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2019 Vol. 36, No. 12

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A Review of Research on Warm-Sector Heavy Rainfall in China
Jianhua SUN, Yuanchun ZHANG, Ruixin LIU, Shenming FU, Fuyou TIAN
2019, 36(12): 1299-1307. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9021-1
Warm-sector heavy rainfall (WSHR) events in China have been investigated for many years. Studies have investigated the synoptic weather conditions during WSHR formation, the categories and general features, the triggering mechanism, and structural features of mesoscale convective systems during these rainfall events. The main results of WSHR studies in recent years are summarized in this paper. However, WSHR caused by micro- to mesoscale systems often occurs abruptly and locally, making both numerical model predictions and objective forecasts difficult. Further research is needed in three areas: (1) The mechanisms controlling WSHR events need to be understood to clarify the specific effects of various factors and indicate the influences of these factors under different synoptic background circulations. This would enable an understanding of the mechanisms of formation, maintenance, and organization of the convections in WSHR events. (2) In addition to South China, WSHR events also occur during the concentrated summer precipitation in the Yangtze River−Huaihe River Valley and North China. A high spatial and temporal resolution dataset should be used to analyze the distribution and environmental conditions, and to further compare the differences and similarities of the triggering and maintenance mechanisms of WSHR events in different regions. (3) More studies of the mechanisms are required, as well as improvements to the model initial conditions and physical processes based on multi-source observations, especially the description of the triggering process and the microphysical parameterization. This will improve the numerical prediction of WSHR events.
Original Paper
The Impact of Satellite Radiance Data Assimilation within a Frequently Updated Regional Forecast System Using a GSI-based Ensemble Kalman Filter
Kefeng ZHU, Ming XUE, Yujie PAN, Ming HU, Stanley G. BENJAMIN, Stephen S. WEYGANDT, Haidao LIN
2019, 36(12): 1308-1326. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9011-3
A regional ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation (DA) and forecast system was recently established based on the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis system. The EnKF DA system was tested with continuous three-hourly updated cycles followed by 18-h deterministic forecasts from every three-hourly ensemble mean analysis. Initial tests showed negative to neutral impacts of assimilating satellite radiance data due to the improper bias correction procedure. In this study, two bias correction schemes within the established EnKF DA system are investigated and the impact of assimilating additional polar-orbiting satellite radiance is also investigated. Two group experiments are conducted. The purpose of the first group is to evaluate the bias correction procedure. Two online bias correction methods based on GSI 3DVar and EnKF algorithms are used to assimilate AMSU-A radiance data. Results show that both variational and EnKF-based bias correction procedures effectively reduce the observation and background radiance differences, achieving positive impacts on forecasts. With proper bias correction, we assimilate full radiance observations including AMSU-A, AMSU-B, AIRS, HIRS3/4, and MHS in the second group. The relative percentage improvements (RPIs) for all forecast variables compared to those without radiance data assimilation are mostly positive, with the RPI of upper-air relative humidity being the largest. Additionally, precipitation forecasts on a downscaled 13-km grid from 40-km EnKF analyses are also improved by radiance assimilation for almost all forecast hours.
Analysis of Determinants for an Enhanced and Long-lasting Coastal Convective System by Means of a Case Study (26 July 2011)
Jung-Tae LEE, Dong-In LEE, Shingo SHIMIZU, Cheol-Hwan YOU
2019, 36(12): 1327-1339. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9025-x
A precipitation system developed continuously along the western coastline of the Korean Peninsula and created considerable precipitation both along the coast and inland on 26 July 2011. In this study, the causes for this nearshore convective system are investigated from observations and the results of model experiments. Three-dimensional radar fields clearly show that a change of wind at the surface border played an important role in the development of the nearshore convection system. The simulation results, which are very similar to the observations, show that the surface border generated and maintained the convergence zone. The roughness change enhanced the convergence, and the interaction between the deepening cold pool and downward flow maintained the convergence zone. The surface mechanical discontinuity affected by the roughness change between sea and land formed the convergence (gradient of wind stress), which induced momentum transfer to the upper layer. The cold pool created a steep gradient of potential temperature and provided the reason for the propagated convergence zone with the downward flow. The maximum value of the surface change factor, which comprises the influencing factors for the long-lasting convective system, reflects the enhancement of the system at the coast.
