phase-change data. Two sets of experiments with the simulated observations were performed, one assuming a uniform target spacing of 250 m and one assuming nonuniform spacing between 250 m to 4 km. Several sources of observation error were considered, and their impacts were examined. They included errors due to ground target position uncertainty, typical random errors associated with radar measurements, and gross error due to phase wrapping. Without any additional information, the 2DVAR system was incapable of dealing with phase-wrapped data directly. When there was no phase wrapping in the data, the 2DVAR produced excellent analyses, even in the presence of both position uncertainty and random radar measurement errors. When a separate pre-processing step was applied to unwrap the phase-wrapped data, quality moisture analyses were again obtained, although the analyses were smoother due to the reduced effective resolution of the observations by interpolation and smoothing involved in the unwrapping procedure. The unwrapping procedure was effective even when significant differences existed between the analyzed state and the state at a reference time. The results affirm the promise of using radar refractivity phase-change measurements for near-surface moisture analysis.
Dynamic Linkage between the North Pacific and the Tropical Pacific: Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling
LI Chun, WU Lixin
2013, 30(2): 306-314. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2023-x
In this study, dynamic linkage of atmosphere-ocean coupling between the North Pacific and the tropical Pacific was demonstrated using a large number of ensemble perturbed initial condition experiments in a fully coupled fast ocean-atmosphere model (FOAM). In the FOAM model, an idealized mixed layer warming was initiated in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension region, while the ocean and atmosphere remained fully coupled both locally and elsewhere. The modeling results show that the warm anomalies are associated with anomalous cyclonic winds, which induce initial warming anomalies extending downstream in the following winter. Then, the downstream warming spreads southwestward and induces SST warming in the equatorial Pacific via surface wind-evaporation-SST feedback. Warming in the tropical Pacific is further reinforced by Bjerknes' feedback.
Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variations of East Asian Summer Monsoon Precipitation Simulated by a Regional Air-Sea Coupled Model
FANG Yongjie, ZHANG Yaocun, HUANG Anning, LI Bo
2013, 30(2): 315-329. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1241-6
The performance of a regional air-sea coupled model, comprising the Regional Integrated Environment Model System (RIEMS) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), in simulating the seasonal and intraseasonal variations of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall was investigated. Through comparisons of the model results among the coupled model, the uncoupled RIEMS, and observations, the impact of air-sea coupling on simulating the EASM was also evaluated. Results showed that the regional air-sea coupled climate model performed better in simulating the spatial pattern of the precipitation climatology and produced more realistic variations of the EASM rainfall in terms of its amplitude and principal EOF modes. The coupled model also showed greater skill than the uncoupled RIEMS in reproducing the principal features of climatological intraseasonal oscillation (CISO) of EASM rainfall, including its dominant period, intensity, and northward propagation. Further analysis indicated that the improvements in the simulation of the EASM rainfall climatology and its seasonal variation in the coupled model were due to better simulation of the western North Pacific Subtropical High, while the improvements of CISO simulation were owing to the realistic phase relationship between the intraseasonal convection and the underlying SST resulting from the air-sea coupling.
The Influence of Regional SSTs on the Interdecadal Shift of the East Asian Summer Monsoon
FU Jianjian, LI Shuanglin
2013, 30(2): 330-340. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2062-3
East Asia has experienced a significant interdecadal climate shift since the late 1970s. This shift was accompanied by a decadal change of global SST. Previous studies have suggested that the decadal shift of global SST background status played a substantial role in such a climatic shift. However, the individual roles of different regional SSTs remain unclear. In this study, we investigated these roles using ensemble experiments of an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) AM2. Two kinds of ensembles were performed. The first was a control ensemble in which the model was driven with the observed climatological SSTs. The second was an experimental ensemble in which the model was driven with the observed climatological SSTs plus interdecadal SST background shifts in separate ocean regions. The results suggest that the SST shift in the tropics exerted more important influence than those in the extratropics, although the latter contribute to the shift modestly. The variations of summer monsoonal circulation systems, including the South Asian High, the West Pacific Subtropical High, and the lower-level air flow, were analyzed. The results show that, in comparison with those induced by extratropical SSTs, the shifts induced by tropical SSTs bear more similarity to the observations and to the simulations with global SSTs prescribed. In particular, the observed SST shift in the tropical Pacific Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean, contributed significantly to the shift of East Asian summer monsoon since the 1970s.
