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2017 Vol. 34, No. 9

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Determining the Spectrum of the Nonlinear Local Lyapunov Exponents in a Multidimensional Chaotic System
Ruiqiang DING, Jianping LI, Baosheng LI
2017, 34(9): 1027-1034. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-7011-8
For an n-dimensional chaotic system, we extend the definition of the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) from one- to n-dimensional spectra, and present a method for computing the NLLE spectrum. The method is tested on three chaotic systems with different complexity. The results indicate that the NLLE spectrum realistically characterizes the growth rates of initial error vectors along different directions from the linear to nonlinear phases of error growth. This represents an improvement over the traditional Lyapunov exponent spectrum, which only characterizes the error growth rates during the linear phase of error growth. In addition, because the NLLE spectrum can effectively separate the slowly and rapidly growing perturbations, it is shown to be more suitable for estimating the predictability of chaotic systems, as compared to the traditional Lyapunov exponent spectrum.
Evaluating Common Land Model Energy Fluxes Using FLUXNET Data
Xiangxiang ZHANG, Yongjiu DAI, Hongzhi CUI, Robert E. DICKINSON, Siguang ZHU, Nan WEI, Binyan YAN, Hua YUAN, Wei SHANGGUAN, Lili WANG, Wenting FU
2017, 34(9): 1035-1046. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6251-y
Given the crucial role of land surface processes in global and regional climates, there is a pressing need to test and verify the performance of land surface models via comparisons to observations. In this study, the eddy covariance measurements from 20 FLUXNET sites spanning more than 100 site-years were utilized to evaluate the performance of the Common Land Model (CoLM) over different vegetation types in various climate zones. A decomposition method was employed to separate both the observed and simulated energy fluxes, i.e., the sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, and ground heat flux, at three timescales ranging from stepwise (30 min) to monthly. A comparison between the simulations and observations indicated that CoLM produced satisfactory simulations of all four energy fluxes, although the different indexes did not exhibit consistent results among the different fluxes. A strong agreement between the simulations and observations was found for the seasonal cycles at the 20 sites, whereas CoLM underestimated the latent heat flux at the sites with distinct dry and wet seasons, which might be associated with its weakness in simulating soil water during the dry season. CoLM cannot explicitly simulate the midday depression of leaf gas exchange, which may explain why CoLM also has a maximum diurnal bias at noon in the summer. Of the eight selected vegetation types analyzed, CoLM performs best for evergreen broadleaf forests and worst for croplands and wetlands.
Simulated Sensitivity of the Tropical Cyclone Eyewall Replacement Cycle to the Ambient Temperature Profile
Xulin MA, Jie HE, Xuyang GE
2017, 34(9): 1047-1056. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6302-4
In this study, the impacts of the environmental temperature profile on the tropical cyclone eyewall replacement cycle are examined using idealized numerical simulations. It is found that the environmental thermal condition can greatly affect the formation and structure of a secondary eyewall and the intensity change during the eyewall replacement cycle. Simulation with a warmer thermal profile produces a larger moat and a prolonged eyewall replacement cycle. It is revealed that the enhanced static stability greatly suppresses convection, and thus causes slow secondary eyewall formation. The possible processes influencing the decay of inner eyewall convection are investigated. It is revealed that the demise of the inner eyewall is related to a choking effect associated with outer eyewall convection, the radial distribution of moist entropy fluxes within the moat region, the enhanced static stability in the inner-core region, and the interaction between the inner and outer eyewalls due to the barotropic instability. This study motivates further research into how environmental conditions influence tropical cyclone dynamics and thermodynamics.