Comparative Analysis of the Mechanisms of Intensified Summer Warming over Europe−West Asia and Northeast Asia since the Mid-1990s through a Process-based Decomposition Method
Xueqian SUN, Shuanglin LI, Bo LIU
2019, 36(12): 1340-1354. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9053-6
Previous studies have found amplified warming over Europe−West Asia and Northeast Asia in summer since the mid-1990s relative to elsewhere on the Eurasian continent, but the cause of the amplification in these two regions remains unclear. In this study, we compared the individual contributions of influential factors for amplified warming over these two regions through a quantitative diagnostic analysis based on CFRAM (climate feedback−response analysis method). The changes in surface air temperature are decomposed into the partial changes due to radiative processes (including CO2 concentration, incident solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface albedo, water vapor content, ozone concentration, and clouds) and non-radiative processes (including surface sensible heat flux, surface latent heat flux, and dynamical processes). Our results suggest that the enhanced warming over these two regions is primarily attributable to changes in the radiative processes, which contributed 0.62 and 0.98 K to the region-averaged warming over Europe−West Asia (1.00 K) and Northeast Asia (1.02 K), respectively. Among the radiative processes, the main drivers were clouds, CO2 concentration, and water vapor content. The cloud term alone contributed to the mean amplitude of warming by 0.40 and 0.85 K in Europe−West Asia and Northeast Asia, respectively. In comparison, the non-radiative processes made a much weaker contribution due to the combined impact of surface sensible heat flux, surface latent heat flux, and dynamical processes, accounting for only 0.38 K for the warming in Europe−West Asia and 0.05 K for the warming in Northeast Asia. The resemblance between the influential factors for the amplified warming in these two separate regions implies a common dynamical origin. Thus, this validates the possibility that they originate from the Silk Road pattern.
Observed Trends in Extreme Temperature over the Klang Valley, Malaysia
Ahmad Norazhar Mohd YATIM, Mohd Talib LATIF, Fatimah AHAMAD, Md Firoz KHAN, Mohd Shahrul Mohd NADZIR, Liew JUNENG
2019, 36(12): 1355-1370. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9075-0
This study investigates the recent extreme temperature trends across 19 stations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, over the period 2006−16. Fourteen extreme index trends were analyzed using the Mann−Kendall non-parametric test, with Sen’s slope as a magnitude estimator. Generally, the annual daily mean temperature, daily mean maximum temperature, and daily mean minimum temperature in the Klang Valley increased significantly, by 0.07°C yr−1, 0.07°C yr−1 and 0.08°C yr−1, respectively. For the warm temperature indices, the results indicated a significant upward trend for the annual maximum of maximum temperature, by 0.09°C yr−1, and the annual maximum of minimum temperature, by 0.11°C yr−1. The results for the total number of warm days and warm nights showed significant increasing trends of 5.02 d yr−1 and 6.92 d yr−1, respectively. For the cold temperature indices, there were upward trends for the annual minimum of maximum temperature, by 0.09°C yr−1, and the annual minimum of minimum temperature, by 0.03°C yr−1, concurrent with the decreases in the total number cold days (TX10P), with −3.80 d yr−1, and cold nights (TN10P), with −4.33 d yr−1. The 34°C and 37°C summer days results showed significant upward trends of 4.10 d yr−1 and 0.25 d yr−1, respectively. Overall, these findings showed upward warming trends in the Klang Valley, with the minimum temperature rate increasing more than that of the maximum temperature, especially in urban areas.
On the Interrelation between Spring Bihemispheric Circulations at Middle and High Latitudes
Chuhan LU, Zhaoyong GUAN
2019, 36(12): 1371-1380. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9047-4
Bihemispheric atmospheric interaction and teleconnection allow us to deepen our understanding of large-scale climate and weather variability. This study uses 1979−2017 spring NCEP reanalysis to show that there is interrelation between bihemispheric circulations at the extratropics. This is regarded as a significant negative correlation between the Antarctic and the Arctic regional surface air pressure anomalies, which is induced by interhemispheric oscillation (IHO) of the atmospheric mass. The spatial pattern of IHO is characterized by antiphase extratropical airmass anomalies and geopotential height anomalies from the troposphere to stratosphere between the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. IHO is closely related to stronger bihemispheric low-frequency signals such as Antarctic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation, thereby demonstrating that IHO can be interpreted as a tie in linking these two dominant extratropical circulations of both hemispheres. IHO is associated with a strong meridional teleconnection in zonal winds from the middle−high troposphere to the lower stratosphere, with the wind anomalies in the form of alternate positive−negative wavy bands extending from the Antarctic to Arctic region, which act as a possible approach to interactions between the bihemispheric atmospheric mass. It is argued that IHO-related omega angular momentum anomalies led by the extratropical atmosphere cause the meridional teleconnection of relative angular momenta, thereby giving rise to the zonal wind anomalies. The modeling of GFDL and UKMO as components of the CMIP5 project have been verified, achieving the related IHO structure shown in the present paper.