Size Distributions of Aerosol Sulfates and Nitrates in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games: Impacts of Pollution Control Measures and Regional Transport
WANG Xinfeng, WANG Tao, Ravi Kant PATHAK, Mattias HALLQUIST, GAO Xiaomei, NIE Wei, XUE Likun, GAO Jian, GAO Rui, ZHANG Qingzhu, WANG Wenxing, WANG Shulan, CHAI Fahe, CHEN Yizhen
2013, 30(2): 341-353. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2053-4
For the 2008 Olympic Games, drastic control measures were implemented on industrial and urban emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other pollutants to address the issues of poor air quality in Beijing. To investigate the effects of SO2 and NOx reductions on the particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as their size distributions, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) at urban and downwind rural sites in Beijing before and after full-scale controls. During the sampling period, the mass concentrations of fine particles (PM1.8) at the urban and rural sites were 94.0 and 85.9 μg m-3, respectively. More than 90% of the sulfates and ~60% of nitrates formed as fine particles. Benefiting from the advantageous meteorological conditions and the source controls, sulfates were observed in rather low concentrations and primarily in condensation mode during the Olympics. The effects of the control measures were separately analyzed for the northerly and the southerly air-mass-dominated days to account for any bias. After the control measures were implemented, PM, sulfates, and nitrates were significantly reduced when the northerly air masses prevailed, with a higher percentage of reduction in larger particles. The droplet mode particles, which dominated the sulfates and nitrates before the controls were implemented, were remarkably reduced in mass concentration after the control measures were implemented. Nevertheless, when the polluted southerly air masses prevailed, the local source control measures in Beijing did not effectively reduce the ambient sulfate concentration due to the enormous regional contribution from the North China Plain.
Improvement of the Surface Pressure Operator in GRAPES and Its Application in Precipitation Forecasting in South China
HUANG Yanyan, XUE Jishan, WAN Qilin, CHEN Zitong, DING Weiyu, ZHANG Chengzhong
2013, 30(2): 354-366. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1270-1
In this study we investigated the problems involved in assimilating surface pressure in the current global and regional assimilation and prediction system, GRAPES. A new scheme of assimilating surface pressure was proposed, including a new interpolation scheme and a refreshed background covariance. The new scheme takes account of the differences between station elevation and model topography, and it especially deals with stations located at elevations below that of the first model level. Contrast experiments were conducted using both the original and the new assimilation schemes. The influence of the new interpolation scheme and the updated background covariance were investigated. Our results show that the new interpolation scheme utilized more observations and improved the quality of the mass analysis. The background covariance was refreshed using statistics resulting from the technique proposed by Parrish and Derber in 1992. Experiments show that the updated vertical covariance may have a positive influence on the analysis at higher levels of the atmosphere when assimilating surface pressure. This influence may be more significant if the quality of the background field at high levels is poor. A series of assimilation experiments were performed to test the validity of the new scheme. The corresponding simulation experiments were conducted using the analysis of both schemes as initial conditions. The results indicated that the new scheme leads to better forecasting of sea level pressure and precipitation in South China, especially the forecast of moderate and heavy rain.
A Modeling Study of Land Surface Process Impacts on Inland Behavior of Typhoon Rananim (2004)
WEI Na, LI Ying
2013, 30(2): 367-381. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1242-5
On 12 August 2004, Typhoon Rananim (0414) moved inland over China and stagnated over the Poyang Lake area, resulting in torrential rainfall and severe geologic hazards. The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model and its different land surface models (LSMs) were employed to study the impacts of land surface process on the inland behavior of Typhoon Rananim. Results show that simulations, coupled with LSMs or not, have no significant differences in predicting typhoon track, intensity, and large-scale circulation. However, the simulations of mesoscale structure, rainfall rate, and rainfall distribution of typhoon are more reasonable with LSMs than without LSMs. Although differences are slight among LSMs, NOAH is better than the others. Based on outputs using the NOAH scheme, the interaction between land surface and typhoon was explored in this study. Notably, typhoon rainfall and cloud cover can cool land surface, but rainfall expands the underlying saturated wetland area, which exacerbates the asymmetric distribution of surface heat fluxes. Accordingly, an energy frontal zone may form in the lower troposphere that enhances ascending motion and local convection, resulting in heavier rainfall. Moreover, the expanded underlying saturated wetlands provide plentiful moisture and unstable energy for the maintenance of Typhoon Rananim and increased rainfall in return.