Observation-based Estimation of Aerosol-induced Reduction of Planetary Boundary Layer Height
Jun ZOU, Jianning SUN, Aijun DING, Minghuai WANG, Weidong GUO, Congbin FU
2017, 34(9): 1057-1068. doi: 10.1007/s00376-016-6259-8
Radiative aerosols are known to influence the surface energy budget and hence the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. In this study, we develop a method to estimate the aerosol-induced reduction in the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) based on two years of ground-based measurements at a site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), at Nanjing University, China, and radiosonde data from the meteorological station of Nanjing. The observations show that increased aerosol loads lead to a mean decrease of 67.1 W m-2 for downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and a mean increase of 19.2 W m-2 for downward longwave radiation (DLR), as well as a mean decrease of 9.6 W m-2 for the surface sensible heat flux (SHF) in the daytime. The relative variations of DSR, DLR and SHF are shown as a function of the increment of column mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5). High aerosol loading can significantly increase the atmospheric stability in the planetary boundary layer during both daytime and nighttime. Based on the statistical relationship between SHF and PM2.5 column mass concentrations, the SHF under clean atmospheric conditions (same as the background days) is derived. In this case, the derived SHF, together with observed SHF, are then used to estimate changes in the PBLH related to aerosols. Our results suggest that the PBLH decreases more rapidly with increasing aerosol loading at high aerosol loading. When the daytime mean column mass concentration of PM2.5 reaches 200 mg m-2, the decrease in the PBLH at 1600 LST (local standard time) is about 450 m.
Analysis of Spatial Autocorrelation Patterns of Heavy and Super-Heavy Rainfall in Iran
2017, 34(9): 1069-1081. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6227-y
Rainfall is a highly variable climatic element, and rainfall-related changes occur in spatial and temporal dimensions within a regional climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial autocorrelation changes of Iran's heavy and super-heavy rainfall over the past 40 years. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data of 664 meteorological stations between 1971 and 2011 are used. To analyze the changes in rainfall within a decade, geostatistical techniques like spatial autocorrelation analysis of hot spots, based on the Getis-Ord Gi statistic, are employed. Furthermore, programming features in MATLAB, Surfer, and GIS are used. The results indicate that the Caspian coast, the northwest and west of the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, the inner regions of Iran, and southern parts of Southeast and Northeast Iran, have the highest likelihood of heavy and super-heavy rainfall. The spatial pattern of heavy rainfall shows that, despite its oscillation in different periods, the maximum positive spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall includes areas of the west, northwest and west coast of the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, a negative spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall is observed in central Iran and parts of the east, particularly in Zabul. Finally, it is found that patterns of super-heavy rainfall are similar to those of heavy rainfall.
Characterization of Black Carbon in the Ambient Air of Agra, India: Seasonal Variation and Meteorological Influence
Pratima GUPTA, Shalendra Pratap SINGH, Ashok JANGID, Ranjit KUMAR
2017, 34(9): 1082-1094. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6234-z
This study characterizes the black carbon in Agra, India home to the Taj Mahal——and situated in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The mean black carbon concentration is 9.5 μg m-3 and, owing to excessive biomass/fossil fuel combustion and automobile emissions, the concentration varies considerably. Seasonally, the black carbon mass concentration is highest in winter, probably due to the increased fossil fuel consumption for heating and cooking, apart from a low boundary layer. The nocturnal peak rises prominently in winter, when the use of domestic heating is excessive. Meanwhile, the concentration is lowest during the monsoon season because of the turbulent atmospheric conditions and the process of washout by precipitation. The ratio of black carbon to brown carbon is less than unity during the entire study period, except in winter (December). This may be because that biomass combustion and diesel exhaust are major black carbon contributors in this region, while a higher ratio in winter may be due to the increased consumption of fossil fuel and wood for heating purposes. ANOVA reveals significant monthly variation in the concentration of black carbon; plus, it is negatively correlated with wind speed and temperature. A high black carbon mass concentration is observed at moderate (1-2 m s-1) wind speed, as compared to calm or turbulent atmospheric conditions.