The Optimal Precursors for ENSO Events Depicted Using the Gradient-definition-based Method in an Intermediate Coupled Model
Bin MU, Juhui REN, Shijin YUAN, Rong-Hua ZHANG, Lei CHEN, Chuan GAO
2019, 36(12): 1381-1392. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9040-y
The predictability of El Niño−Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been an important area of study for years. Searching for the optimal precursor (OPR) of ENSO occurrence is an effective way to understand its predictability. The CNOP (conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation), one of the most effective ways to depict the predictability of ENSO, is adopted to study the optimal sea surface temperature (SST) precursors (SST-OPRs) of ENSO in the IOCAS ICM (intermediate coupled model developed at the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences). To seek the SST-OPRs of ENSO in the ICM, non-ENSO events simulated by the ICM are chosen as the basic state. Then, the gradient-definition-based method (GD method) is employed to solve the CNOP for different initial months of the basic years to obtain the SST-OPRs. The experimental results show that the obtained SST-OPRs present a positive anomaly signal in the western-central equatorial Pacific, and obvious differences exist in the patterns between the different seasonal SST-OPRs along the equatorial western-central Pacific, showing seasonal dependence to some extent. Furthermore, the non-El Niño events can eventually evolve into El Niño events when the SST-OPRs are superimposed on the corresponding seasons; the peaks of the Niño3.4 index occur at the ends of the years, which is consistent with the evolution of the real El Niño. These results show that the GD method is an effective way to obtain SST-OPRs for ENSO events in the ICM. Moreover, the OPRs for ENSO depicted using the GD method provide useful information for finding the early signal of ENSO in the ICM.
Interdecadal Modulation of AMO on the Winter North Pacific Oscillation−Following Winter ENSO Relationship
Shangfeng CHEN, Linye SONG, Wen CHEN
2019, 36(12): 1393-1403. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9090-1
It is known that the wintertime North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is an important extratropical forcing for the occurrence of an El Niño−Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in the subsequent winter via the “seasonal footprinting mechanism” (SFM). This study reveals that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) can notably modulate the relationship between the winter NPO and the following winter ENSO. During the negative AMO phase, the winter NPO has significant impacts on the following winter ENSO via the SFM. In contrast, the influence of the winter NPO on ENSO is not robust at all during the positive AMO phase. Winter NPO-generated westerly wind anomalies over the equatorial western Pacific during the following spring are much stronger during negative than positive AMO phases. It is suggested that the AMO impacts the winter NPO-induced equatorial westerly winds over the western Pacific via modulating the precipitation climatology over the tropical central Pacific and via modulating the connection of the winter NPO with spring sea surface temperature in the tropical North Atlantic.
Decadal Changes in Interannual Dependence of the Bay of Bengal Summer Monsoon Onset on ENSO Modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Xiaofei WU, Jiangyu MAO
2019, 36(12): 1404-1416. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9043-8
Interannual variations of the Bay of Bengal summer monsoon (BOBSM) onset in association with El Niño−Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are reexamined using NCEP1, JRA-55 and ERA20C atmospheric and Hadley sea surface temperature (SST) reanalysis datasets over the period 1900−2017. Decadal changes exist in the dependence of the BOBSM onset on ENSO, varying with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). A higher correlation between the BOBSM onset and ENSO arises during the warm PDO epochs, with distinct late (early) onsets following El Niño (La Niña) events. In contrast, less significant correlations occur during the cold PDO epochs. The mechanism for the PDO modulating the ENSO−BOBSM onset relationship is through the variations in SST anomaly (SSTA) patterns. During the warm PDO epochs, the superimpositions of the PDO-related and ENSO-related SSTAs lead to the SSTA distribution of an El Niño (La Niña) event exhibiting significant positive (negative) SSTAs over the tropical central−eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean along with negative (positive) SSTAs, especially over the tropical western Pacific (TWP), forming a strong zonal interoceanic SSTA gradient between the TWP and tropical Indian Ocean. Significant anomalous lower tropospheric easterlies (westerlies) together with upper-tropospheric westerlies (easterlies) are thus induced over the BOB, favoring an abnormally late (early) BOBSM onset. During the cold PDO epochs, however, the superimpositions of PDO-related SSTAs with El Niño-related (La Niña-related) SSTAs lead to insignificant SSTAs over the TWP and a weak zonal SSTA gradient, without distinct circulation anomalies over the BOB favoring early or late BOBSM onsets.