Time-Series Modeling and Prediction of Global Monthly Absolute Temperature for Environmental Decision Making
YE Liming, YANG Guixia, Eric VAN RANST, TANG Huajun
2013, 30(2): 382-396. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1252-3
A generalized, structural, time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature, one of the most important environmental parameters, using a deterministic-stochastic combined (DSC) approach. Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset, the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record. Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal, involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method, respectively, while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal, involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models. A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years. The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors, suggesting that DSC models, when coupled with other eco-environmental models, can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (~10-year) environmental planning and decision making.
Revisiting the Climatology of Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere
Ho Nam CHEUNG, ZHOU Wen, Hing Yim MOK, Man Chi WU, Yaping SHAO
2013, 30(2): 397-410. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2006-y
In addition to the occurrence of atmospheric blocking, the climatology of the characteristics of blocking events, including duration, intensity, and extension, in four seasons over the Northern Hemisphere was analyzed for the period 1950-2009. The seasonality and spatial variations of these characteristics were studied according to their longitudinal distributions. In general, there were sharp discrepancies in the blocking characteristics between winter and summer, and these differences were more prominent over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The blocking not only occurred more frequently but also underwent stronger amplification in winter; likewise, the blocking occurred less frequently and underwent weaker amplification in summer. There are very strong interrelationships among different blocking characteristics, suggesting that they are supported by similar physical factors. In addition, the relationship between blocking over different regions and East Asian circulation was examined. Ural-Siberia is a major blocking formation region in all seasons that may exert a downstream impact on East Asia. The impact is generally weak in summer, which is due to its lower intensity and smaller duration. However, the extratropical circulation over East Asia in summer can be disturbed persistently by the frequent occurrence of blocking over the Asian continent or the Western Pacific. In particular, the blocking frequency over the Western Pacific significantly increased during the study period. This climatological information provides a background for studying the impact of blocking on East Asian circulation under both present and future climate conditions.
Estimation of Turbulent Fluxes Using the Flux-Variance Method over an Alpine Meadow Surface in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau
WANG Shaoying, ZHANG Yu, LU Shihua, LIU Heping, SHANG Lunyu
2013, 30(2): 411-424. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2056-1
The flux-variance similarity relation and the vertical transfer of scalars exhibit dissimilarity over different types of surfaces, resulting in different parameterization approaches of relative transport efficiency among scalars to estimate turbulent fluxes using the flux-variance method. We investigated these issues using eddy-covariance measurements over an open, homogeneous and flat grassland in the eastern Tibetan Plateau in summer under intermediate hydrological conditions during rainy season. In unstable conditions, the temperature, water vapor, and CO2 followed the flux-variance similarity relation, but did not show in precisely the same way due to different roles (active or passive) of these scalars. Similarity constants of temperature, water vapor and CO2 were found to be 1.12,1.19 and 1.17, respectively. Heat transportation was more efficient than water vapor and CO2. Based on the estimated sensible heat flux, five parameterization methods of relative transport efficiency of heat to water vapor and CO2 were examined to estimate latent heat and CO2 fluxes. The strategy of local determination of flux-variance similarity relation is recommended for the estimation of latent heat and CO2 fluxes. This approach is better for representing the averaged relative transport efficiency, and technically easier to apply, compared to other more complex ones.
Simulation of a Persistent Snow Storm over Southern China with a Regional Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled Model
LIAO Zhijie, ZHANG Yaocun
2013, 30(2): 425-447. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2098-4
A regional atmosphere-ocean coupled model, RegCM3-POM, was developed by coupling the regional climate model (RegCM3) with the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The performance of RegCM3-POM in simulating a persistent snow storm over southern China and the impact of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on this persistent snow storm were investigated. Compared with the stand-alone RegCM3, the coupled model performed better at reproducing the spatial-temporal evolution and intensity of the precipitation episodes. The power spectral analysis indicated that the coupled model successfully captured the dominant period between 30 and 60 days in the precipitation field, leading to a notable improvement in simulating the magnitude of intraseasonal precipitation variation, and further in enhancing the intensity of the simulated precipitation. These improvements were mainly due to the well-simulated low-frequency oscillation center and its eastward propagation characteristics in each MJO phase by RegCM3-POM, which improved the simulations of MJO-related low-frequency vertical motions, water vapor transport, and the deep inversion layer that can directly influence the precipitation event and that further improved the simulated MJO-precipitation relationship. Analysis of the phase relationship between convection and SST indicated that RegCM3-POM exhibits a near-quadrature relation between the simulated convection and SST anomalies, which was consistent with the observations. However, such a near-quadrature relation was not as significant when the stand-alone RegCM3 was used. This difference indicated that the inherent coupled feedback process between the ocean and atmosphere in RegCM3-POM played an important part in reproducing the features of the MJO that accompanied the snow storm.