Tower-Based Greenhouse Gas Measurement Network Design——The National Institute of Standards and Technology North East Corridor Testbed
Israel LOPEZ-COTO, Subhomoy GHOSH, Kuldeep PRASAD, James WHETSTONE
2017, 34(9): 1095-1105. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6094-6
The North-East Corridor (NEC) Testbed project is the 3rd of three NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) greenhouse gas emissions testbeds designed to advance greenhouse gas measurements capabilities. A design approach for a dense observing network combined with atmospheric inversion methodologies is described. The Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model were used to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface greenhouse gas emissions (footprints). Unlike other network design algorithms, an iterative selection algorithm, based on a k-means clustering method, was applied to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize sensitivity to the urban emissions contribution. Once a network was selected, a synthetic inversion Bayesian Kalman filter was used to evaluate observing system performance. We present the performances of various measurement network configurations consisting of differing numbers of towers and tower locations. Results show that an overly spatially compact network has decreased spatial coverage, as the spatial information added per site is then suboptimal as to cover the largest possible area, whilst networks dispersed too broadly lose capabilities of constraining flux uncertainties. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of lower cost and performance sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and temporal drift. Analysis convergence is faster with a large number of observing locations, reducing the response time of the filter. Larger uncertainties in the observations implies lower values of uncertainty reduction. On the other hand, the drift is a bias in nature, which is added to the observations and, therefore, biasing the retrieved fluxes.
The Role of Initial Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentration in Hail Using the WRF NSSL 2-moment Microphysics Scheme
Xiaofei LI, Qinghong ZHANG, Huiwen XUE
2017, 34(9): 1106-1120. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6237-9
The effects of the initial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations (100-3000 mg-1) on hail properties were investigated in an idealized non-severe hail storm experiment using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with the National Severe Storms Laboratory 2-moment microphysics scheme. The initial CCN concentration (CCNC) had obvious non-monotonic effects on the mixing ratio, number concentrations, and radius of hail, both in clouds and at the surface, with a CCNC threshold between 300 and 500 mg-1. An increasing CCNC is conducive (suppressive) to the amount of surface hail precipitation below (above) the CCNC threshold. The non-monotonic effects were due to both the thermodynamics and microphysics. Below the CCNC threshold, the mixing ratios of cloud droplets and ice crystals increased dramatically with the increasing CCNC, resulting in more latent heat released from condensation and frozen between 4 and 8 km and intensified updraft volume. The extent of the riming process, which is the primary process for hail production, increased dramatically. Above the CCNC threshold, the mixing ratio of cloud droplets and ice crystals increased continuously, but the maximum updraft volume was weakened because of reduced frozen latent heating at low level. The smaller ice crystals reduced the formation of hail and smaller clouds, with decreased rain water reducing riming efficiency so that graupel and hail also decreased with increasing CCNC, which is unfavorable for hail growth.
Parallel Comparison of the 1982/83, 1997/98 and 2015/16 Super El Niños and Their Effects on the Extratropical Stratosphere
Jian RAO, Rongcai REN
2017, 34(9): 1121-1133. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6260-x
This study uses multiple sea surface temperature (SST) datasets to perform a parallel comparison of three super El Niños and their effects on the stratosphere. The results show that, different from ordinary El Niños, warm SST anomalies appear earliest in the western tropical Pacific and precede the super El Niño peak by more than 18 months. In the previous winter, relative to the mature phase of El Niño, as a precursor, North Pacific Oscillation-like circulation anomalies are observed. A Pacific-North America (PNA) teleconnection appears in the extratropical troposphere during the mature phase, in spite of the subtle differences between the intensities, as well as the zonal position, of the PNA lobes. Related to the negative rainfall response over the tropical Indian Ocean, the PNA teleconnection in the winter of 1997/98 is the strongest among the three super El Niños. The northern winter stratosphere shows large anomalies in the polar cap temperature and the circumpolar westerly, if the interferences from other factors are linearly filtered from the circulation data. Associated with the positive PNA response in a super El Niño winter, positive polar cap temperature anomalies and circumpolar easterly anomalies, though different in timing, are also observed in the mature winters of the three super El Niños. The stratospheric polar vortex in the next winter relative to the 1982/83 and 1997/98 events is also anomalously weaker and warmer, and the stratospheric circulation conditions remain to be seen in the coming winter following the mature phase of the 2015/16 event.