Application of Multi-Scale Tracking Radar Echoes Scheme in Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting
WANG Gaili, WONG Waikin, LIU Liping, WANG Hongyan
2013, 30(2): 448-460. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2026-7
A new radar echo tracking algorithm known as multi-scale tracking radar echoes by cross-correlation (MTREC) was developed in this study to analyze movements of radar echoes at different spatial scales. Movement of radar echoes, particularly associated with convective storms, exhibits different characteristics at various spatial scales as a result of complex interactions among meteorological systems leading to the formation of convective storms. For the null echo region, the usual correlation technique produces zero or a very small magnitude of motion vectors. To mitigate these constraints, MTREC uses the tracking radar echoes by correlation (TREC) technique with a large “box” to determine the systematic movement driven by steering wind, and MTREC applies the TREC technique with a small “box” to estimate small-scale internal motion vectors. Eventually, the MTREC vectors are obtained by synthesizing the systematic motion and the small-scale internal motion. Performance of the MTREC technique was compared with TREC technique using case studies: the Khanun typhoon on 11 September 2005 observed by Wenzhou radar and a squall-line system on 23 June 2011 detected by Beijing radar. The results demonstrate that more spatially smoothed and continuous vector fields can be generated by the MTREC technique, which leads to improvements in tracking the entire radar reflectivity pattern. The new multi-scale tracking scheme was applied to study its impact on the performance of quantitative precipitation nowcasting. The location and intensity of heavy precipitation at a 1-h lead time was more consistent with quantitative precipitation estimates using radar and rain gauges.
Changes in the Diurnal Cycles of Precipitation over Eastern China in the Past 40 Years
YUAN Weihua, YU Rucong, LI Jian
2013, 30(2): 461-467. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2092-x
This study analyzed the interdecadal changes in the diurnal variability of summer (June-August) precipitation over eastern China during the period 1966-2005 using hourly station rain gauge data. The results revealed that rainfall diurnal variations experienced significant interdecadal changes. Over the area to the south of the Yangtze River, as well as the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the percentages of morning rainfall (0000-1200 LST) to total rainfall in terms of amount, frequency and intensity, all exhibited increasing interdecadal trends. On the contrary, over North China, decreasing trends were found. As a result, diurnal rainfall peaks also presented pronounced interdecadal variations. Over the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, there were 16 out of 46 stations with afternoon (1200-0000 LST) frequency peaks in the first 20 years of the 40-year period of study, while only eight remained in the latter 20 years. In North China, seven stations experienced the opposite changes, which accounted for about 21% of the total number of stations. The possible causes for the interdecadal changes in diurnal features were discussed. As the rainfall in the active monsoon period presents morning diurnal peaks, with afternoon peaks in the break period, the decrease (increase) of rainfall in the active monsoon period over North China (the area south of the Yangtze River and the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers) may contribute to interdecadal changes in diurnal rainfall variability.
Water Budgets of Tropical Cyclones: Three Case Studies
WU Wei, CHEN Jilong, HUANG Ronghui
2013, 30(2): 468-484. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2050-7
In this study, three tropical cyclones (TCs) that passed through the Taiwan Strait were analyzed; our results show that precipitation is not directly related to the intensity of TCs. From the perspective of water budget, moisture flux convergence was dominant and contributed ~70% of the moisture for TC precipitation over the ocean and almost all over the land, especially inside the TC circulation. Their spatial distributions were also similar. Evaporation contributed ~30% of the moisture for precipitation over the ocean but changed little with the time. Moisture flux convergence can be divided into two parts: wind convergence and moisture advection. Moisture flux convergence was mostly due to wind convergence, which was dominant in the southwestern quadrants of the TCs. Moisture advection was located in the northern area, and becomes relatively important when the TCs approached the land. The moisture flux convergence and its two parts varied during TC movement, with strengthening and contraction of moisture convergence present near landfall. The vertical structure of the three TC cases all indicated that the moisture convergence was mainly confined to the lower atmosphere under 800 hPa and a weak divergence region was present in the middle troposphere around 550 hPa.
The Predictability of a Squall Line in South China on 23 April 2007
WU Duochang, MENG Zhiyong, YAN Dachun
2013, 30(2): 485-502. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2076-x
This study investigated the predictability of a squall line associated with a quasi-stationary front on 23 April 2007 in South China through deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. Our results show that the squall-line simulation was very sensitive to model error from horizontal resolution and uncertainties in physical parameterization schemes. At least a 10-km grid size was necessary to decently capture this squall line. The simulated squall line with a grid size of 4.5 km was most sensitive to long-wave radiation parameterization schemes relative to other physical schemes such as microphysics and planetary boundary layer. For a grid size from 20 to 5 km, a cumulus parameterization scheme degraded the squall-line simulation (relative to turning it off), with a more severe degradation to grid size 10 km than 10 km. The sensitivity of the squall-line simulation to initial error was investigated through ensemble forecast. The performance of the ensemble simulation of the squall line was very sensitive to the initial error. Approximately 15% of the ensemble members decently captured the evolution of the squall line, 25% failed, and 60% dislocated the squall line. Using different combinations of physical parameterization schemes for different members can improve the probabilistic forecast. The lead time of this case was only a few hours. Error growth was clearly associated with moist convection development. A linear improvement in the performance of the squall line simulation was observed when the initial error was decreased gradually, with the largest contribution from initial moisture field.
Effects of an Urban Park and Residential Area on the Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Flux in Seoul, Korea
Soo PARK, Seung Jin, Chang Seok
2013, 30(2): 503-514. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2079-7
The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.
Using the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Model to Understand the Different Responses of Three Woody Plants to Land Use in China
SUN Guodong, MU Mu
2013, 30(2): 515-524. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2011-1
In this study, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to initial perturbation (CNOP-I) was employed to investigate the maximum variations in plant amount for three main woody plants (a temperate broadleaved evergreen, a temperate broadleaved summergreen, and a boreal needleleaved evergreen) in China. The investigation was conducted within a certain range of land use intensity using a state-of-the-art Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM). CNOP-I represents a class of deforestation and can be considered a type of land use with respect to the initial perturbation. When deforestation denoted by the CNOP-I has the same intensity for all three plants, the variation in plant amount of the boreal needleleaved evergreen in northern China is greater than the variation in plant amount of both the temperate broadleaved evergreen and temperate broadleaved summergreen in southern China. As deforestation intensity increases, the plant amount variation in the three woody plant functional types carbon changes, in a nonlinear fashion. The impact of land use on plant functional types is minor because the interaction between climate condition and land use is not considered in the LPJ model. Finally, the different impacts of deforestation on net primary production of the three plant functional types were analyzed by modeling gross primary production and autotrophic respiration. Our results suggest that the CNOP-I approach is a useful tool for exploring the nonlinear and different responses of terrestrial ecosystems to land use.
Dynamical and Chemical Features of a Cutoff Low over Northeast China in July 2007: Results from Satellite Measurements and Reanalysis
LIU Chuanxi, LIU Yi, Xiong LIU, Kelly CHANCE
2013, 30(2): 525-540. doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2086-8
The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) meteorology and measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder, High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, and Ozone Monitoring Instrument onboard the Earth Observing System Aura satellite were applied to analyze the dynamical and chemical features of a cutoff low (COL) event over northeast China in early July 2007. The results showed the polar stratospheric origin of an upper-level warm-core cyclone at 100-300 hPa, associated with a funnel-shaped tropopause intruding into the mid-troposphere just above the COL center. The impacts of the stratospheric intrusion on both column ozone and ozone profiles were investigated using satellite measurements. When the intensity of the COL peaked on 10 July 2007, the total column ozone (TCO) increase reached a maximum (40-70 DU). This could be dynamically attributed to both the descent of the tropopause (~75%) and the downward transport of stratospheric ozone across the tropopause (~25%). Analysis of the tropospheric ozone profiles provided evidence for irreversible transport/mixing of ozone-rich stratospheric air across the tropopause near the upper-level front region ahead of the COL center. This ozone intrusion underwent downstream transport by the upper tropospheric winds, leading to further increase in TCO by 12-16 DU over broad regions extending from east China toward the northern Japan Sea via South Korea. Meteorological analysis also showed the precedence of the stratospheric intrusion ahead of the development of cyclones in the middle and lower troposphere.